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1.  Clinical Usefulness of Serum Cystatin C as a Marker of Renal Function 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(4):278-284.
Accurate renal function measurements are important in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. In contrast to creatinine, the production of serum cystatin C has been extensively reported to be unaffected by body muscle mass, age, gender, and nutritional status.
Our study included 37 samples from diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients for whom serum creatinine tests had been requested and 40 samples from a healthy populations in Dong-A University Hospital between May 2010 and June 2010. The assay precision (i.e., the coefficient of variation) and the reference range of the serum cystatin C test were evaluated. We compared the estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) based on cystatin C with those based on creatinine. Moreover, we investigated the influences of age, gender, weight, and muscle mass on serum creatinine and serum cystatin C.
There was a positive correlation between GFR based on creatinine and that based on cystatin C (r=0.79, P<0.0001) among the diabetic CKD patients. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were significantly correlated with body weight and muscle mass, but the strengths of these correlations were greater for serum creatinine. The precision study revealed excellent results for both the high and low controls. The 95% reference interval of cystatin C in the healthy population was 0.371 to 1.236 mg/L.
Based on these results, we conclude that, despite the strong correlation between serum creatinine and cystatin C, cystatin C is less affected by weight and muscle mass and might represent a better alternative for the assessment of renal function.
PMCID: PMC4160581  PMID: 25215274
Renal function; Serum creatinine; Serum cystatin C
2.  Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:456569.
The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics.
PMCID: PMC4034486  PMID: 24895576
3.  Diagnostic Utility of Multiprobe Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Assay for Detecting Cytogenetic Aberrations in Acute Leukemia 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2014;34(3):198-202.
Specific cytogenetic aberrations detected by conventional karyotyping or FISH play a major role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with acute leukemia. The FISH technique enhances the capacity of conventional karyotyping to detect subtle chromosomal aberrations. Multiprobe FISH assay (Cytocell, UK) can hybridize multiple probes to a single slide, thereby increasing the detection rate of cytogenetic aberrations. This study aimed to evaluate multiprobe FISH in detecting cytogenetic abnormalities in acute leukemia.
Thirty newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients who attended the hematology clinic at Dong-A University Hospital from October 2008 to October 2012 were enrolled in the study. The multiprobe FISH results were compared with those of G-banding.
Multiprobe FISH detected the chromosomal aberrations identified by G-banding, as well as additional aberrations in 6 of 30 (20.0%) cases, which included ETV6/RUNX1 translocation, p16 deletion, TP53 deletion, and IGH break-apart.
The multiprobe FISH assay was a more sensitive and reliable technique compared with G-banding. It was also more cost-effective and yielded faster results.
PMCID: PMC3999317  PMID: 24790906
Multiprobe FISH; Acute leukemia; Cytogenetic aberration
4.  Outbreak of Pseudomonas Oryzihabitans Pseudobacteremia Related to Contaminated Equipment in an Emergency Room of a Tertiary Hospital in Korea 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2014;46(1):42-44.
Pseudomonas oryzihabitans is frequently found in various sites within hospital settings, including sink drains and respiratory therapy equipment. Although it rarely causes human infections, P. oryzihabitans has recently been considered a potential nosocomial pathogen, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report our experience of an outbreak of P. oryzihabitans pseudobacteremia, presumably due to faulty aseptic preparation of a saline gauze canister.
PMCID: PMC3970301  PMID: 24693469
Flavimonas oryzihabitans; Pseudobacteremia; Environment contamination
5.  A Case of Clostridium difficile Bacteremia in a Patient with Loop Ileostomy 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;33(3):200-202.
Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, is the most common nosocomial pathogen causing pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile is not intrinsically invasive and rarely infects extraintestinal sites. The bacterium, therefore, is not commonly detected in blood cultures. Here, we report a case of C. difficile bacteremia in a patient who had underwent loop ileostomy because of rectal obstruction following metastatic colon cancer originated from prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3646196  PMID: 23667848
Clostridium difficile; Bacteremia; Loop ileostomy
6.  Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Levels in Comparison with Glomerular Filtration Rate for Evaluation of Renal Function in Patients with Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(4):307-313.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker of acute kidney injury. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that NGAL is also a marker of kidney disease and severity in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We studied the utility of urinary NGAL in more accurately predicting renal function in patients with diabetic CKD.
