Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress towards cirrhosis even in children, early detection of hepatic fibrosis and accurate diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are important. Although liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard of diagnosis, its clinical application is somewhat limited in children due to its invasiveness. Noninvasive diagnostic methods, including imaging studies, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, hepatic fibrosis, and noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores have recently been developed for diagnosing the spectrum of NAFLD, particularly the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Although data and validation are still lacking for these noninvasive modalities in the pediatric population, these methods may be applicable for pediatric NAFLD. Therefore, noninvasive imaging studies, biomarkers, and hepatic fibrosis scoring systems may be useful in the detection of hepatic steatosis and the prediction of hepatic fibrosis, even in children with NAFLD.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Fibrosis; Diagnosis; Obesity; Child
Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is a heterogeneous disease caused by a functional abnormality of the cardiac muscle. CMP is of 2 major types, dilated and hypertrophic, and is further classified as either primary or secondary. Secondary CMP is caused by extrinsic factors, including infection, ischemia, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Primary CMP is diagnosed when the extrinsic factors of secondary CMP are absent. Furthermore, the World Health Organization, American Heart Association, and European Cardiology Association have different systems for clinically classifying primary CMP. Primary CMP is rare and associated with a family history of the disease, implying that genetic factors might affect its incidence. In addition, the incidence of CMP varies widely according to patient ethnicity. Genetic testing plays an important role in the care of patients with CMP and their families because it confirms diagnosis, determines the appropriate care for the patient, and possibly affects patient prognosis. The diagnosis and genetic identification of CMP in patients' families allow the possibility to identify novel genes that may lead to new treatments. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CMP, with the aim of providing pediatricians with insights that may be helpful in the early identification and management of idiopathic CMP in children.
Cardiomyopaties; Child; Genes
As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.
Bone mineral density; Cancer; Fractures; Risk factors
To evaluate the effectiveness of new management policies on the incidence of invasive Candida infections
This observational study involved a retrospective analysis of the patients' medical records. In total, 99 very low birth weight infants, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Ajou University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2011, were enrolled for the study. Period I, defined as the period before the revision of management policies, comprised 57 infants; whereas, period II, defined as the period after the implementation of new management policies, comprised 42 infants. The new management policies entailed a reduction in antibiotic and histamine type 2 receptor blocker (H2 blocker) use, duration of central venous catheterization, and duration of endotracheal intubation.
There was a significant overall decrease in the use of antibiotics including 3rd generation cephalosporin and H2 blockers (P<0.05), and a significantly lower incidence of invasive Candida infections in period II as compared to period I (0/42 vs. 6/57, respectively; P=0.037). Comparison between infants with invasive Candida infections (n=6) and those without (n=93) showed that gestational age (odds ratio [OR], 0.909; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.829 to 0.996; P=0.042) and the duration of 3rd generation cephalosporin use (OR, 1.093; 95% CI, 1.009 to 1.183; P=0.029) were statistically significant risk factors.
The new management policies effectively decreased overall use of antibiotics, especially 3rd generation cephalosporin, and H2 blockers, which led to a significantly lower incidence of invasive Candida infections.
Invasive candidiasis; Very low birth weight infant; Nosocomial infection; Sepsis
It has been reported that 10% to 20% of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) will not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. In this study, we aimed to identify useful predictors of therapeutic failure in children with KD.
We examined 309 children diagnosed with KD at the Kyungpook National University Hospital and the Inje University Busan Paik Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records and analyzed multiple parameters in responders and nonresponders to IVIG.
Among the 309 children, 30 (9.7%) did not respond to IVIG. They had significantly higher proportion of neutrophils, and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide than did responders. IVIG-nonresponders had a significantly longer duration of hospitalization, and more frequently experienced coronary artery lesion, and sterile pyuria. No differences in the duration of fever at initial treatment or, clinical features were noted.
Two independent predictors (ALT≥84 IU/L, total bilirubin≥0.9 mg/dL) for nonresponse were confirmed through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thus elevated ALT and total bilirubin levels might be useful in predicting nonresponse to IVIG therapy in children with KD.
Kawasaki disease; Intravenous immunoglobulin; Predictor; Alanine aminotransferase; Total bilirubin
Febrile seizures (FS) are seizures that occur between the age of 6 and 60 months, but its pathophysiology still is not fully understood. There is limited information about the correlation between levels of selenium and leptin with FS. This study aimed to determine the relationship between serum levels of selenium and leptin in children with FS.
This case-control study was conducted in a University Hospital in Shahrekord, Iran, in 2011. The serum levels of selenium and leptin of 25 children with simple febrile seizure (case group) were compared with 25 febrile children without seizure (control group) in acute phase and after three months. The levels of serum selenium and leptin were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, respectively.
