Uterine rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) typically presents as a mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Pure RMSs of the female genital tract are uncommon. Spindle cell variant of RMS is a rare morphologic subtype of embryonal RMS and mostly occurs in the paratesticular region of children. Here, we present a case of uterine spindle cell RMS in a 76-year-old woman. The tumor, 20×15×7 cm in size, was highly necrotic and adherent to the colon and rectum. Tumor cells were mostly spindle-shaped, and isolated rhabdomyoblasts were scattered. Immunohistochemical stains for myoglobin and myo-D1 showed diffuse positivity for tumor cells. The patient died only of disease three months after diagnosis.
Rhabdomyosarcoma; Spindle cell variant; Uterus
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is defined as a proliferation of prostate adenocarcinoma cells distending and spanning the lumen of pre-existing benign prostatic ducts and acini, with at least focal preservation of basal cells. Studies demonstrate that IDC-P is strongly associated with high-grade (Gleason grades 4/5), large-volume invasive prostate cancers. In addition, recent genetic studies indicate that IDC-P represents intraductal spread of invasive carcinoma, rather than a precursor lesion. Some of the architectural patterns in IDC-P exhibit architectural overlap with one of the main differential diagnoses, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). In these instances, additional diagnostic criteria for IDC-P, including marked nuclear pleomorphism, non-focal comedonecrosis (>1 duct showing comedonecrosis), markedly distended normal ducts/acini, positive nuclear staining for ERG, and cytoplasmic loss of PTEN by immunohistochemistry, can help make the distinction. This distinction between IDC-P and HGPIN is of critical importance because IDC-P has an almost constant association with invasive carcinoma and has negative clinical implications, including shorter relapse-free survival, early biochemical relapse, and metastatic failure rate after radiotherapy. Therefore, IDC-P should be reported in prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomies, regardless of the presence of an invasive component. This article will review the history, diagnostic criteria, molecular genetics, and clinical significance of IDC-P.
Prostate; Neoplasms; Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate
Pathologists play an increasingly important role in personalized medicine for patients with lung cancer as a result of the newly recognized relationship between histologic classification and molecular change. In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) proposed a new architectural classification for invasive lung adenocarcinomas to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria. This review highlighted the evolution of the classification of lung adenocarcinomas in resected specimens with special respect to both histologic subtyping and invasion. Histologic subtyping of lung adenocarcinoma has been updated based on five major predominant patterns. New concepts of adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas have been introduced to define the condition of patients who are expected to have excellent survival. Although the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification has promising clinical relevance, significant clarification remains necessary for the definitions of subtyping and invasion. More precise definitions and subsequent better education on the interpretation of terminology will be helpful for future studies.
Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Classification; Subtyping; Invasion
It has long been recognized that bronchial schwannomas are extremely rare. As such, diagnosing tumors in this extraordinary location can sometimes be problematic.
We reviewed seven cases of bronchoscopically or surgically resected endobronchial schwannomas and evaluated their clinical and pathologic features.
The present study included five female and two male patients, with ages ranging from 16 to 81 years (mean age, 44.9 years). The clinical presentation varied according to tumor size and location. Patients with more centrally (trachea or main bronchus) located tumors experienced respiratory symptoms (80%) more often than patients with more peripherally (lobar or segmental bronchus) located tumors (0%). Histologically, the tumors were composed of spindle cells that stained with S100 protein. Some of the tumors showed typical Antoni A areas with Verocay body formation. Five of six patients (83.3%) underwent complete tumor removal by rigid bronchoscopy.
Pathologists should consider endobronchial schwannoma in the differential diagnosis of a spindle cell tumor involving the bronchus. Additionally, our results showed that rigid bronchoscopy is an effective tool for tumor removal in endobronchial schwannoma patients.
Schwannoma; Neurilemmoma; Bronchi; Brnchoscopy
Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, might act as a tumor promoter by inhibiting p53, but may also as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting several oncogenes such as β-catenin and survivin. Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) is known as a negative regulator of SIRT1.