We studied possible relationships between urinary NGAL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria in diabetic CKD patients and in healthy populations.
Urinary NGAL levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls (96.0 [2.7 to 975.2] ng/mL vs. 18.8 [1.3 to 81.9] ng/mL, P=0.02), and the GFR was lower among CKD patients (49.3 [13.1 to 78.3] mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 85.6 [72 to 106.7] mL/min/1.73 m2, P<0.0001). The urinary NGAL level showed a significant inverse correlation with GFR (r=-0.5634, P<0.0001). The correlation analyses between urinary protein level and urinary NGAL levels and GFR were as follows: urine protein and urinary NGAL (r=0.3009, P=0.0256), urine protein and GFR (r=-0.6245, P<0.0001), urine microalbumin and urinary NGAL (r=0.1794, P=0.2275), and urine microalbumin and GFR (r=-0.5190, P=0.0002).
From these results, we concluded that urinary NGAL is a reliable marker of renal function in diabetic CKD patients. However, urinary NGAL did not provide more accurate information regarding renal function than GFR.
PMCID: PMC3428420  PMID: 22950063
Chronic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin
7.  A Case of Near-triploidy in Myelodysplastic Syndrome with del(5q) Combined with del(1p) and del(13q) 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(4):294-297.
Numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities are common in hematological malignancies. Near-triploidy (58-80 chromosomes) is a numerical abnormality observed in 3% of adult cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Near-triploidy is rare in myeloid lineage hematologic malignancies and compared to near-triploidy in lymphoid malignancies, near-triploidy in myeloid malignancies is associated with poor outcomes. Few studies on near-triploidy in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have been reported, and the clinicopathologic significance of this condition is still unclear. Here, we report a novel case of MDS with near-triploidy and multiple structural chromosomal abnormalities: del(5q) combined with del(1p) and del(13q). These abnormalities were detected by cytogenetic analysis with array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Our results suggest that array CGH can be a useful tool for detecting chromosomal abnormalities in patients with MDS.
PMCID: PMC3384812  PMID: 22779072
Near-triploidy; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Array CGH
8.  Comparison of Capillary Electrophoresis with Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis for the Screening of Hemoglobinopathies 
β-thalassemia is primarily found in individuals of Mediterranean and Southeast Asian ancestry. With rapid growth in the Southeast Asian segments of the Korean population, the geographic distribution of hemoglobinopathies is expected to become significantly different from what it is today. In this study, Hb fractions were measured in patients with hypochromic microcytosis to detect thalassemia and Hb variants. To evaluate the feasibility of replacing cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CA) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) in a clinical laboratory, both techniques were performed and the outcomes were compared.
To evaluate hemoglobinopathies, complete blood cell counts (CBC), CA, and CE were carried out on samples from healthy and microcytic hypochromic groups. The microcytic hypochromic group consisted of 103 patients whose mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was less than 75 fL and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) was less than 24 pg. Quantitative analysis of Hb fractions was performed on 143 whole blood samples.
There was a good correlation for measurements of HbA (r=0.9370, P<0.0001), HbA2 (r=0.8973 P<0.0001), and HbF (r= 0.8010, P=0.0304) between the two methods. In the microcytic hypochromic group, there were 29 cases (28.2%) with decreased HbA2, 2 cases (1.9%) with increased HbA2, 3 cases (2.9%) with increased HbF, and 2 cases (1.9%) with increased HbA2 and HbF.
CE is comparable to CA for reliable measurement of Hb fractions. It is suitable for screening of hemoglobinopathies in many clinical laboratories.
