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2.  The Effect of Post-Stroke Depression on Rehabilitation Outcome and the Impact of Caregiver Type as a Factor of Post-Stroke Depression 
To evaluate the effect of post-stroke depression (PSD) on rehabilitation outcome and to investigate the risk factors of PSD, especially, the role of caregivers type (family or professional) in subacute stroke patients.
Two hundred twenty-six stroke patients were enrolled retrospectively. All the subjects' basic characteristics, Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were recorded when the patient was transferred into the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and at the time of discharge. The results were statistically analyzed by using SPSS ver. 20.0.
The patients' K-BDI score showed a significantly negative association with K-MBI at discharge (β=-0.473, p<0.001) and a significantly positive association with the mRS score at discharge (β=0.316, p<0.001). Patients with lesions on the left hemisphere (odds ratio [OR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.726-8.733) and professional caregiver support (OR, 0.028; 95% CI, 0.012-0.065) had a higher rate of depression.
Depression was prevalent in stroke patients, and it had a negative effect on patients' functional outcome. Patients who had a lesion on the right hemisphere had less depression. The type of caregiver was related to the incidence of subacute PSD, and family caregivers were found to lower the frequency of stroke patients' depression.
PMCID: PMC4351498  PMID: 25750875
Post-stroke depression; Family; Caregivers; Risk factors
4.  Nocardia Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2014;46(1):45-49.
Nocardia cerebral abscess is rare, constituting approximately 1-2% of all cerebral abscesses. Mortality for a cerebral abscess of Nocardia is three times higher than that of other bacterial cerebral abscesses, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is important. Nocardia cerebral abscess is generally occur among immunocompromised patients, and critical infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report on a case of a brain abscess by Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient who received treatment with surgery and antibiotics. This is the second case of a brain abscess caused by N. farcinica in an immunocompetent patient in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3970313  PMID: 24693470
Nocardia infections; Brain abscess; Immunocompetence
7.  N-ras Mutation Detection by Pyrosequencing in Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia at a Single Institution 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;33(3):159-166.
N-ras mutations are one of the most commonly detected abnormalities of myeloid origin. N-ras mutations result in a constitutively active N-ras protein that induces uncontrolled cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. We analyzed N-ras mutations in adult patients with AML at a particular institution and compared pyrosequencing analysis with a direct sequencing method for the detection of N-ras mutations.
We analyzed 90 bone marrow samples from 83 AML patients. We detected N-ras mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 using the pyrosequencing method and subsequently confirmed all data by direct sequencing. Using these methods, we screened the N-ras mutation quantitatively and determined the incidence and characteristic of N-ras mutation.
The incidence of N-ras mutation was 7.2% in adult AML patients. The patients with N-ras mutations showed significant higher hemoglobin levels (P=0.022) and an increased incidence of FLT3 mutations (P=0.003). We observed 3 cases with N-ras mutations in codon 12 (3.6%), 2 cases in codon 13 (2.4%), and 1 case in codon 61 (1.2%). All the mutations disappeared during chemotherapy.
There is a low incidence (7.2%) of N-ras mutations in AML patients compared with other populations. Similar data is obtained by both pyrosequencing and direct sequencing. This study showed the correlation between the N-ras mutation and the therapeutic response. However, pyrosequencing provides quantitative data and is useful for monitoring therapeutic responses.
PMCID: PMC3646189  PMID: 23667841
N-ras; AML; Pyrosequencing; Bone marrow
8.  A case of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13.1q22) after single low-dose iodine-131 treatment for thyroid cancer 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):225-228.
Radioiodine is regularly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer to eliminate residual malignant tissue after thyroidectomy and to treat metastasis. Because of the low dose of radioiodine used to treat thyroid cancer patients, leukemia is an uncommon complication of exposure to radioiodine. Here, we present a patient who developed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13.1q22);CBFβ-MYH11, eosinophilia, and K-ras mutation and who had been treated with very low-dose radioiodine following total thyroidectomy.
PMCID: PMC3464341  PMID: 23071479
Radioiodine; Thyroid cancer; Acute myeloid leukemia; CBFβ-MYH11; Eosinophilia; K-ras

Results 1-8 (8)