Immunohistochemical expressions of SIRT1, DBC1, β-catenin, surviving, and p53 were evaluated using 2 mm tumor cores from 349 colorectal cancer patients for tissue microarray.
Overexpression of SIRT1, DBC1, survivin, and p53 was seen in 235 (67%), 183 (52%), 193 (55%), and 190 (54%) patients, respectively. Altered expression of β-catenin was identified in 246 (70%) patients. On univariate analysis, overexpression of SIRT1 (p=0.029) and altered expression of β-catenin (p=0.008) were significantly associated with longer overall survival. Expression of SIRT1 was significantly related to DBC1 (p=0.001), β-catenin (p=0.001), and survivin (p=0.002), but not with p53. On multivariate analysis, age, tumor stage, differentiation, and expression of SIRT1 were independent prognostic factors significantly associated with overall survival.
SIRT1 overexpression is a good prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, and SIRT1 may interact with β-catenin and survivin rather than p53.
Colon; Adenocarcinoma; SIRT1; DBC1; Beta catenin
The aim of this study was to examine the expression of CD10 and CD15 in tumor cells, stromal cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells during colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development and to investigate their expression levels between the tumor center and invasive front and compare them to clinicopathological parameters in invasive CRC.
We performed immunohistochemical staining for CD10, CD15, and E-cadherin in 42 cases of CRC, 49 of tubular adenoma, 15 of hyperplastic polyp, and 17 of non-neoplastic colon.
CD10 was expressed in tumor cells (tCD10), stromal cells (sCD10) and infiltrating inflammatory cells (iCD10), and CD15 was expressed in tumor cells (tCD15) and infiltrating inflammatory cells (iCD15). Their expressions were progressively increased during CRC development and the iCD10 expression level was significantly correlated with the iCD15 expression level in invasive CRC. Invasive front revealed a higher expression level of iCD10 and iCD15 than the tumor center. Moreover, the iCD15 expression level of invasive front was significantly correlated with the degree of tumor budding and tCD15 in whole tissue sections was closely associated with tumor depth.
The present study suggests that the expression of CD10 and CD15 is associated with the development and progression of CRC.
Neprilysin; Antigens, CD15; Colorectal neoplasms
Recently, BRAF inhibitors showed dramatic treatment outcomes in BRAF V600 mutant melanoma. Therefore, the accuracy of BRAF mutation test is critical.
BRAF mutations were tested by dual-priming oligonucleotide-polymerase chain reaction (DPO-PCR), direct sequencing and subsequently retested with a real-time PCR assay, cobas 4800 V600 mutation test. In total, 64 tumors including 34 malignant melanomas and 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas were analyzed. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples and the results of cobas test were directly compared with those of DPO-PCR and direct sequencing.
BRAF mutations were found in 23 of 64 (35.9%) tumors. There was 9.4% discordance among 3 methods. Out of 6 discordant cases, 4 cases were melanomas; 3 cases were BRAF V600E detected only by cobas test, but were not detected by DPO-PCR and direct sequencing. One melanoma patient with BRAF mutation detected only by cobas test has been on vemurafenib treatment for 6 months and showed a dramatic response to vemurafenib. DPO-PCR failed to detect V600K mutation in one case identified by both direct sequencing and cobas test.
In direct comparison of the currently available DPO-PCR, direct sequencing and real-time cobas test for BRAF mutation, real-time PCR assay is the most sensitive method.
BRAF mutation; Melanoma; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Sanger sequencing; Dual-priming oligonucleotide-PCR
ERG, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, is a highly specific endothelial marker. We investigated whether the use of ERG immunostaining can help pathologists detect lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and decrease interobserver variability in LVI diagnosis.
Fifteen cases of surgically resected colorectal cancers with hepatic metastasis were selected and the most representative sections for LVI detection were immunostained with ERG, CD31, and D2-40. Eight pathologists independently evaluated LVI status on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and the corresponding immunostained sections and then convened for a consensus meeting. The results were analyzed by kappa (κ) statistics.