PMCID: PMC3190001  PMID: 22016676
Capillary electrophoresis; Thalassemia; Hemoglobinopathies
9.  Lineage-specific chimerism analysis in nucleated cells, T cells and natural killer cells after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 
Chimerism analysis is an important tool for assessing the origin of hematopoietic cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and can be used to detect impending graft rejection and the recurrence of underlying malignant or nonmalignant diseases.
This study included 24 patients who underwent myeloablative allo-SCT. DNA was extracted from nucleated cells (NCs), T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, and the chimerism status of these cell fractions was determined by STR-PCR performed using an automated fluorescent DNA analyzer.
Twenty-three out of the 24 patients achieved engraftment. Mixed chimerism (MC) in NCs, but not in T cells and NK cells, was significantly correlated with disease relapse. MC in all cell fractions was correlated with mortality. Ten patients (41.6%) developed extensive chronic GVHD. Six patients had MC in T cells, and 3 of them had chronic GVHD. Four patients with MC and relapse received donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and among them, 3 had secondary relapse. Further, the chimerism status differed among different cell lineages in 6 patients with myeloid malignancies.
The implications of MC in lymphocyte subsets are an important area for future research. Chimerism analysis in lineage-specific cells permits detection of relapse and facilitates the monitoring of therapeutic interventions. These results can provide the basic data for chimerism analysis after myeloablative SCT.
PMCID: PMC3065621  PMID: 21461299
Lineage-specific chimerism; Myeloablative stem cell transplantation; T cells; Natural killer cells
10.  Cytogenetic Characterizations of Central Nervous System Tumors: The First Comprehensive Report from a Single Institution in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(3):453-460.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors incorporates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers. Despite the relatively large number of CNS tumors with clonal chromosome abnormalities, only few studies have investigated cytogenetic abnormalities for CNS tumors in Korea. Thus, we investigated 119 CNS tumors by conventional G-banded karyotypes to characterize patterns of chromosomal abnormalities involving various CNS tumors, and 92.4% of them were cultured and karyotyped successfully. Totally, 51.8% of karyotypable CNS tumors showed abnormal cytogenetic results, including neuroepithelial tumors (75.0%), meningeal tumors (71.1%), pituitary adenomas (4.2%), schwannomas (44.4%), and metastatic tumors (100.0%). Glioblastomas had hyperdiploid, complex karyotypes, mainly involving chromosomes Y, 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, and 14. Monosomy 22 was observed in 56.4% of meningiomas. There was a significant increase in the frequencies of karyotypic complexity according to the increase of WHO grade between grades I and II (P=0.0422) or IV (P=0.0101). Abnormal karyotypes were more complex at high-grade tumors, suggesting that the karyotype reflects the biologic nature of the tumor. More detailed cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of CNS tumors contribute to better diagnostic criteria and deeper insights of tumorigenesis, eventually resulting in development of novel therapeutic strategies.
PMCID: PMC2698192  PMID: 19543509
Central Nervous System Neoplasms; Karyotype; WHO Classification; Solid Tumor; Chromosome Abnormality
11.  Cotransplantation of Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Culture-Expanded and GM-CSF-/SCF-Transfected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in SCID Mice 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(2):242-247.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent in nature and believed to facilitate the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) when transplanted simultaneously in animal studies and even in human trials. In this study, we transfected culture-expanded MSC with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) cytokine genes and then cotransplanted with mononuclear cells (MNC) to further promote HSC engraftment. MNC were harvested from cord blood and seeded in long-term culture for ex vivo MSC expansion. A total of 1×107 MNC plus MSC/µL were introduced to the tail vein of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. After 6-8 weeks later, homing and engraftment of human cells were determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. The total nucleated cell count and the engraftment of CD45+/CD34+ cells and XX or XY positive human cells were significantly increased in cotransplanted mice and even higher with the cytokine gene-transfected MSC (GM-CSF>SCF, p<0.05) than in transplantation of MNC alone. These results suggest that MSC transfected with hematopoietic growth factor genes are capable of enhancing the hematopoietic engraftment. Delivering genes involved in homing and cell adhesions, CXCR4 or VLA, would further increase the efficiency of stem cell transplantation in the future.
