In 2010, we proposed the first Korean Guidelines for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE). It was applicable to Korean patients, by modifying the contents of the second edition of the Japanese guidelines for the prevention of VTE and the 8th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. From 2007 to 2011, we conducted a nationwide study regarding the incidence of VTE after major surgery using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. In addition, we have considered the 9th edition of the ACCP Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in 2012. It emphasized the importance of clinically relevant events as opposed to asymptomatic outcomes with preferences for both thrombotic and bleeding outcomes. Thus, in the development of the new Korean guidelines, three major points were addressed: 1) the new guidelines stratify patients into 4 risk groups (very low, low, moderate, and high) according to the actual incidence of symptomatic VTE from the HIRA databases; 2) the recommended optimal VTE prophylaxis for each group was modified according to condition-specific thrombotic and bleeding risks; 3) guidelines are intended for general information only, are not medical advice, and do not replace professional medical care and/or physician advice.
Guideline; Prevention; Venous Thromboembolism; Bleeding
We evaluated the association between a KRAS mutational status and various clinicopathologic features including the metastatic pattern in patients with metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer (MRCRC). The concordance rates of the KRAS status between primary tumor sites and paired metastatic organs were also analyzed.
The KRAS mutational status in codons 12, 13, and 61 from formalin-fixed sections of both primary tumors and related metastases was determined by sequencing analysis. One hundred forty-three Korean patients with MRCRC with available tissues (resection or biopsy) from both primary tumors and related metastatic sites were consecutively enrolled.
The KRAS mutation rate was 52.4% (75/143) when considering both the primary and metastatic sites. When the relationship between the KRAS status and initial metastatic sites at the time of diagnosis of MRCRC was analyzed, lung metastasis was more frequent as the initial metastatic site in patients with the KRAS mutation than in patients without the KRAS mutation (45.3% vs. 22.1%; P = 0.003). However, liver (37.3% vs. 70.6%; P < 0.001) or distant lymph node metastases (6.7% vs. 19.1%; P = 0.025) were less frequent as the initial metastatic organ in patients with the KRAS mutation than in patients without the KRAS mutation. The discordance rate of KRAS mutational status between primary and paired metastatic sites other than the lung was 12.3% (13/106). Compared with primary tumor sites, the KRAS discordance rate was significantly higher in matched lung metastases [32.4% (12/37)] than in other matched metastatic organs (P = 0.005).
Organs initially involved by distant metastasis were different according to the KRAS mutational status in MRCRC patients. The concordance rate (87.7%) of the KRAS mutation status at metastatic sites other than the lung was generally high compared with primary tumor sites; however, lung metastasis had a high rate of KRAS discordance (32.4%).
KRAS mutation; Lung metastasis; Discordance; Colorectal cancer
The clinical efficacy and safety of a three-drug combination of melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide were assessed in patients with multiple myeloma who were not candidates for high-dose therapy as a first-line treatment. Because the side effects of thalidomide at a dose of ≥ 100 mg daily can be a barrier to effective treatment for these patients, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a reduced dose of thalidomide, 50 mg, for non-transplant candidates.
Twenty-one patients were treated in 4-week cycles, receiving 4 mg/m2 melphalan and 40 mg/m2 prednisone on days 1-7 and 50 mg thalidomide daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the overall response rate. Aspirin (100 mg daily) was also provided as prophylactic treatment for thromboembolism.
The overall response rate was 57.1%; a complete response was seen in 23.8% of patients, a partial response in 33.3%, and stable disease in 9.5%. After a median follow-up time of 16.1 months, the median time to progression was 11.4 months (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 20.6); the median overall survival was not reached. Grades 3 and 4 adverse events included infection (10%), peripheral neuropathy (5%), diarrhea (5%), thrombosis (10%), and loss of consciousness (10%). Two patients discontinued treatment due to loss of consciousness and neuropathy.
Low-dose thalidomide (50 mg) plus melphalan and prednisone is an effective combination drug therapy option for newly diagnosed myeloma patients who are ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy.