The average rate of LVI positivity was observed in 43% with H&E only, 10% with CD31, 29% with D2-40, and 16% with ERG. Agreement among pathologists was fair for H&E only (κ=0.27), D2-40 (κ=0.21), ERG (κ=0.23), and was moderate for CD31 (κ=0.55). Consensus revealed that ERG nuclear immunoreactivity showed better visual contrast of LVI detection than the other staining, with improved agreement and LVI detection rate (κ=0.65, LVI positivity rate 80%).
The present study demonstrated a superiority with ERG immunostaining and indicated that ERG is a promising panendothelial marker that might help pathologists increase LVI detection and decrease interobserver variability in LVI diagnosis.
Lymphovascular invasion; Endothelial marker; Immunohistochemistry; ERG; CD31
Micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (MPUC) showed distinct pathologic features and aggressive behavior. The cytologic findings of MPUC are still indistinct. In this study, we evaluated the cytological findings of MPUC compared with those of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC).
The voided urine cytology of 8 cases of MPUC and 8 cases of HGUC was reviewed. Following cytological parameters were evaluated: cellularity, background, number of small, tight papillary clusters, small acinar structure, scattered single cells, cytoplasmic features, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear membrane irregularity, hyperchromasia, chromatin pattern and nucleoli.
Compared to that of HGUC, cytology of MPUC showed large numbers of small, tight papillary clusters, small acinar structure, few numbers of single cells, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Other parameters were similar between the two groups; both groups showed similar cellularity, dense or vacuolated cytoplasm, moderate to severe nuclear pleomorphism, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse granular chromatin, and small and prominent nucleoli.
The urine cytology of MPUCs showed smaller and tighter papillary cell clusters, more small acinar structures, fewer numbers of scattered single cells, and more hyperchromatic nuclei than that of HGUC. These features can help to distinguish MPUC and HGUC and offer an early cytological diagnosis of MPUC.
Micropapillary; Urothelial carcinoma; Cytology; Urine
Rhabdoid colorectal carcinomas are very rare and only 10 cases have been previously reported. We report two cases of rhabdoid colorectal carcinoma, one arising in the sigmoid colon of a 62-year-old man and another in the rectum of an 83-year-old woman. In both cases, the patients had advanced tumors with lymph node metastases. The tumors mostly showed a diffuse arrangement with rhabdoid features and small glandular regions were combined. Transitional areas from the adenocarcinomas to the rhabdoid tumors were also noted. Adenocarcinoma cells were positive for mixed cytokeratin (CK), CK20 and epithelial membranous antigen (EMA), but focal positive for vimentin. The rhabdoid tumor cells were positive for mixed CK, but focal positive or negative for CK20 and EMA. In addition, they were diffusely positive for vimentin, but negative for desmin. The histological and immunohistologial findings of these two cases suggest that the rhabodid tumor cells originated from dedifferentiated adenocarcinomas.
Adenocarcinoma; Colon; Rectum; Rhabdoid tumor
Peritoneal loose bodies (PLBs) are usually discovered incidentally during laparotomy or autopsy. A few cases of giant PLBs presenting with various symptoms have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe a case of a giant PLB incidentally found in the pelvic cavity of a 50-year-old man. Computed tomography revealed a free ovoid mass in the pelvic cavity that consisted of central dense, heterogeneous calcifications and peripheral soft tissue. The mass was an egg-shaped, hard, glistening concretion measuring 7.5×7.0×6.8 cm and weighing 160 g. This concretion consisted of central necrotic fatty tissue surrounded by concentrically laminated, acellular, fibrous material. Small PLBs usually do not require any specific treatment. However, if PLBs cause alimentary or urinary symptoms due to their large size, surgical removal may be recommended. It is essential for clinicians to be aware of this entity and its characteristic features to establish the correct diagnosis.
