We evaluated the effectiveness of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) vaccination on the induction of antitumor immunity in a mouse lymphoma model using EG7-lymphoma cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA). BMDCs treated with RG-II had an activated phenotype. RG-II induced interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. BMDCs stimulated with RG-II facilitate the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Using BMDCs from the mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we revealed that RG-II activity is dependent on TLR4. RG-II showed a preventive effect of immunization with OVA-pulsed BMDCs against EG7 lymphoma. These results suggested that RG-II expedites the DC-based immune response through the TLR4 signaling pathway.
adjuvant; dendritic cells; rhamnogalacturonan II; Toll-like receptor 4; tumor
Activated protein C (APC) is a cytoprotective anticoagulant that can promote cutaneous healing. We examined the effect of APC on viability and differentiation of the osteoblastic line, MG63, in the presence and absence of bisphosphonates (BPs). Osteoblasts were cultured and treated for 24 or 48 h with Alendronate (Aln), Zoledronate (Zol) or Pamidronate (Pam) at concentrations ranging from 10−4 to 10−6 ℳ. Cell differentiation was measured using type 1 collagen production, Alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, whereas cell viability was assessed using MTT and crystal violet assays. All three BPs induced MG63 cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pam- and Zol-related cell death was prevented by APC treatment; however, cell death induced by Aln was accelerated by APC. APC induced MG63 cell differentiation that was enhanced by Aln, but inhibited by Pam or Zol. Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed by MG63 cells and mediated the protective effect of APC on Zol-induced viability. In summary, we have demonstrated that (1) APC favorably regulates MG63 viability and differentiation toward bone growth, (2) APC differentially regulates the effects of specific BPs and (3) at least part of the effects of APC is mediated through EPCR. These findings highlight the potential importance of the PC pathway in bone physiology and provide strong evidence that APC may influence bone cells and has potential to be a therapeutic drug for bone regeneration, depending on concurrent BP treatment.
activated protein C; bisphosphonates; EPCR; MG63; osteoblast
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as attractive cellular vehicles
to deliver therapeutic genes for ex-vivo therapy of diverse diseases;
this is, in part, because they have the capability to migrate into tumor or
lesion sites. Previously, we showed that MSCs could be utilized to deliver a
bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene to brain tumors. Here we
assessed whether transduction with a retroviral vector encoding CD gene
altered the stem cell property of MSCs. MSCs were transduced at passage 1 and
cultivated up to passage 11. We found that proliferation and differentiation
potentials, chromosomal stability and surface antigenicity of MSCs were not
altered by retroviral transduction. The results indicate that retroviral vectors
can be safely utilized for delivery of suicide genes to MSCs for
ex-vivo therapy. We also found that a single retroviral
transduction was sufficient for sustainable expression up to passage 10. The
persistent expression of the transduced gene indicates that transduced MSCs
provide a tractable and manageable approach for potential use in allogeneic
ex-vivo therapy; gene therapy; mesenchymal stem cell; retrovirus; safety; suicide gene
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pivotal components of the innate immune response, which is responsible for eradicating invading microorganisms through the induction of inflammatory molecules. These receptors are also involved in responding to harmful endogenous molecules and have crucial roles in the activation of the innate immune system and shaping the adaptive immune response. However, TLR signaling pathways must be tightly regulated because undue TLR stimulation may disrupt the fine balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Such disruptions may harm the host through the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Several studies have investigated the regulatory pathways of TLRs that are essential for modulating proinflammatory responses. These studies reported several pathways and molecules that act individually or in combination to regulate immune responses. In this review, we have summarized recent advancements in the elucidation of the negative regulation of TLR signaling. Moreover, this review covers the modulation of TLR signaling at multiple levels, including adaptor complex destabilization, phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation of signal proteins, manipulation of other receptors, and transcriptional regulation. Lastly, synthetic inhibitors have also been briefly discussed to highlight negative regulatory approaches in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
inflammatory diseases; inhibitors; innate immune system; miRNA; Toll-like receptors
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly because of an increase in the incidence of being overweight and obesity. Identification of genetic determinants for complex diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, may provide insight into disease pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to investigate the shared genetic factors that predispose individuals to being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes. We conducted genome-wide linkage analyses for type 2 diabetes in 386 affected individuals (269 sibpairs) from 171 Korean families and association analyses with single-nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes within linkage regions to identify genetic variants that predispose individuals to being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes. Through fine-mapping analysis of chromosome 4q34-35, we detected a locus potentially linked (nonparametric linkage 2.81, logarithm of odds 2.27, P=6 × 10−4) to type 2 diabetes in overweight or obese individuals (body mass index, BMI⩾23 kg m−2). Multiple regression analysis with type 2 diabetes-related phenotypes revealed a significant association (false discovery rate (FDR) P=0.006 for rs13144140; FDR P=0.002 for rs6830266) between GPM6A (rs13144140) and BMI and waist–hip ratio, and between NEIL3 (rs6830266) and insulin level from 1314 normal individuals. Our systematic search of genome-wide linkage and association studies, demonstrate that a linkage peak for type 2 diabetes on chromosome 4q34-35 contains two type 2 diabetes-related genes, GPM6A and NEIL3.