In acute phase, the mean serum level of selenium in case and control groups were 95.88±42.55 and 113.25±54.43 µg/dL, respectively, and difference was not significant (P=0.415), but after three months, this level had a significant increase in both groups (P<0.001). In acute phase, the mean serum leptin level in case and control groups were 0.94±0.5 and 0.98±0.84 ng/mL, respectively, but difference was not significant (P=0.405). After three months, serum leptin level had no significant change in both groups (P=0.882).
These observations suggest that serum levels of selenium and leptin have not specific relation with FS but overllay is lower, however, further study is recommended. Also selenium level in stress and acute phase was significantly lower than recovery phase.
Febrile seizures; Leptin; Selenium
A retropharyngeal abscess is a rare disease entity in young infants but can develop after nasopharyngeal viral infection. Group B Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens in young infants, however, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very rare. We report the case of retropharyngeal abscess and coinfection with S. aureus and M. tuberculosis in a very young infant presenting with respiratory symptoms due to upper airway obstruction. Usually tuberculous retropharyngeal abscesses are caused by the direct invasion of the bacteria from the spine via anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. However, in this case, no associated spinal disease was observed.
Retropharyngeal abscess; Staphylococcus aureus; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CCAFs) are rare coronary artery abnormalities in which blood is shunted into a cardiac chamber or great vessel. If the fistula itself is large and tortuous, it is generally recommended to occlude the fistula to prevent several complications. In approaches of transcatheter occlusion, the transvenous approach is preferred over the transarterial approach. The transvenous approach would enable the cannulation of a relatively larger catheter or sheath without potential damage to the femoral vessels or normal coronary arteries, which can occur in the transarterial approach. The transvenous approach may also minimize the blind pouch after releasing the devices. Herein, we report the success of transvenous proximal closure of a CCAF using an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) in a 3-year-old patient with cardiomegaly. Complete occlusion was achieved by a single AVP and thrombus formation of the distal aneurysmal portion of the fistula. We suggest that this strategy of closing the proximal end with a dilated fistula using a single AVP by the transvenous approach may be a good option in treating CCAFs in a young child.
Coronary vessel anomalies; Coronary angiography; Septal occluder device
School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.
Bullying; Violence; Pediatrician; Child; Adolescent; Korea
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and affects many organ systems. It often presents sterile pyuria, microscopic hematuria, and proteinuria due to renal involvement. The aims of this study were to define clinical characteristics of acute KD patients with pyuria and to analyze meaning of pyuria in KD.
The medical records and laboratory findings including serum and urine test of 133 patients with KD admitted to Yeungnam University Hospital from March 2006 to December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively.
Forty patients had sterile pyuria and their clinical characteristics including age, gender and body weight were not significantly different with those who did not have pyuria. Fever duration after treatment was significantly longer in KD patients with pyuria. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase were significantly higher in patients with pyuria. Hyponatremia and coronary artery lesion were seen more often in patients with pyuria but there was no significant difference. Also serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher in KD patients with pyuria. Urine β2-microglobulin was elevated in both patients groups and showed no difference between two groups.
We found more severe inflammatory reaction in KD patients with pyuria. We also found elevation of some useful parameters like β2-microglobulin that indicate renal involvement of KD through the urine test. Careful management and follow up will need for KD patients with pyuria and it is necessary in the future to study the specific parameters for renal involvement of KD.
Kawasaki disease; Sterile pyuria
Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan.
This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy.
Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement >5.9 kPa Fibroscan) were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (>5.9 kPa). In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875) presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%.
APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Hepatic fibrosis; APRI; Child
Lymphocyte subset recovery is an important factor that determines the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Temporal differences in the recovery of lymphocyte subsets and the factors influencing this recovery are important variables that affect a patient's post-transplant immune reconstitution, and therefore require investigation.
The time taken to achieve lymphocyte subset recovery and the factors influencing this recovery were investigated in 59 children who had undergone HSCT at the Department of Pediatrics, The Catholic University of Korea Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, and who had an uneventful follow-up period of at least 1 year. Analyses were carried out at 3 and 12 months post-transplant. An additional study was performed 1 month post-transplant to evaluate natural killer (NK) cell recovery. The impact of pre- and post-transplant variables, including diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia posttransplant, on lymphocyte recovery was evaluated.
The lymphocyte subsets recovered in the following order: NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and helper T cells. At 1 month post-transplant, acute graft-versus-host disease was found to contribute significantly to the delay of CD16+/56+ cell recovery. Younger patients showed delayed recovery of both CD3+/CD8+ and CD19+ cells. EBV DNAemia had a deleterious impact on the recovery of both CD3+ and CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes at 1 year post-transplant.
In our pediatric allogeneic HSCT cohort, helper T cells were the last subset to recover. Younger age and EBV DNAemia had a negative impact on the post-transplant recovery of T cells and B cells.