Peritoneum; Loose body; Colon
Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.
Sebaceous carcinoma; Sebaceous adenoma; Mature cystic teratoma; Ovary
Herein, we report a case of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in a previously healthy 73-year-old male. Thymectomy was performed. The solid and macrocystic masses were encapsulated with focal invasion. The solid portion consisted of nodules of bland-looking spindle or round epithelial cells in lymphoid stroma containing prominent germinal centers. The epithelial cells had moderate amount of cytoplasm and occasional mucin production. The cystic portion was lined with cuboidal epithelium. According to World Health Organization (WHO) classification, the mass was diagnosed as a micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma accompanied by a pre-existing multilocular thymic cyst. Micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma, a possible variant of type A thymoma, is an extremely rare tumor. This so-called "unusual" variant may imply the schematic weakness of the current WHO classification that cannot cover all morphologic types. Further study is recommended for clarification of this variant and its incorporation into the current classification.
Thymoma; Thymic cyst; Lymphoid tissue; Germinal center
Hydatid cysts (echinococcosis) are caused by an infestation with larval tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The disease is extensively distributed worldwide, and it has been rarely reported in Korea. We describe the cytologic features of a case of hepatic hydatid cyst in a 28-year-old male. Computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in the right lobe of the liver. A right hemihepatectomy was performed. The aspirated fluid from the hepatic cystic mass was clear. The smears showed protoscolices, hooklets, and a laminated membrane.
Echinococcosis; Liver; Cytology
Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis.
Ameloblastoma; Craniopharyngioma; Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor
Risk factors for lymph node metastasis in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) need to be established to determine the degree of surgery required to achieve high curative rates. However, little is known currently about the histopathological features predicting prognosis, specifically in TSCC.
This study included 53 patients who underwent surgical resection with neck dissection. Clinicopathological factors investigated included age, gender, alcohol use, tobacco consumption, tumor stage, adjacent structure involvement, cell differentiation, squamous dysplasia, in situ carcinoma associated with primary invasive cancer, carcinoma in situ skip lesions, necrosis, invasive front, depth of invasion, and lymphatic, muscle, or perineural invasion.
Contralateral cervical metastasis was associated with higher T stages and soft palate invasion. Lymphatic and muscle invasion were associated with ipsilateral cervical metastasis. Advanced T stage, invasion to the base of tongue, and skip lesions were associated with decreased disease-free survival. Advanced T stage and skip lesions were associated with worse overall survival.
Advanced T stage and soft palate invasion may predict a high risk of contralateral nodal metastasis. T stage and skip lesion are worse prognostic factors in TSCC and should be commented in pathology reports.
Palatine tonsil; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Prognosis; Lymph nodes; Neoplasm metastasis
Naked cuticle Drosophila 1 (NKD1) has been related to non-small cell lung cancer in that decreased NKD1 levels have been associated with both poor prognosis and increased invasive quality.
Forty cases of lung adenocarcinoma staged as Tis or T1a were selected. Cases were subclassified into adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and small adenocarcinoma (SAD). Immunohistochemical studies for NKD1 were performed.
Forty samples comprised five cases of AIS (12.5%), eight of MIA (20.0%), and 27 of SAD (67.5%). AIS and MIA showed no lymph node metastasis and 100% disease-free survival, whereas among 27 patients with SAD, 2 (7.4%) had lymph node metastasis, and 3 (11.1%) died from the disease. Among the 40 cases, NKD1-reduced expression was detected in 8 (20%) samples, whereas normal expression was found in 15 (37.5%) and overexpression in 17 (42.5%). Loss of NKD1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.001). All cases with predominant papillary pattern showed overexpression of NKD1 (p=0.026).
Among MIA and SAD, MIA had better outcomes than SAD. Down-regulated NKD1 expression was closely associated with nodal metastasis, and overexpression was associated with papillary predominant adenocarcinoma.
