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1.  Clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following Kawasaki disease: differentiation from recurrent Kawasaki disease 
Blood research  2013;48(4):254-257.
Our aim was to investigate the clinical pattern of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following Kawasaki disease (HLH-KD), to enable differentiation of HLH from recurrent or refractory KD and facilitate early diagnosis.
We performed a nationwide retrospective survey and reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients with HLH-KD, including the interval between KD and HLH, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment responses, and outcomes, and compared them with historical data for both diseases.
Twelve patients with HLH-KD, including 5 previously reported cases, were recruited. The median age was 6.5 years (range, 9 months-14.7 years). Eight patients were male and 4 were female. The median interval between the first episode of KD and the second visit with recurrent fever was 12 days (3-22 days). Of the 12 children, 2 were initially treated with intravenous IgG (IVIG) for recurrent KD when they presented at the hospital with recurrent fever. Eventually, 10 children received chemotherapy under an HLH protocol and 2 received supportive treatment. Two patients died of combined infections during chemotherapy, 1 was lost to follow up, and 9 remain alive. The overall survival rate at 4 years was 81.1% with a median follow up of 45.1 months.
A diagnosis of HLH-KD should be considered when symptoms similar to recurrent KD develop within 1 month of the first episode of KD. Our findings will help physicians differentiate between HLH and the recurrent form of KD.
PMCID: PMC3894383  PMID: 24466549
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; Kawasaki disease; Recurrent
2.  A Case of Esophageal Candidiasis in an Adolescent Who Had Frequently Received Budesonide Nebulizing Therapy 
Corticosteroid (budesonide) nebulizer therapy is commonly performed. Its side effects have been considered as being safe or ignorable. The authors present a case of esophageal candidiasis in a healthy female adolescent who was treated with budesonide nebulizer therapy a few times for a cough during the previous winter season. This child presented with dysphagia and epigastric pain for 1 month. Esophageal endoscopy showed a whitish creamy pseudomembrane and erosions on the esophageal mucosa. Pathologic findings showed numerous candidal hyphae. She did not show any evidence of immunodeficiency, clinically and historically. The esophageal lesion did not resolve naturally. The esophageal lesion completely improved with the antifungal therapy for 2 weeks; the symptoms disappeared, and the patient returned to normal health. It is important that frequent esophageal exposure to topical corticosteroids application can cause unexpected side effects.
PMCID: PMC3819696  PMID: 24224152
Esophagus; Candidiasis; Budesonide; Nebulizers
3.  Thromboembolic events identified during diagnosis of germ cell tumors in 2 children 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):233-236.
We describe 2 cases in which radiographic evidence of thromboembolic events was obtained during germ cell tumor diagnosis. There was no evidence of coagulation factor abnormalities or contributory procedures or drugs in either patient. We used anticoagulation therapy for thrombolysis in one patient, but in the other, the thromboembolism resolved spontaneously.
PMCID: PMC3464343  PMID: 23071481
Thromboembolism; Germ cell tumor; Chemotherapy

Results 1-3 (3)