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1.  Clinical Outcome of Relapsed or Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma and Mature B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children and Adolescents 
Purpose
Despite the rapid improvement in survival rate from Burkitt lymphoma and mature B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in children, a small subset of patients do not respond to first-line chemotherapy or experience relapse (RL). Herein, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients.
Materials and Methods
RL or refractory Burkitt lymphoma and mature B-ALL in 125 patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.
Results
Nineteen patients experienced RL or progressive disease (PD). Among them, 12 patients had PD or RL less than six months after initial treatment and seven had late RL. Seven patients achieved complete response (CR), 11 had PD, and one had no more therapy. Six patients who achieved CR survived without evidence of disease and four of them underwent high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, 11 patients who failed to obtain CR eventually died of their disease. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 31.6±10.7%. OS of patients with late RL was superior to that of patients with early RL (57.1±18.7%, vs. 16.7±10.8%, p=0.014). Achievement of CR after reinduction had significant OS (p < 0.001). OS for patients who were transplanted was superior (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, achievement of CR after reinduction chemotherapy showed an association with improved OS (p=0.05).
Conclusion
Late RL and chemotherapy-sensitive patients have the chance to achieve continuous CR using HDC/SCT, whereas patients who are refractory to retrieval therapy have poor prognosis. Therefore, novel salvage strategy is required for improvement of survival for this small set of patients.
doi:10.4143/crt.2013.047
PMCID: PMC4206068  PMID: 25043820
Burkitt lymphoma; Recurrence; Children
2.  Congenital leukemia of fetus with acquired AML1 gene duplication 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2014;57(4):325-329.
Congenital leukemia is very rare, and its prevalence according to recently published papers is from 1 to 5 per million live births. This can be often diagnosed in postpartum throughout bone marrow biopsy, showing abnormal proliferation of immature blasts and granulocytic precursors. Hepatosplenomegaly is the most common feature which is found during perinatal examinations, that diagnosing is difficult during perinatal period. Hepatosplenomegaly can occur not only in congenital leukemia but in many other cases such as infection which is the most common cause. In other words, congenital leukemia is the one of the rare causes of hepatosplenomegaly. However, this case shows the fetus with the features of hepatosplenomegaly during perinatal period and being diagnosed as congenital leukemia associated with acquired AML1 gene duplication in postpartum through bone marrow biopsy. Due to its rare instance, we are to describe the case with a review of literatures.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2014.57.4.325
PMCID: PMC4124096  PMID: 25105108
AML1 gene; Duplication; Congenital leukemia; Fetal; Hepatosplenomegaly
3.  Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hyperleukocytosis at presentation 
Blood research  2014;49(1):29-35.
Background
Hyperleukocytosis caused by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with early morbidity and mortality due to hyperviscosity arising from the excessive number of leukocytes.This study was designed to assess the incidence of hyperleukocytosis, survival outcomes, and adverse features among pediatric ALL patients with hyperleukocytosis.
Methods
Between January 2001 and December 2010, 104 children with previously untreated ALL were enrolled at the Pusan National University Hospital. All of them were initially stratified based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) risk; 48 (46.2%) were diagnosed with high-risk ALL. The medical charts of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.
Results
Twenty (19.2%) of the 104 children with ALL had initial leukocyte counts of >100×109/L, and 11 patients had a leukocyte count of >200×109/L. Male gender, T-cell phenotype, and massive splenomegaly were positively associated with hyperleukocytosis. Common early complications during induction therapy included renal dysfunction, and central nervous system hemorrhage. The complete remission (CR) rate for the pediatric ALL patients with hyperleukocytosis (94.1%) was similar to the overall CR rate (95.6%). The estimated 3-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival of ALL children with hyperleukocytosis were 75.0% and 81.2%, respectively. However, patients with initial leukocyte counts >200×109/L had a lower EFS than those with initial leukocyte counts 100-200×109/L (63.6% vs. 100%; P=0.046).
Conclusion
The outcome of pediatric ALL cases with an initial leukocyte count >200×109/L was very poor, probably due to early toxicity-related death during induction therapy.
doi:10.5045/br.2014.49.1.29
PMCID: PMC3974953  PMID: 24724064
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Hyperleukocytosis; Central nervous system hemorrhage
4.  Primary Undifferentiated Penile Sarcoma in Adolescence 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(10):733-736.
We report a case of primary penile undifferentiated sarcoma. A 16-year-old adolescent man visited Pusan National University Hospital complaining of a painless mass on his penis that was increasing in size. Magnetic resonance images revealed a 5×5-cm mass and pathological examinations revealed small round cell sarcomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. The tumor, which had metastatic pulmonary nodules, was treated by tumorectomy and systemic chemotherapy. Thirty-four months after the initial diagnosis, the patient was still alive without evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease. This is our second case of an undifferentiated penile sarcoma.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.10.733
PMCID: PMC3490096  PMID: 23136636
Adolescence; Penile cancer; Sarcoma
5.  The effectiveness of tacrolimus and minidose methotrexate in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children: a single-center study in Korea 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):113-118.
Background
Knowledge of the roles of tacrolimus and minidose methotrexate (MTX) in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is limited. We retrospectively evaluated the engraftment status, incidence of aGVHD and chronic GVHD (cGVHD), and toxicities of tacrolimus and minidose MTX in aGVHD prophylaxis in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT.
Methods
Seventeen children, who underwent allogeneic HSCT and received tacrolimus and minidose MTX as GVHD prophylaxis from March 2003 to February 2011, were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients received tacrolimus since the day before transplantation at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg/day and MTX at a dose of 5 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, 6, and 11.
Results
Of the 17 patients, 9 received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor transplants, and 8 received HLA-matched, or partially mismatched unrelated donor transplants. The median time for follow-up was 55 months. The incidence of aGVHD in the related and unrelated donor groups was 22.2% and 42.9%, respectively. cGVHD was not observed. To maintain therapeutic blood levels of tacrolimus, the younger group (<8 years of age) required an increased mean dose compared to the older group (≥8 years) (P=0.0075). The adverse events commonly associated with tacrolimus included hypomagnesemia (88%), nephrotoxicity (23%), and hyperglycemia (23%).
Conclusion
Tacrolimus and minidose MTX were well tolerated and effective in GVHD prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Children <8 years of age undergoing HSCT required increased doses of tacrolimus to achieve therapeutic levels.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.2.113
PMCID: PMC3389059  PMID: 22783357
Tacrolimus; Methotrexate; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Acute graft-versus-host disease; Children

Results 1-5 (5)