PMCID: PMC2693589  PMID: 17449931
Mesenchymal Stem Cell; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; GM-CSF; Stem Cell Factor; Engraftment, Transfection; Cord Blood
12.  Identification of genes underlying different methylation profiles in refractory anemia with excess blast and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia in myelodysplastic syndrome 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):186-193.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a preleukemic condition that transforms into acute myeloid leukemia. However, the genetic events underlying this transformation remain poorly understood. Aberrant DNA methylation may play a causative role in the disease and its prognosis. Thus, we compared the DNA methylation profiles in refractory anemia with excess blast (RAEB) to those in refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD).
Bone marrow samples were collected from 20 patients with primary MDS (9 with RAEB and 11 with RCMD), and peripheral blood samples were collected from 4 healthy controls. These samples were assessed using a commercial whole genome-wide methylation assay. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the methylation of candidate gene promoters in RAEB and RCMD.
Microarray data revealed significant hypermethylation in 69 genes within RAEB but not RCMD. Candidate genes were mapped to 5 different networks, and network 1 had the highest score due to its involvement in gene expression, cancer, and cell cycle. Five genes (GSTM5, BIK, CENPH, RERG, and ANGPTL2) were associated with malignant disease progression. Among them, the methylated promoter pairs of GSTM5 (55.5% and 20%), BIK (20% and 0%), and ANGPTL2 (44.4% and 10%) were observed more frequently in RAEB.
DNA methylation of GSTM5, BIK, and ANGPTL2 may induce epigenetic silencing and contribute to the increasing blasts and resulting MDS progression; however, the functions of these genes were not determined. Further study focusing on epigenetic silencing using various detection modalities is required.
PMCID: PMC3464335  PMID: 23071473
Myelodysplastic syndrome; DNA methylation; GSTM5; ANGPTL2; BIK
13.  Impact of Platelet Function Test on Platelet Responsiveness and Clinical Outcome After Coronary Stent Implantation: Platelet Responsiveness and Clinical Outcome 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(6):382-389.
Background and Objectives
The aim of this study was to confirm the predictive cut-off values for P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and aspirin reaction units (ARU) and to evaluate the clinical impact of VerifyNow® assays.
Subjects and Methods
From November 2007 to October 2009, 186 eligible patients were prospectively recruited. Post-treatment platelet reactivity was measured by VerifyNow® assays within 12 to 24 hours after intervention, followed by standard dual maintenance dose therapy for 1 year. All patients had scheduled clinical follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.
The rate of low responders to clopidogrel, aspirin, and both drugs were 41.4%, 10.2%, and 3.8%, respectively. The predictive factors for low responsiveness to clopidogrel (PRU ≥240) were female sex, age, and non-use of cilostazol medication in our univariate analysis and age ≥65 years and non-use cilostazol in the multivariate analysis. The predictors of low responsiveness to aspirin (ARU ≥550) were male sex and age in both univariate and multivariate analyses. There was no significant difference in the clinical event rate with a cut-off value of PRU ≥240 or ARU ≥550 for 30 days and 1-year (p>0.05).
Hyporesponsiveness to antiplatelet agents (namely aspirin and clopidogrel) was identified in about half of the patients. The cut-off point of PRU ≥240 or ARU ≥550 did not confer predictive value for 30-day or 1-year clinical event rates in patients who had undergone coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents.
PMCID: PMC3390423  PMID: 22787468
Platelet function tests; Coronary artery disease; Drug-eluting stents
14.  Serial Interferon-gamma Release Assays for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Patients Treated with Immunosuppressive Agents 
We assessed the efficacy of serial interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients receiving immunosuppressive agents for treatment of rheumatic diseases in Korea.
Of 276 patients who underwent consecutive screening with one of two IGRAs [QuantiFERON-TB Gold or QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube], 66 patients were evaluated by the serial IGRA for detection of LTBI during therapy with immunosuppressive agents. Information on clinical diagnosis, medication, previous TB, blood cell count, tuberculin skin test, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level measured by IGRA was collected.
