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1.  Human Platelet Antigen Genotyping and Expression of CD109 (Human Platelet Antigen 15) mRNA in Various Human Cell Types 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:946403.
CD109 gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein found in a subset of platelets and endothelial cell, and human platelet antigen (HPA) 15 is found on CD109. We evaluated the HPA genotype and/or the CD109 mRNA expression on two peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), two peripheral bloods (PB), 12 granulocyte products, natural killer (NK)-92, B-lymphocyte (CO88BV59-1), K-562 leukemia cell line, human embryonic stem cell (hESC), and human fibroblasts (HF). HPA genotyping was performed by SNaPshot assay and CD109 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR with SYBR green and melting curve analysis. Genotype HPA-15a/-15a was found in PBSC#1 and two granulocyte products, and HPA-15a/-15b was found in PBSC#2, eight granulocyte products, NK-92, K-562, hESC, and HF, and HPA-15b/-15b was found in two granulocyte products. CD109 mRNA expression was highly increased in HF and increased in CD34+ and CD34− PBSCs and some granulocyte products, compared to the PB. However, the increase of expression level varied among the PBSC and granulocyte products. The CD109 mRNA expression of NK-92, K-562, hESC, and CO 88BV59-1 was not detected. HPA genotype was evaluated in various cells and the expression of CD109, which contains HPA 15, was different among cell lines and high in HF and PBSCs.
doi:10.1155/2013/946403
PMCID: PMC3583088  PMID: 23509816
2.  MYD88 L265P Mutations Are Correlated with 6q Deletion in Korean Patients with Waldenström Macroglobulinemia 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:363540.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a malignant lymphoplasma-proliferative disorder with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. A recent whole-genome study identified MYD88 L265P as the key mutation in WM. We investigated MYD88 mutations in conjunction with cytogenetic study in 22 consecutive Korean WM patients. Conventional G-banding and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed at regions including 6q21 using bone marrow (BM) aspirates. Sixteen patients were subjected to Sanger sequencing-based MYD88 mutation study. Five patients (28%) showed cytogenetic aberrations in G-banding. The incidence of 6q21 deletion was 17% by conventional G-banding and 37% by FISH. Ten patients (45%) showed cytogenetic aberrations using FISH: 6q deletion in eight (37%) and IGH rearrangement in four (18%). Two patients had both the 6q deletion and IGH rearrangement, and two had only the IGH rearrangement. Eleven patients (69%) presented with the MYD88 L265P mutation. MYD88 mutations were significantly associated with the presence of 6q deletions (P = 0.037). Six patients with the 6q deletion for whom sequencing was possible were found to harbor MYD88 mutations. The MYD88 L265P mutation was also associated with increased lymphocyte burden in BM biopsy. This is the first report of high frequency MYD88 L265P mutations in Korean WM patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/363540
PMCID: PMC4033400  PMID: 24895570
3.  Detection of Herpes Simplex and Varicella-Zoster Virus in Clinical Specimens by Multiplex Real-Time PCR and Melting Curve Analysis 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:261947.
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are common agents resulting in various forms of clinical manifestation from skin vesicle to disseminated viral infection. The aim of the present study was to develop a real-time PCR and melting curve analysis which detect and differentiate HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, to compare with PCR-RFLP using clinical specimens, and to introduce the 4-year experience in the clinical laboratory. Three pairs of primers for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV were designed. Primers for human endogenous retrovirus-3 (HERV-3), an internal control, were adopted. A hundred selected specimens and many clinical specimens were tested for methods comparison and assay validation. Increased sensitivity and specificity were obtained from real-time PCR. In review of results of clinical specimens submitted to clinical laboratory, a total of 46 of 3,513 specimens were positive in cerebrospinal fluids, blood, skin vesicles, genital swabs, aqueous humor, and ear discharge. Thus, this method could be a rapid and accurate alternative to virus culture and other molecular tests for detection and typing of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV.
doi:10.1155/2014/261947
PMCID: PMC4009197  PMID: 24822189
4.  Significance of Lewis Phenotyping Using Saliva and Gastric Tissue: Comparison with the Lewis Phenotype Inferred from Lewis and Secretor Genotypes 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:573652.