Lymphocyte subset; Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Child
Chronic day-to-day symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are the most notable features of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). However, we have encountered patients with such symptoms and excessive tachycardia but with no symptoms during the tilt-table test (TTT). We aimed to investigate whether POTS patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance always present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT and analyze the factors underlying symptom manifestation during this test.
We retrospectively examined patients who presented with POTS at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital between 2008 and 2011. Diagnosis of POTS was based on chronic day-to-day orthostatic intolerance symptoms as well as excessive tachycardia during the TTT. The patients were divided two groups depending on the presentation of orthostatic symptoms during the TTT. Clinical data and the results of the TTT were compared between these groups.
In 22 patients, 7 patients (31.8%) did not present orthostatic symptoms during the test. Diastolic blood pressure (BP) was significantly lower in the symptom-positive group. The head-up tilt resulted in a significant increase in diastolic BP in the symptom-negative group (P=0.04), while systolic BP had a tendency to decrease in the symptom-positive group (P=0.06).
Significant patients with POTS did not present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT despite having chronic daily symptoms. This finding may be important for establishing definitive diagnostic criteria for pediatric POTS. Development of symptoms during TTT might be related to low diastolic BP and abnormal compensatory responses to orthostasis.
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome; Tilt-table test; Diastolic blood pressure
Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP), characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure associated with diffuse radiographic infiltrates and pulmonary eosinophilia, is rarely reported in children. Diagnosis is based on an association of characteristic features including acute respiratory failure with fever, bilateral infiltrates on the chest X-ray, severe hypoxemia and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid >25% eosinophils or a predominant eosinophilic infiltrate in lung biopsies in the absence of any identifiable etiology. We present a 14-month-old girl who was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit because of acute respiratory distress. She had a fever, dry cough, and progressive dyspnea for 1 day. Chest X-ray showed multifocal consolidations, increased interstitial markings, parenchymal emphysema and pneumothorax. IAEP was confirmed by marked pulmonary infiltrates of eosinophils in the lung biopsy specimen. Most known causes of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, such as exposure to causative drugs, toxins, second-hand smoking and infections were excluded. Her symptoms were resolved quickly after corticosteroid therapy.
Pulmonary eosiophilia; Idiopathic; Respiratory distress; Child
Neurological complications associated with 2009 H1N1 infection in children have been reported and recognized worldwide. The most commonly reported neurological complications are seizures and encephalopathy. Secondary movement disorders are also associated with the infection, but such cases are rarely reported. Here, we describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia secondary to 2009 H1N1 infection, who presented with dystonia and choreic movement triggered by sudden voluntary movement.
Paroxysmal dyskinesia; Influenza A virus; H1N1 subtype; Movement disorders
Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may partially be because of the recoverability of EDN (not sticky, 100% recovery rate), as ECP is a sticky and more highly charged protein. In terms of clinical utility, EDN level is a more accurate biomarker than ECP when analyzing the underlying pathophysiology of asthma. As a monitoring tool, EDN has shown good results in children with asthma as well as other allergic diseases. In children too young to fully participate in lung function tests, EDN levels may be useful as an alter native measurement of eosinophilic inflammation. EDN can also be used in adult patients and in multiple specimen types (e.g., serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and nasal lavage fluid). These results are repeatable and reproducible. In conclusion, EDN may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of asthma/allergic disease.
Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin; Biological markers; Diagnosis; Monitoring of asthma; Child
The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, self-reliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children's temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.
Attachment; Parenting; Temperament; Development; Child
Following the Five Year Measles Elimination Program, measles has been declared eliminated from the Republic of Korea since 2006. However, there remain challenges related to the surveillance of measles in the postelimination phase. Even though the routine surveillance system has revealed a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases since 2002, 4 resurgences have occurred, notably due to outbreaks. Because vaccine-modified measles is becoming widespread due to high vaccination coverage, conducting laboratory confirmation in each case becomes important. Moreover, susceptible individuals with measles have been identified through seroprevalence studies. Lastly, the efforts to improve the timeliness of measles reporting have led to the establishment of an active laboratory-based surveillance network, which has shortened the interval between diagnosis and notification. In these circumstances, searching for more sensitive and effective surveillance measures is important for maintaining the elimination status and preventing future outbreaks of measles in Korea.
Measles; Epidemiology; Korea
In this study, we aimed to investigate the perinatal clinical conditions of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) focusing on the effects of early postnatal neutropenia.
We reviewed the medical records of 191 VLBW infants who were born at Konyang University Hospital, between March 2003 and May 2011. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of the infants and their mothers and compared the incidence of perinatal diseases and mortality of the infants according to the presence or absence of maternal PIH and neutropenia on the first postnatal day.