Of the 66 patients, the initial IGRA was positive in 24.2%, negative in 65.2%, and indeterminate in 10.6%. Forty-six patients (69.7%) showed consistent IGRA results during follow-up, and 13 patients (19.7%) had consistently positive results. IGRA conversion rate was 12.1% (8/66) and reversion rate was 4.5% (3/66). Conversion of IGRA results was only observed in ankylosing spondylitis patients, and the median interval between the two tests in patients with conversion was 8.5 months. The mean IFN-γ level in the group of patients with consistently positive IGRA results was higher than that in the group with inconsistently positive results, although this trend was not statistically significant (P=0.293). Indeterminate results were observed most frequently in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
In patients receiving immunosuppressive agents, both IGRA conversions and reversions were observed. Serial IGRA testing may not be needed in patients with a positive initial IGRA result showing high IFN-γ levels, because of high consistency in the test results.
PMCID: PMC3190006  PMID: 22016681
Interferon-gamma release assay; Latent tuberculosis infection; Immunosuppressive agent; Conversion
15.  Incidence and clinical characteristics of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities of acquired aplastic anemia in adults 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(4):242-246.
Cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) have been reported frequently in patients with otherwise typical aplastic anemia (AA), but their implications in the prognosis and in the evolution to hematologic malignancies are controversial.
We retrospectively analyzed 127 adult AA patients who had successful cytogenetic analysis at initial diagnosis.
The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the initial and follow-up results of cytogenetic profiles. Group 1 included patients who had persistent AA with normal cytogenetic profiles (N=117); Group 2, those who had a normal cytogenetic profile at initial diagnosis but later acquired CA (N=4, 3.1%); and Group 3, those who had CA at the initial diagnosis, regardless of follow-up cytogenetic status (N=6,4.7%). In Group 2, 2 patients later developed CA without progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); the other 2 patients later progressed to AML. None of the patients in Group 3 progressed to AML or MDS. There was no significant difference in overall survival between Groups 1 and 3.
AA patients with CA at initial diagnosis or follow-up may not be at greater risk for evolution to AML or MDS, or show shorter survival periods. Prospective studies and a larger patient samples are needed to establish the clinical relevance of CA.
PMCID: PMC3023049  PMID: 21253425
Aplastic anemia; Cytogenetic abnormality
16.  Fludarabine-based myeloablative regimen as pretransplant conditioning therapy in adult acute leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome: comparison with oral or intravenous busulfan with cyclophosphamide 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):102-108.
A combination of busulfan (Bu) and cyclophosphamide (Cy) has been used as a standard myeloablative regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recent studies postulate that fludarabine (Flu) is a less toxic substitute for Cy.
Forty-two patients who were diagnosed with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome and received BuFlu (n=17) or BuCy (n=25) from August, 1999 to July, 2009 at Dong-A University Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed.
The median follow-up duration was 39.75 months. The BuFlu group showed a lower incidence of mucositis (P=0.005), but there was no significant intergroup difference in the time of engraftment, nausea/vomiting, acute/chronic graft-versus-host disease, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or hemorrhagic cystitis. Moreover, the 2 groups showed no significant difference in the cumulative risk of relapse, event-free survival, or overall survival.
BuFlu administration can be employed as a preparative regimen for allogeneic HSCT and shows efficacy and transplant-adverse effects comparable to those of BuCy. However, randomized prospective studies in more patients are warranted.
PMCID: PMC2983027  PMID: 21120188
Myeloablative regimen; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Fludarabine; Busulfan
17.  Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:203.
Angiogenesis is a multistep process in which many growth factors and cytokines have an essential role. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic agent that acts as a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells through specific cell surface receptors. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is another mechanism linking angiogenesis to malignancy. C-reactive protein (CRP), a representative marker for inflammation, is known for its association with disease progression in many cancer types. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative serum levels of VEGF, IL-6, and CRP in colorectal carcinoma, and to correlate them with disease status and prognosis.