NKD1; Immunohistochemistry; Lung; Adenocarcinoma
Overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been observed in many types of cancer including gastric adenocarcinomas, although the exact role of HSP70 in carcinogenesis remains unclear.
The study analyzed a total of 458 radical gastrectomy specimens which were immunohistochemically stained with HSP70, p53, and Ki-67 antibodies.
The study determined that the expression of HSP70 was significantly increased in early gastric cancer (EGC) compared to advanced gastric cancer (p<0.001). The HSP70 expression was correlated with well-differentiated tumor type, intestinal type of Lauren classification and the lower pT and pN stage. Negative expression of Ki-67 and p53 expression was associated with poor prognosis. The study did not find any correlation between HSP70 and p53 expression. The study determined that HSP70 expression in the EGC subgroup was associated with a poor prognosis (p=0.009), as well as negative Ki-67 expression (p=0.006), but was not associated with p53. Based on multivariate analysis, HSP70 expression (p=0.024), negative expression of Ki-67, invasion depth and lymph node metastasis were determined to be independent prognostic markers.
HSP70 is expressed in the early stages of gastric adenocarcinoma. In EGC, HSP70 is a poor independent prognostic marker and is correlated with a low proliferation index.
HSP70 heat-shock proteins; Ki-67 antigen; Early gastric carcinoma
There is confusion in the diagnosis and biological behaviors of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), because of independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications. A standardized form of pathology report is required for the proper management of patients.
We discussed the proper pathological evaluation of GEP-NET at the consensus conference of the subcommittee meeting for the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. We then verified the prognostic significance of pathological parameters from our previous nationwide collection of pathological data from 28 hospitals in Korea to determine the essential data set for a pathology report.
Histological classification, grading (mitosis and/or Ki-67 labeling index), T staging (extent, size), lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors and essential for the pathology report of GEP-NET, while immunostaining such as synaptophysin and chromogranin may be optional. Furthermore, the staging system, either that of the 2010 American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) or the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), should be specified, especially for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.
A standardized pathology report is crucial for the proper management and prediction of prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Digestive system; Pathology; Staging; Grading; Prognosis
Self-made tissue punches can be effectively used to punch holes in blank recipient paraffin blocks and extract tissue cores from the donor paraffin blocks for the low-cost construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs). However, variable degrees of section distortion and loss of the tissue cores can occurs during cutting of the TMAs, posing technical problems for in-house manual construction of high-density TMAs. We aimed to update the method for in-house manual TMA construction to improve the quality of high-density TMAs.
Blocks of agarose gel were subjected to the standard tissue processing and embedding procedure to prepare recipient agarose-paraffin blocks. The self-made tissue punches and recipient agarose-paraffin blocks were used to construct TMAs, which were completely melted and re-embedded in paraffin to make finished TMA blocks.
The donor tissue cores were completely integrated into the surrounding paraffin of the recipient blocks. This method enabled us to construct high-density TMAs with significantly less section distortion or loss of tissue cores during microtomy.
Simple and inexpensive construction of high-density and high-quality TMAs can be warranted by using paraffinized agarose gels as recipient blocks.
Tissue array analysis; Sepharose; Paraffin; Pathology; Research
The incidence of early colorectal epithelial neoplasm (ECEN) is increasing, and its pathologic diagnosis is important for patient care. We investigated the incidence of ECEN and the current status of its pathologic diagnosis.
We collected datasheets from 25 institutes in Korea for the incidence of colorectal adenoma with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and low grade dysplasia in years 2005, 2007, and 2009; and early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009. We also surveyed the diagnostic terminology of ECEN currently used by the participating pathologists.
The average percentage of diagnoses of adenoma HGD was 7.0%, 5.0%, and 3.4% in years 2005, 2007, and 2009, respectively. The range of incidence rates of adenoma HGD across the participating institutes has gradually narrowed over the years 2005 to 2009. The incidence rate of early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009 was 21.2%. The participants did not share a single criterion or terminology for the diagnosis of adenoma HGD. The majority accepted the diagnostic terms that distinguished noninvasive, mucosal confined, and submucosal invasive carcinoma.