Infants born to mothers with PIH showed an increased incidence of neutropenia on the first postnatal day (47.4%), cesarean delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. When the infants born to mothers with PIH showed neutropenia on the first postnatal day, their incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was increased (P=0.031); however, the difference was not found to be significant through logistic regression analysis. In all the VLBW infants, neutropenia on the first postnatal day was correlated with the development of RDS. The incidence of the other perinatal diseases involving sepsis and mortality did not significantly differ according to the presence or absence of neutropenia in infants born to mothers with PIH.
In VLBW infants born to mothers with PIH, the incidence of neutropenia on the first postnatal day was increased and it was not significantly correlated with the development of perinatal diseases involving RDS, sepsis, and mortality.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension; Neutropenia; Very low birth weight; Preterm infants; Perinatal diseases
The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) by using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD.
RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects.
Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811). However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease) and coronary artery diameter.
A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.
Coronary aneurysm; Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome; Respiratory tract infections; Viruses; Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
For evaluating the immunogenicity of an influenza vaccine, the microneutralization (MN) test has a higher sensitivity and specificity as compared to the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. However, the MN test is more time consuming and is difficult to standardize. We performed the MN test to determine its usefulness as an alternative or complementary test to the HI test for evaluating the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines.
We compared the MN test with the HI test using 50 paired samples taken from a previous clinical study (2008-2009) in Korean children under 18 years of age.
The linear correlation coefficients of the 2 tests for H3N2, H1N1, and influenza B were 0.69, 0.70, and 0.66, respectively. We identified a high index of coincidence between the 2 tests. For an influenza vaccine, the postvaccination seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates determined by the MN test were 78.0% and 96.0%, 90% and 42.0%, and 42.0% and 48.0% for H3N2, H1N1, and influenza B, respectively. Geometric mean titer fold increases of H3N2, H1N1, and influenza B were 2.89, 5.04, and 4.29, respectively, and were 2.5-fold higher. We obtained good results in the evaluation of the immunogenicity of the 2008-2009 seasonal influenza vaccines.
We found that the MN test was as effective as the HI test. Therefore, we suggest that the MN test can be used as an alternative or complementary test to the HI test for evaluating the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines.
Neutralization tests; Hemagglutination inhibition test; Influenza vaccines; Child
Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.
The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP), pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS), weight standard deviation score (WSDS), and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic.
The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%), premature thelarche (17%), true PP (15%), and pseudo PP (1%). Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P<0.05).
The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.
Precocious puberty; Puberty; Premature thelarche; Body mass index; Sexual maturation
We report a case of isodicentric chromosome 15 (idic(15) chromosome), the presence of which resulted in uncontrolled seizures, including epileptic spasms, tonic seizures, and global developmental delay. A 10-month-old female infant was referred to our pediatric neurology clinic because of uncontrolled seizures and global developmental delay. She had generalized tonic-clonic seizures since 7 months of age. At referral, she could not control her head and presented with generalized hypotonia. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and metabolic evaluation results were normal. Routine karyotyping indicated the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome of unknown origin (47, XX +mar). An array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed amplification from 15q11.1 to 15q13.1. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed a idic(15) chromosome. Array-CGH analysis has the advantage in determining the unknown origin of a supernumerary marker chromosome, and could be a useful method for the genetic diagnosis of epilepsy syndromes associated with various chromosomal aberrations.
Supernumerary marker chromosome; Isodicentric chromosome 15; Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated esophageal ulcer is rare in immunocompetent infants. The presence of inclusion bodies and immunohistochemical staining for CMV in biopsy specimens obtained during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) indicate that such ulcers occur because of CMV infection. A 7-week-old female infant who experienced frequent vomiting and feeding intolerance was diagnosed with a massive CMV-associated ulcer in the distal esophagus. The ulcer improved after conservative treatment using proton-pump inhibitors; however, ganciclovir was not administered. In a follow-up EGD biopsy specimen, no CMV inclusion bodies were present, and immunohistochemical staining results for this virus were negative. The presence of CMV inclusion bodies indicates active viral replication. If persistent inclusion bodies or positive immunohistochemical staining for CMV is observed in follow-up biopsy specimens, ganciclovir may be used to treat CMV-associated esophageal ulcers.
Cytomegalovirus; Esophageal ulcer; Ganciclovir
Noninferiority trials test whether a new experimental treatment is not unacceptably less efficacious than an active control treatment already in use. With continuous improvements in health technologies, standard care, and clinical outcomes, the incremental benefits of newly developed treatments may be only marginal over existing treatments. Sometimes assigning patients to a placebo is unethical. In such circumstances, there has been increasing emphasis on the use of noninferiority trial designs. Noninferiority trials are more complex to design, conduct, and interpret than typical superiority trials. This paper reviews the concept of noninferiority trials and discusses some important issues related to them.
Noninferiority trial; Controlled clinical trials; Randomized controlled clinical trials; Clinical trials