A 132 of 143 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. 11 patients with resection margin positive were excluded. Factors considered in analysis of the relationship between VEGF, IL-6, and CRP and histological findings. Patient prognosis was investigated. Serum levels of VEGF and IL-6 were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and CRP was measured using immunoturbidimetry.
Median follow-up duration was 18.53 months (range 0.73-43.17 months) and median age of the patients was 62 years (range, 26-83 years). Mean and median levels of VEGF and CRP in colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in the normal control group; 608 vs. 334 pg/mL and 528 (range 122-3242) vs. 312 (range 16-1121) (p < 0.001); 1.05 mg/dL vs. 0.43 mg/dL and 0.22 (range 0.00-18.40) vs. 0.07 (range 0.02-6.94) (p = 0.002), respectively. However mean and median level of IL-6 in patients were not significantly higher than in control; 14.33 pg/mL vs. 5.65 pg/mL and 6.00 (range 1.02-139.17) vs. 5.30 (4.50-13.78) (p = 0.327). Although IL-6 and CRP levels were not correlated with other pathological findings, VEGF level was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.012) and CEA (p = 0.038). When we established the cutoff value for VEGF (825 pg/mL), IL-6 (8.09 pg/mL), and CRP (0.51 mg/dL) by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, we noted that high VEGF levels tended to reduce overall survival (p = 0.053), but not significantly. However, IL-6 and CRP demonstrated no significance with regard to disease free survival (p = 0.531, p = 0.701, respectively) and overall survival (p = 0.563, p = 0.572, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that VEGF (p = 0.032), CEA (p = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), and TNM stage (p = 0.025) were independently associated with overall survival.
Preoperative serum VEGF and CRP level increased in colorectal cancer patients. High VEGF level has been proposed as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC2886042  PMID: 20465852
18.  A case of subdural hematoma in patient with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with high-dose imatinib mesylate 
Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat a wide range of diseases, including Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), on account of its high tolerability and low incidence of minor adverse events. Hemorrhage is thought to be a rare complication of IM. Recently, IM has been associated with reduced α2-plasmin inhibitor and platelet dysfunction. We report here the case of a 33-year-old female patient with CML who experienced subdural hematoma after an incremental increase in IM dosage due to a loss of complete molecular response. This case indicates that physicians should be alert to this atypical cause of headache in patients taking high-dose IM.
PMCID: PMC2983009  PMID: 21120168
Chronic myeloid leukemia; Imatinib mesylate; Subdural hematoma
19.  A Case of Pathologic Splenic Rupture as the Initial Manifestation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia M2 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;51(1):138-140.
A pathologic splenic rupture refers to a rupture without trauma. A splenic rupture as the initial manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia is extremely rare. In this study, we described a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia presenting principally as an acute abdomen due to a pathologic splenic rupture in a 35-year old male patient. We can assert that a pathologic splenic rupture in hematologic diseases is a potentially life-threatening complication, which necessitates immediate operative intervention. Any such patient complaining about left upper abdominal tenderness should be closely observed, and further diagnostic investigations (ultrasonograph of the abdomen, abdominal CT scan) should be initiated in order to rule out a splenic rupture. The oncologist should be aware of this rare initial presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M2, as the condition generally necessitates a prompt splenectomy.
PMCID: PMC2799964  PMID: 20046528
Acute myeloid leukemia M2; pathologic; splenic rupture
20.  Clinical significances of preoperative serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein level in operable gastric cancer 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:155.
The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is one of the mechanisms that link inflammation and angiogenesis to malignancy. Because the C-reactive protein (CRP) is a representative marker for inflammation, CRP has recently been associated with the progression of disease in many cancer types. The principal objective of this study was to determine the preoperative serum levels of IL-6 and CRP in gastric carcinoma, and to correlate them with disease status and prognosis.