Multiple myeloma; Thalidomide; Melphalan; Prednisone
A 37-year-old male presented with fever and jaundice was diagnosed as hepatitis A complicated with progressive cholestasis and severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia. He was treated with high-dose prednisolone (1.5 mg/kg), and eventually recovered. His initial serum contained genotype IA hepatitis A virus (HAV), which was subsequently replaced by genotype IIIA HAV. Moreover, at the time of development of hemolytic anemia, he became positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV). We detected HAV antigens in the liver biopsy specimen, while we detected neither HEV antigen in the liver nor HEV RNA in his serum. This is the first report of hepatitis A coinfected with two different genotypes manifesting with autoimmune hemolytic anemia, prolonged cholestasis, and false-positive IgM anti-HEV.
Hepatitis A virus; Genotype; Coinfection; Hemolytic anemia; Korea
This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested.
Superwarfarin; Brodifacoum; Vitamin K; Rodenticides
Systemic chemotherapy is the only option for patients with unresectable/metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not candidates for local/regional treatment. However, the response to such treatment and survival are poor, especially in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic areas. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy and identify a subgroup of advanced HCC patients with favorable responses.
Materials and Methods
The medical records of all consecutive patients with unresectable/metastatic HCC who received cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy between January 2003 and October 2009 were reviewed. Time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for TTP and OS.
Data for 46 patients were analyzed. First-line chemotherapies consisted of cisplatin-based combination treatment with doxorubicin, fluoropyrimidines and gemcitabine. The response rate for all patients was 4.3%. The median TTP and OS were 1.8 (95%confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.5) and 7.2 (95% CI, 3.0 to 11.5) months, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), Child classification, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score and portal vein thrombosis (PVT) were identified by univariate analyses as prognostic factors for TTP and OS. ECOG PS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.51; 95% CI, 1.61 to 12.6; p=0.004) and PVT (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.11; p=0.026) were independent prognostic factors for TTP.
Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced HCC has a low response rate and short TTP regardless of the chemotherapy regimen used. Patients with a good ECOG PS and without PVT can be considered candidates for cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Platinum; Prognosis; Chemotherapy; Survival
This guideline focuses on the primary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Korea. The guidelines should be individualized and aim at patients scheduled for major surgery, as well as patients with a history of trauma, high-risk pregnancy, cancer, or other severe medical illnesses. Currently, no nation-wide data on the incidence of VTE exist, and randomized controlled trials aiming at the prevention of VTE in Korea have yielded few results. Therefore, these guidelines were based on the second edition of the Japanese Guidelines for the Prevention of VTE and the eighth edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. These guidelines establish low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups, and recommend appropriate thromboprophylaxis for each group.
Guideline; Prevention; Venous Thromboembolism
The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and clinical features of severe pulmonary complications in patients receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) as the initial treatment for lymphoma.
A retrospective analysis of pulmonary infection and drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis (DIIP) was performed using lymphoma registry data. R-CHOP was administered in 71 patients and CHOP in 29 patients.
The severe pulmonary adverse events tended to occur more frequently with R-CHOP (18.3%) than CHOP alone (13.8%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.771). DIIP occurred in five patients in the R-CHOP arm (7%) and in one in the CHOP arm (3%). The continuous use of steroids for conditions other than lymphoma significantly increased the risk of pulmonary infection including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (p = 0.036) in the multivariate analysis. International prognostic index, tumor stage, smoking, previous tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lymphoma involvement of lung parenchyma were not related to pulmonary adverse events. Patients who experienced severe pulmonary events showed shorter survival when compared to those without complications (p = 0.002).
Our experiences with serial cases with DIIP during chemotherapy and the correlation of continuous steroid use with pulmonary infection suggest that the incidence of pulmonary complications might be high during lymphoma treatment, and careful monitoring should be performed.
Rituximab; Drug therapy; Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; Adverse effects; Lung diseases, interstitial
The financial burden of caring for iron-related complications (IRCs) is an emerging medical problem in Korea, as in Western countries. We produced a preliminary estimate of the costs of treating patients for IRCs.