Lewis phenotypes using various types of specimen were compared with the Lewis phenotype predicted from Lewis and Secretor genotypes. This is the first logical step in explaining the association between the Lewis expression and Helicobacter pylori. We performed a study of the followings on 209 patients who underwent routine gastroscopy: erythrocyte and saliva Lewis phenotyping, gastric Lewis phenotyping by the tissue array, and the Lewis and Secretor genes genotyping. The results of phenotyping were as follows [Le(a−b−), Le(a+b−), Le(a−b+), and Le(a+b+), respectively, in order]: erythrocyte (12.4%, 25.8%, 61.2%, and 0.5%); saliva (2.4%, 27.3%, 70.3%, and 0.0%); gastric mucosa (8.1%, 6.7%, 45.5%, and 39.7%). The frequency of Le, le59/508, le59/1067 , and le59 alleles was 74.6%, 21.3%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, among 418 alleles. The saliva Lewis phenotype was completely consistent with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and Secretor genotypes, but that of gastric mucosa could not be predicted from genotypes. Lewis phenotyping using erythrocytes is only adequate for transfusion needs. Saliva testing for the Lewis phenotype is a more reliable method for determining the peripheral Lewis phenotype of an individual and the gastric Lewis phenotype must be used for the study on the association between Helicobacter pylori and the Lewis phenotype.
doi:10.1155/2014/573652
PMCID: PMC3982271  PMID: 24783214
5.  The application of an in situ karyotyping technique for mesenchymal stromal cells: a validation and comparison study with classical G-banding 
The cytogenetic analysis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is essential for verifying the safety and stability of MSCs. An in situ technique, which uses cells grown on coverslips for karyotyping and minimizes cell manipulation, is the standard protocol for the chromosome analysis of amniotic fluids. Therefore, we applied the in situ karyotyping technique in MSCs and compared the quality of metaphases and karyotyping results with classical G-banding and chromosomal abnormalities with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Human adipose- and umbilical cord-derived MSC cell lines (American Type Culture Collection PCS-500-011, PCS-500-010) were used for evaluation. The quality of metaphases was assessed by analyzing the chromosome numbers in each metaphase, the overlaps of chromosomes and the mean length of chromosome 1. FISH was performed in the interphase nuclei of MSCs for 6q, 7q and 17q abnormalities and for the enumeration of chromosomes via oligo-FISH in adipose-derived MSCs. The number of chromosomes in each metaphase was more variable in classical G-banding. The overlap of chromosomes and the mean length of chromosome 1 as observed via in situ karyotyping were comparable to those of classical G-banding (P=0.218 and 0.674, respectively). Classical G-banding and in situ karyotyping by two personnel showed normal karyotypes for both cell lines in five passages. No numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities were found by the interphase-FISH. In situ karyotyping showed equivalent karyotype results, and the quality of the metaphases was not inferior to classical G-banding. Thus, in situ karyotyping with minimized cell manipulation and the use of less cells would be useful for karyotyping MSCs.
doi:10.1038/emm.2013.133
PMCID: PMC3880460  PMID: 24357832
fluorescence in situ hybridization; in situ culture; karyotype; mesenchymal stromal cells
6.  Circulating Methylated Septin 9 Nucleic Acid in the Plasma of Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer in the Stomach and Colon12 
Translational Oncology  2013;6(3):290-296.
BACKGROUND: Methylated Septin 9 (mSEPT9) in plasma has recently been suggested as a screening marker for colorectal cancer (CRC) with variable sensitivity. We aimed to determine the usefulness of plasma mSEPT9 for screening CRC and gastric cancer (GC) and its diagnostic role in postoperative CRC patients. METHODS: A total of 350 peripheral blood samples from 101 CRC patients, 153 GC patients, and 96 healthy persons were collected. In addition, we obtained 35 follow-up blood samples from 27 CRC patients after curative radical surgery. Plasma mSEPT9, serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and serum CA19-9 were evaluated with clinicopathologic features. RESULTS: The sensitivity of plasma mSEPT9 was 36.6% for detecting CRC and 17.7% for detecting GC, and the specificity was 90.6%. During follow-up periods, mSEPT9 showed negative conversion in eight of nine CRC patients (88.9%) whose plasma mSEPT9 had been positive before radical surgery. The patients with plasma mSEPT9 had a tendency of presence of distant metastasis and lower disease-free survival in both CRC and GC. In GC patients, plasma mSEPT9 was more frequently observed in intestinal (23.5%) and mixed type (40.0%) than diffuse type (7.3%; P =.009). Combined analysis of mSEPT9, CEA, and CA19-9 increased the sensitivity for diagnosing GC to 32.7% (P = .002). CONCLUSION: Considering the high incidence of plasma mSEPT9 in intestinal or mixed type GCs similar to CRCs, GC should be examined through the plasma mSEPT9 screening test. In addition, plasma mSEPT9 is proposed as a follow-up marker in CRC patients, but further validation is required.