Further research requirements suggested are a diagnostic consensus for the histopathologic diagnosis of ECEN; and standardization of diagnostic terminology critical for determining the disease code.
Colorectal neoplasms; Pathology, surgical; Multicenter study; Incidence; Diagnosis
The aim of this study was to determine the cytologic features of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expressing pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
We analyzed the cytopathological
findings of 15 cases of endobronchial ultrasound guided aspiration and a case of bronchial washing. These cases were selected based on the histomorphology of ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma.
Cytology showed mucinous (81.3%) and hemorrhagic (50%) backgrounds. The cells were arranged in tubulopapillary or tubulocribriform patterns (93.8%), and clusters (56.3%) admixed with signet ring cell features (87.5%). The tumor cells were monotonous and uniform with vesicular nuclei and a small nucleolus.
The characteristic findings were sheets showing a tubulopapillary or tubulocribriform appearance, with vesicular nuclei and a bland chromatin pattern (p<0.001). Scattered signet ring cells were helpful in suggesting ALK-positive adenocarcinoma (p<0.001).
Adenocarcinoma; Lung; Anaplastic lymphoma kinase; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Cytology
The pancreas is surrounded by soft tissue known as the peripancreatic space (PPS). Pathologic lesions of the PPS are infrequent and have only rarely been reported in the cytopathology literature.
A retrospective review of cytopathology files at two large institutions revealed 42 cases of PPS lesions obtained by transabdominal fine needle aspiration (FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA over a 16-year period. Clinicoradiologic findings and follow-up information were also reviewed.
Patients ranged in age from 23-83 years (mean, 60 years) with an equal gender distribution. The major clinical presentations included pain, jaundice, nausea/vomiting, and abnormal liver enzymes. Radiographic characteristics included lymphadenopathy and cystic/solid soft tissue masses with a size range of 1.5 to 8 cm. Cytologically, 4 (9.5%) cases were nondiagnostic, 9 (21.5%) were diagnosed as benign, 4 (9.5%) were atypical or suspicious for cancer, and 25 (59.5%) were malignant. Six of 25 (24%) patients had metastasis of a prior known malignancy.
FNA of PPS masses is a rare occurrence. The majority of lesions are metastatic carcinomas from a variety of primary sites. Flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase studies are useful adjuncts to determine the tumor origin. The sensitivity of PPS aspiration for a malignant diagnosis is 90% with a positive predictive value of 100%.
Peripancreatic space; Cytopathology; Fine needle aspiration; Adenocarcinoma
The objective of this study was to evaluate a newly-developed EASYPREP liquid-based cytology method in cervicovaginal specimens and compare it with SurePath.
Cervicovaginal specimens were prospectively collected from 1,000 patients with EASYPREP and SurePath. The specimens were first collected by brushing for SurePath and second for EASYPREP. The specimens of both methods were diagnosed according to the Bethesda System. Additionally, we performed to REBA HPV-ID genotyping and sequencing analysis for human papillomavirus (HPV) on 249 specimens.
EASYPREP and SurePath showed even distribution of cells and were equal in cellularity and staining quality. The diagnostic agreement between the two methods was 96.5%. Based on the standard of SurePath, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EASYPREP were 90.7%, 99.2%, 94.8%, and 98.5%, respectively. The positivity of REBA HPV-ID was 49.4% and 95.1% in normal and abnormal cytological samples, respectively. The result of REBA HPV-ID had high concordance with sequencing analysis.
EASYPREP provided comparable results to SurePath in the diagnosis and staining quality of cytology examinations and in HPV testing with REBA HPV-ID. EASYPREP could be another LBC method choice for the cervicovaginal specimens. Additionally, REBA HPV-ID may be a useful method for HPV genotyping.
Cytological techniques; Vaginal smears; EASYPREP; Human papillomavirus; REBA HPV-ID