The medical records of patients who had received multiple transfusions were reviewed. Newly developed cardiomyopathy, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer were defined as IRCs. The costs of laboratory studies, medication, oxygenation, intervention, and education were calculated using working criteria we defined. Costs that had a definite causal relationship with IRCs were included to produce as accurate an estimate as possible.
Between 2002 and 2006, 650 patients with hematologic diseases, including 358 with acute leukemia, 102 with lymphoma, 58 with myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative disease, 46 with multiple myeloma, and 31 with chronic leukemia, received more than 10 units of red blood cells. Nine patients developed IRCs. The primary diagnoses of eight patients were aplastic anemia and that of one patient was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Two patients who had diabetes were excluded because one was treated at another hospital and the other was diagnosed as oxymetholone-induced diabetes. Of the seven patients included, liver cirrhosis developed in two, heart failure in four, and diabetes mellitus in three. Some of them had two diagnoses. The total cost attributed to IRCs for the seven patients was 47,388,241 KRW (approximately 50,000 USD).
The medical costs of IRCs are considerable, and more effective iron-chelating therapy is necessary to save medical resources and improve patient care. More in the way of comprehensive health and economic studies of IRCs are needed to allow both clinicians and health-policy makers to make better decisions.
Iron overload; Costs and cost analysis
FLT3 mutations are common genetic changes, and are reported to have prognostic significance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) and the D835 activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the genomic DNA of Korean patients with AML at diagnosis and during follow-up. There were 226 patients with AML enrolled between March 1996 and August 2005. The incidence of ITD and TKD at diagnosis was 13% (29/226) and 3% (6/226). When compared to Western and other Asian patients with AML, Korean patients had a lower frequency by about two-thirds of ITD and TKD. Among the non-M3 cases (N=203), the patients with an ITD had a significantly shorter event-free survival when compared with those without an ITD (p=0.0079). Among 54 relapsed patients, 9 patients had the FLT3 ITD at diagnosis. Six patients demonstrated a reappearance of the ITD and 3 patients remained negative at relapse. One patient, among 45 patients who relapsed, had a negative baseline ITD but acquired a de novo ITD at relapse. There were 101 samples from 93 patients in remission; they were all negative for an ITD. Among 34 patients who failed to achieve a remission, five patients had a persistent ITD and one patient had a de novo ITD. These results support the concept of resistance of FLT3 ITD leukemic clones to chemotherapy. Therefore, effective therapy with FLT3 targeting agents may improve the prognosis of non-M3 AML patients with the FLT3 mutation.
FLT3 Mutations; Internal Tandem Duplication; Tyrosine Kinase Domain Mutation; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is involved in the pathogenesis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AILT), but its precise role and prognostic impact are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of EBV-postitivity in the tumor and bone marrow (BM) samples from AILT patients, and their correlations with the clinical variables and patient survival.
Seventy AILT cases were identified over a period of 8 years. Twenty seven cases were investigated for their EBV tumor status, and 10 BM samples of these patients were investigated for their EBV status with using in situ hybridization (ISH). EBV PCR was performed for the BM mononuclear cells in 8 cases.
Among the 27 tumor specimens, ten (37%) were EBV-positive. Only CD20-negativity in tumor correlated with the EBV-positivity (p=0.035). In 13 (48%) patients, gross tumor involvement was recognized by hematoxylin-eosin staining at the time of diagnosis. Among the 10 patients who had additional BM slides available, there were 3 with BM involvement, and none showed EBV positive results on ISH. EBV PCR of the BM mononuclear cells revealed one-positive case among 8 patients. This patient was negative for both BM involvement and EBV ISH. The median
overall survival of the 25 treated patients was 48.9 months (95% CI: 18.6~79.2 months). Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was related with EBV-positivity of the tumor.
EBV-positivity of tumor had no impact on the prognosis of AILT patients.