PMCID: PMC3660797  PMID: 23730408
7.  Effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and the expression of its receptor on various malignant cells 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):219-224.
Background
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is extensively used to improve neutrophil count during anti-cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of G-CSF on several leukemic cell lines and screened for the expression of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) in various malignant cells.
Methods
We examined the effects of the most commonly used commercial forms of G-CSF (glycosylated lenograstim and nonglycosylated filgrastim) on various leukemic cell lines by flow cytometry. Moreover, we screened for the expression of G-CSFR mRNA in 38 solid tumor cell lines by using real-time PCR.
Results
G-CSF stimulated proliferation (40-80% increase in proliferation in treated cells as compared to that in control cells) in 3 leukemic cell lines and induced differentiation of AML1/ETO+ leukemic cells. Among the 38 solid tumor cell lines, 5 cell lines (hepatoblastoma, 2 breast carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, and melanoma cell lines) showed G-CSFR mRNA expression.
Conclusion
The results of the present study show that therapeutic G-CSF might stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of malignant cells with G-CSFR expression, suggesting that prescreening for G-CSFR expression in primary tumor cells may be necessary before using G-CSF for treatment.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.3.219
PMCID: PMC3464340  PMID: 23071478
G-CSF; Differentiation; Proliferation; Solid tumor; AML
8.  tuf Gene Sequence Analysis Has Greater Discriminatory Power than 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis in Identification of Clinical Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(12):4142-4149.
We compared and analyzed 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequences for 97 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) by use of the GenBank, MicroSeq, EzTaxon, and BIBI databases. Discordant results for definitive identification were observed and differed according to the different databases and target genes. Although higher percentages of sequence identity were obtained with GenBank and MicroSeq for 16S rRNA analysis, the BIBI and EzTaxon databases produced less ambiguous results. Greater discriminatory power and fewer multiple probable identifications were observed with tuf gene analysis than with 16S rRNA analysis. The most pertinent results for tuf gene analysis were obtained with the GenBank database when the cutoff values for the percentage of identity were adjusted to be greater than or equal to 98.0%, with >0.8% separation between species. Analysis of the tuf gene proved to be more discriminative for certain CNS species; further, this method exhibited better distinction in the identification of CNS clinical isolates.
doi:10.1128/JCM.05213-11
PMCID: PMC3232977  PMID: 21998419
9.  Thrombomodulin phenotype of a distinct monocyte subtype is an independent prognostic marker for disseminated intravascular coagulation 
Critical Care  2011;15(2):R113.
Introduction
Thrombomodulin, which is expressed solely on monocytes, along with tissue factor (TF), takes part in coagulation and inflammation. Circulating blood monocytes can be divided into 3 major subtypes on the basis of their receptor phenotype: classical (CD14brightCD16negative, CMs), inflammatory (CD14brightCD16positive; IMs), and dendritic cell-like (CD14dimCD16positive DMs). Monocyte subtype is strongly regulated, and the balance may influence the clinical outcomes of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Therefore, we investigated the phenotypic difference in thrombomodulin and TF expression between different monocyte subtypes in coagulopathy severity and prognosis in patients suspected of having DIC.
Methods
In total, 98 patients suspected of having DIC were enrolled. The subtypes of circulating monocytes were identified using CD14 and CD16 and the thrombomodulin and TF expression in each subtype, expressed as mean fluorescence intensity, was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma level of tissue factor was measured by ELISA. In cultures of microbead-selected, CD14-positive peripheral monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or interleukin-10-induced expression profiles were analyzed, using flow cytometry.
Results
The proportion of monocyte subtypes did not significantly differ between the overt and non-overt DIC groups. The IM thrombomodulin expression level was prominent in the overt DIC group and was well correlated with other coagulation markers. Of note, IM thrombomodulin expression was found to be an independent prognostic marker in multivariate Cox regression analysis. In addition, in vitro culture of peripheral monocytes showed that LPS stimulation upregulated thrombomodulin expression and TF expression in distinct populations of monocytes.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that the IM thrombomodulin phenotype is a potential independent prognostic marker for DIC, and that thrombomodulin-induced upregulation of monocytes is a vestige of the physiological defense mechanism against hypercoagulopathy.
doi:10.1186/cc10139
PMCID: PMC3219396  PMID: 21489300

Results 1-10 (10)