A total of 115 patients who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of IL-6 were assessed via Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and CRP was measured via immunoturbidimetry. Histological findings included tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node (LN) metastasis, and TNM stage (6th AJCC Stage Groupings: The staging systems; Primary tumor, regional LN, metastasis).
Increases in cancer invasion and staging are generally associated with increases in preoperative serum IL-6 levels. IL-6 and CRP levels were correlated with invasion depth (P < 0.001, P = 0.001), LN metastasis (P < 0.001, P = 0.024) and TNM stage (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). The presence of peritoneal seeding metastasis is associated with IL-6 levels (P = 0.012). When we established the cutoff value for IL-6 level (6.77 pg/dL) by ROC curve, we noted significant differences in time to progression (TTP; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.010). However, CRP evidenced no significance with regard to patients' TTP and OS levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with CRP levels (r2 = 0.049, P = 0.018).
Preoperative serum IL-6 and CRP levels might be markers of tumor invasion, LN metastasis, and TNM stage. Preoperative high IL-6 levels were proposed as a poor prognostic factor for disease recurrence and overall survival in patients with gastric cancers.
PMCID: PMC2694817  PMID: 19457231
21.  Clinicopathologic significance of HIF-1α, p53, and VEGF expression and preoperative serum VEGF level in gastric cancer 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:123.
Hypoxia influences tumor growth by inducing angiogenesis and genetic alterations. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), p53, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are all important factors in the mechanisms inherent to tumor progression. In this work, we have investigated the clinicopathologic significance of HIF-1α, p53, and VEGF expression and preoperative serum VEGF (sVEGF) level in gastric cancer.
We immunohistochemically assessed the HIF-1α, p53, and VEGF expression patterns in 114 specimens of gastric cancer. Additionally, we determined the levels of preoperative serum VEGF (sVEGF).
The positive rates of p53 and HIF-1α (diffuse, deep, intravascular pattern) were 38.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The VEGF overexpression rate was 57.9%. p53 and HIF-1α were correlated positively with the depth of invasion (P = 0.015, P = 0.001, respectively). Preoperative sVEGF and p53 levels were correlated significantly with lymph node involvement (P = 0.010, P = 0.040, respectively). VEGF overexpression was more frequently observed in the old age group (≥ 60 years old) and the intestinal type (P = 0.013, P = 0.014, respectively). However, correlations between preoperative sVEGF level and tissue HIF-1α, VEGF, and p53 were not observed. The median follow-up duration after operation was 24.5 months. HIF-1α was observed to be a poor prognostic factor of disease recurrence or progression (P = 0.002).
p53, HIF-1α and preoperative sVEGF might be markers of depth of invasion or lymph node involvement. HIF-1α expression was a poor prognostic factor of disease recurrence or progression in patients with gastric cancers.
PMCID: PMC2397429  PMID: 18452596
22.  Prognostic Factors of Response to Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(3):417-420.
Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who do not respond to medical treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors predictive of outcome after LS for ITP. From May 1997 to December 2002, we performed 30 LS on patients with ITP. A positive response was defined as a postoperative platelet count greater than 50,000/µL and no requirement for maintenance therapy. Chi-square testing was performed to determine the predictive effects of the following variables: age, sex, preoperative response to steroids or immunoglobulin, duration of disease, antiplatelet antibody, platelet associated antibody, and antinuclear antibody. LS was successfully performed in all patients. For a mean follow-up interval of 24.3 months, response to LS was 73.3%. Splenectomy for steroid nonresponders resulted in an inferior complete response rate (10 of 18, 55.6%) as compared with those that experienced relapse after steroid treatment (11 of 12, 91.7%) (p=0.042). The other significant predictor of outcome by univariate analysis was the time between diagnosis and surgery (p=0.049). The other variables showed no significant correlation with successful splenectomy. We conclude that LS can be performed safely with a satisfactory remission rate in patients with ITP who do not respond to medical treatment, and that the factors most frequently associated with surgical success are a response to steroid and disease duration.