Epstein-Barr virus; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma; Survival
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology with different clinical manifestations. A previous healthy 50 year-old man was hospitalized for right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain. He had jaundice and a 1 cm-sized lymph node in the right supraclavicular area. Pancreas and biliary computed tomography (CT) showed masses at the right renal hilum and peripancreatic areas. Positron emission tomography (PET) showed widespread systemic lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of the right supraclavicular node revealed a hyaline vascular variant of CD. Corticosteroid therapy was started and the extent of disease decreased. We here report a case of multicentric CD, the hyaline vascular variant, presenting with jaundice, diagnosed by excisional biopsy and successfully treated with corticosteroids.
Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Jaundice; Obstructive; Castleman Disease
We investigated the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation and its diagnostic value in patients suffering with non BCR/ABL myeloproliferative diseases (nMPD) or other reactive conditions.
We reviewed the clinical records of 83 patients who underwent bone marrow (BM) examinations with suspect of nMPD. The diagnoses of nMPD were made based on the WHO criteria since 2001 and the PVSG criteria before 2001. The JAK2 mutation was examined by PCR in 54 patients whose BM samples were available.
The JAK2 mutation was detected in 25 patients (46%); 12 of 26 patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 9 of 12 patients with polycyhtemia vera (PV), one of 7 patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIM) and one patient with unclassifiable MPD. Additionally, JAK2 mutation was detected in each one patient with secondary polycythemia and reactive thrombocytosis. These two patients and two other patients among the JAK2 mutated ET did not meet the WHO PV criteria due to their initial low hemoglobin levels. These patients had liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism due to Budd-Chiari syndrome (1), gastrointestinal bleeding (1) or the initial hemoglobin level was slightly below the level as provided by the criteria, but the level showed a rising pattern despite cytoreductive therapy (2). With the results of the JAK2 mutation available, 4 patients' disease could be re-diagnosed as PV. Finally, the positive rate of the JAK2 mutation was 81% in PV, 48% in ET and 14% in CIM. The presence of JAK2 mutation closely correlated with PV (p=0.001), leukocytosis (p=0.001) and an increased cellularity of BM (p=0.024).
The JAK2 mutation may help differentiate nMPD from secondary cytosis. Therefore, it should be incorporated into the guidelines for the nMPD work-up for making a more accurate diagnosis and administering proper treatment.
Janus kinase 2 mutation; Myeloproliferative disorders; Polycythemia vera; Essential thrombocythemia; Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis
Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, has become a part of the standard therapy for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma either in combination with other drugs or as a single agent. The CD20 antigen is expressed on 95% of B-cell lymphoma cells and normal B-cells but, is not found on precursor B-cells or stem cells. Rituximab is now approved for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma when combined with standard CHOP chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) or patients with follicular lymphoma who have failed first line chemotherapy. The monoclonal antibody is generally well tolerated. Most of the adverse events are infusion-associated, mild to moderate non-hematological toxicities. Severe respiratory adverse events have been infrequent. Here, we report two patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whom interstitial pneumonitis developed with rituximab therapy.
Rituximab; Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Follicular lymphoma; Interstitial pneumonitis
Irinotecan, in combination with leucovorin/5-fluorouracil (FU) or with cisplatin, is known to be active for treating advanced gastric cancer (AGC). This pilot study evaluated a novel three-drug combination of irinotecan, leucovorin/FU and cisplatin as a first-line treatment of AGC. The primary endpoint was to assess the feasibility in anticipation of conducting a larger phase II study.
Materials and Methods
Chemotherapy-naive AGC patients received irinotecan 150 mg/m2 on day 1, and leucovorin 200 mg/m2 and a 22-h infusion of FU 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2. Cisplatin 30 mg/m2 was administered on day 2. Treatment was repeated every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Of the 17 eligible patients, two patients had an ECOG performance status of 2 and their median age was 48 years (range: 31 to 69). A total of 117 chemotherapy cycles were delivered (median: 6, range: 1 to 12). The causes of treatment discontinuation were disease progression in 9 patients (53%), refusal (35%) and toxicity (12%). Although grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (41% of patients) was the major toxicity that required dose adjustments, only one episode of febrile neutropenia occurred. Grade 3 or 4 nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue were observed in 35%, 35% and 29% of patients, respectively. None of the patients died of toxicity during treatment. Of the 16 patients who were evaluable for response, 7 (44%) experienced a partial response.