PMCID: PMC2782196  PMID: 15953862
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic; Laparoscopy; Splenectomy
23.  Stem Cells Expressing Homing Receptors Could be Expanded From Cryopreserved and Unselected Cord Blood 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(5):635-639.
We assessed the cytokine combinations that are best for ex vivo expansion of cord blood (CB) and the increment for cell numbers of nucleated cells, as well as stem cells expressing homing receptors, by an ex vivo expansion of cryopreserved and unselected CB. Frozen leukocyte concentrates (LC) from CB were thawed and cultured at a concentration of 1×105/mL in media supplemented with a combination of SCF (20 ng/mL)+TPO (50 ng/mL)+FL (50 ng/mL)±IL-6 (20 ng/mL)±G-CSF (20 ng/mL). After culturing for 14 days, the expansion folds of cell numbers were as follows: TNC 22.3±7.8~26.3±4.9, CFU-GM 4.7±5.1~11.7±2.6, CD34+CD38- cell 214.0±251.9~464.1±566.1, CD34+CXCR4+ cell 4384.5±1664.7~7087.2±4669.3, CD34+VLA4+ cell 1444.3±1264.0~2074.9±1537.0, CD34+VLA5+ cell 86.2±50.9~113.2±57.1. These results revealed that the number of stem cells expressing homing receptors could be increased by an ex vivo expansion of cryopreserved and unselected CB using 3 cytokines (SCF, TPO, FL) only. Further in vivo studies regarding the engraftment after expansion of the nucleated cells, as well as the stem cells expressing homing receptors will be required.
PMCID: PMC2816322  PMID: 15483335
Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing; Ex Vivo Expansion; Cryopreservation; Fetal Blood; Cytokines; Granulocyte Colong-Stimulating Factor; Thrombopoietin; Interleukin-6: Antigen, CD34
24.  Homing-Associated Cell Adhesion Molecules and Cell Cycle Status on the Nucleated Cells in the Bone Marrow, Mobilized Peripheral Blood and Cord Blood 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(4):523-528.
Homing-associated cell adhesion molecules (H-CAM) on the CD34+ cells play an important role for the engraftment process following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, it seems that not only CD34+ cells but also other nucleated cells (NCs) with H-CAM could be implicated in the engraftment process and the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. We investigated the differences of H-CAM and cell cycle status on the NCs in cord blood (CB), bone marrow (BM), and mobilized peripheral blood (PB). The proportions of CXCR4+ cells within the NC populations were greater in CB than in PB or BM (p=0.0493), although the proportions of CXCR4+, CD44+, and CD49d+ cells within the CB CD34+ cell populations were same within BM or PB. A lower proportion of CD34+CD49d+ cells within the CD34+ cell populations was more noted in CB than in PB or BM (p=0.0085). There were no differences in cell cycle status between CB and BM or PB. Our results suggest that the migrating potential of CB would be enhanced with increased CXCR4 expression on the NCs, but the adhesion potential of CB CD34+ cells would be less than that of PB and BM. These findings may help explain why the lower cell dose is required and engraftment is delayed in cord blood stem cell transplantation.
PMCID: PMC2816885  PMID: 15308842
Cell Adhesion Molecules; Nucleated Cells; Erythrocytes; Bone Marrow; Peripheral Blood; Fetal Blood
25.  Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a Patient with Primary Ovarian Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(2):294-296.
The primary ovarian lymphoma is a rare disease with poor prognosis. The incidence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is estimated at 3%. However, a substantial portion of the previously reported cases of ovarian lymphoma actually represented ovarian involvement by more diffuse lymphomatous process. If stringent criteria are used for case selection, true primary ovarian lymphoma usually carries a favorable prognosis. We present a primary malignant lymphoma of ovary accompanied by autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a 29-yr-old patient. After ablative surgery, the hemoglobin level and the reticulocyte count were normalized. One year following surgery and chemotherapy, the patient is alive and disease free.
PMCID: PMC2822315  PMID: 15082907
Ovarian Neoplasms; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Hemolytic Anemia, Autoimmune

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