This novel multi-drug combination was tolerated well in patients with AGC. Based on the encouraging efficacy and tolerability, a randomized phase II study is ongoing in this disease setting.
Stomach neoplasm; Irinotecan; 5-fluorouracil; Cisplatin
Muscle involvement in acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is uncommon. Herein, we report a case of acute febrile neutrophilic myositis, without cutaneous involvement, as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient was a 35-year-old male, referred due to painful swelling of the left upper arm and fever. The overlying skin looked normal, and a muscle biopsy revealed dense infiltrates, predominantly composed of mature neutrophils, edema and tissue necrosis. All culture reports were negative, and he was finally diagnosed as having acute febrile neutrophilic myositis, associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in the progressive regression of the fever, myalgia and swelling.
Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis; Myositis; Acute myeloid leukemia
To compare the mobilizing effects and toxicities of two different doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) plus lenograstim (glycosylated G-CSF), we performed a prospective randomized study by enrolling patients suffering with either high-risk Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or breast cancer undergoing ablative chemotherapy.
The NHL patients received 4 cycles of CHOP and the breast cancer patients received 2-3 cycles of FAC (FEC) adjuvant chemotherapy. Then, the patients were randomly allocated to receive CY 4 g/m2 (arm A) or 1.5 g/m2 (arm B) in combination with lenograstim. Large volume leukapheresis was carried out and it was continued daily until the target cell dose of 2×106 CD34+ cell/kg was reached.
Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study. The median number of leukaphereis sessions actually
performed was 2.5 sessions in arm A and 3 sessions in arm B. The target cell dose was obtained with the median number of one leukapheresis session in both arms of the study (p=0.09). The collected number of CD34+ cells in the leukapheresis products was higher in arm A than arm B (22.4 vs. 9.9×106/kg, respectively, p=0.05). Grade III or IV leukopenia was present in 14/15 patients (94%) in arm A and in 1/12 patients (8%) in arm B (p<0.0001). Grade III or IV thrombocytopenia was present in 8/15 patients (54%) in arm A, but this was not present in any patients of arm B (p=0.0004). Neutropenic fever occurred in 6/15 patients (40%) in arm A, and in 1/12 patients (8%) in arm B (p=0.09). The hematological recovery of the leukocytes and platelets after transplantation was not statistically different between
the two doses.
Low-dose CY plus lenograstim is a safe and effective mobilizing regimen.
Cyclophosphamide; Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization; Progenitor cell; Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
Recent clinical trials showed that bortezomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor, had therapeutic activity in multiple myeloma. However, there was no data about the feasibility of bortezomib in Korean patients. We performed a pilot study of bortezomib in patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma (1.3 mg/m2 twice weekly for 2 week in a 3-week cycle). Seven patients were enrolled. The median age of patients was 59 yr. All patients previously received VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) and thalidomide chemotherapy. Three patients previously received alkylator-containing chemotherapy and 4 patients, autologous stem cell transplantation. Bortezomib monotherapy resulted in 3 partial remissions (43%), 3 no changes (43%) and 1 progressive disease (14%). One patient who had no response to bortezomib monotherapy experienced partial remission after addition of dexamethasone to bortezomib. The most common serious toxicity was thrombocytopenia (grade 3/4, 10 of 20 cycles (50%)) and grade 3 peripheral neuropathy was developed in 2 of 20 cycles (10%). Drug-related adverse event led to discontinuation of bortezomib in 1 patient. There was no treatment related mortality. Overall, bortezomib seems to be effective and feasible. Conduction of larger clinical studies on Korean patients is necessary to characterize clinical efficacy and safety of bortezomib more precisely.
Multiple Myeloma; Drug Therapy; bortezomib; Velcade; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; Protease Inhibitors
Published data suggests that docetaxel combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) may have synergistic activity in treating advanced gastric cancer. We performed a phase I study of docetaxel and 5-FU to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the recommended dose for phase II studies, and the safety of this combination.
Eligible patients had recurrent and/or metastatic advanced gastric cancer with normal cardiac, renal and hepatic function. Traditional phase I methodology was employed in assessing dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and MTD. On day 1 every 3 weeks, docetaxel 75 mg/m2 (fixed dose) was infused over 1-h, followed immediately by 5-FU as a 5-day continuous infusion.
Dose escalation schema was as follows: dose level (DL) 1 (5-FU 250 mg/m2/day), 2 (500), 3 (750), and 4 (1000). Three patients were enrolled on DL1, without DLT. On DL2, 1 DLT (grade 3 stomatitis) was developed in first 3 patients, and this cohort was expanded to 6 patients. Three patients had been enrolled on DL3. Because two out of 3 patients had DLTs, the MTD was reached at DL3.
The recommended phase II dose of this combination is 75 mg/m2 docetaxel on day 1 immediately followed by a 5-day continuous infusion of 5-FU 500 mg/m2/day.
Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are frequently exposed to high cumulative doses of anthracyclines and are at risk of resistance and cardiotoxicity. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel plus cisplatin, as salvage chemotherapy in patients with MBC resistant to prior anthracyclines.
Patients with MBC that had progressed after at least one prior chemotherapy regimen containing anthracyclines received docetaxel 75 mg/m2 followed by cisplatin 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles or until disease progression.
Between Jan 2000 and May 2002, 24 patients with tumors primary resistant and 15 with secondary resistant disease were accrued. All 39 patients were evaluable for safety and 36 for efficacy. The objective response rate was 31% (95% CI, 16–45%) with 3 complete responses. The median time to disease progression was 7 months, and the median overall survival was 23 months (median follow-up of 41 months). Neutropenia was the most frequently observed severe hematologic toxicity (39% of patients), whereas asthenia and nausea were the most common non-hematologic toxicities. No treatment-related death was observed.
In conclusion, we found docetaxel plus cisplatin to be an active and safe chemotherapy regimen for patients with MBC resistant to anthracyclines.
We conducted a phase II multicenter trial to estimate the response and survival of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma to high dose melphalan therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Eligible patients who had undergone induction with vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD) should have adequate cardiac, pulmonary and renal function (creatinine <2 mg/dL). Melphalan at 200 mg/m2 was used as a conditioning regimen. Eighty patients were enrolled from 13 centers. The median age of the patients was 53 yr (range; 20 to 68 yr). The initial stage was IA/IIA/IIB/IIIA/IIIB in 3/8/1/54/14 patients, respectively. Beta2-microglobulin, CRP and LDH were increased in 74, 42 and 34% of the patients examined. Cytogenetic data were available in 30 patients, and 6 patients showed numeric or structural abnormalities. Two therapy-related mortalities occurred from infection. Among the 78 evaluable patients, CR/PR/MR/NC/PD were achieved in 48/26/2/1/1 patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 30 months, the median overall and event-free survivals were 66 months (95% CI: 20-112) and 24 months (95% CI: 18-29), respectively. This study verifies the efficacy and feasibility of high dose melphalan therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
To evaluate the activity and safety of a combination chemotherapy with epirubicin, cisplatin, and a protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (ECF) in unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer, a phase II study was performed. Thirty-five chemotherapy-naive patients were given ECF. Epirubicin (50 mg/m(2) intravenous, i.v.) and cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) i.v.) were administered every three weeks during a continuous intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (250 mg/m(2) /day) using infusion pump. One complete response and 19 partial responses (response rate=62%) were achieved. Eight patients remained stable, whereas in four patients the disease progressed. The median duration of response was 22 weeks (95% confidence interval, 18-27 weeks). The median survival for all patients was 10 months (95% confidence interval, 6-14 months), with a 1-yr survival rate of 40%. A total of 184 cycles of chemotherapy were administered. Grade 3 or 4 emesis occurred in 3%, mucositis in 2%, anemia in 10%, and leukopenia in 3% of the cycles. Central venous catheter complications that required line removal occurred in 37% (n=13) of the patients. No patient died of toxicity. Overall, the ECF regimen showed high anti-tumor activity with a tolerable toxicity pattern.