affected sibpairs; association; linkage; obesity; overweight; type 2 diabetes
T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback.
Acetyl salicylic acid; IL-6; IL-17A; STAT3; Th17
Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation.
adipose-derived stem cells; electromagnetic field; frequency; magnetic flux density; optimization; osteogenic differentiation
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in diverse biological functions and carcinogenesis by inhibiting specific gene expression. We previously reported that suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) by using the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach has an antitumor effect in several cancer cells. We here examined the influence of ANT2 on expression of miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to further elucidate the tumor-suppressive mechanism of ANT2 shRNA. We first carried out screening for miRNAs, whose expression is regulated by ANT2 suppression in the Hep3B HCC cell line using miRNA microarrays. Validation of candidate miRNAs was done by incorporating clinical samples, and their effects on the tumorigenesis of HCC were studied in vitro and in vivo. miR-636 was one of the miRNAs whose expression was highly upregulated by ANT2 suppression in miRNA microarray analysis, as confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Notably, miR-636 was markedly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with matched non-neoplastic liver in clinical samples. Restoration of miR-636 in Hep3B cells led to significant reduction of cell proliferation and colony formation. miR-636 restoration resulted in a decreased level of Ras, one of the putative targets of miR-636, and inactivation of its signaling pathway. Moreover, tumorigenesis was efficiently suppressed by miR-636 in an in vivo tumor xenograft model of HCC. The data suggest that miR-636 might function as a tumor suppressor miRNA affecting HCC tumorigenesis via downregulation of Ras, and that ANT2 suppression by shRNA could exert an anticancer effect by restoring miR-636 expression in HCC.
adenine nucleotide translocase 2; hepatocellular carcinoma; miR-636; Ras signaling pathway; RNA interference
In the last 10 years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a therapeutic approach to regenerative medicine, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and many more due to their potential to differentiate into various tissues, to repair damaged tissues and organs, and also for their immunomodulatory properties. Findings in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated immune regulatory function of MSCs and have facilitated their application in clinical trials, such as those of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases. There has been an increasing interest in the role of MSCs in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and their therapeutic potential has been reported in numerous clinical trials. Although the safety of clinical application of MSCs is established, further modifications to improve their efficacy are required. In this review, we summarize advances in the potential use of MSCs in HSCT. In addition, we discuss their use in clinical trials of the treatment of GVHD following HSCT, the immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs, and their regenerative and therapeutic potential in the field of HSCT.
clinical trials; graft-versus-host disease; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; mesenchymal stem cells; therapeutic use; transplantation immunology
3T3-L1 adipocytes express the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) and three different BAFF receptors (BAFF-Rs). Furthermore, BAFF expression is regulated by inflammatory modulators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and rosiglitazone. Here we investigated the function of BAFF in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. We examined adipokine expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with 10 ng ml−1 BAFF. We also examined inflammatory molecule expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with 10 or 100 ng ml−1 BAFF. We examined BAFF expression in the coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, as well as in white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. We found that BAFF decreases leptin and adiponectin expression, but increases the expression of proinflammatory adipokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and haptoglobin. Coculturing the two cell types resulted in increased BAFF mRNA and protein expression, as well as modulation of BAFF-R mRNA expression in both cell types. These data indicate that BAFF might mediate adipocyte and macrophage interaction. When RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with BAFF, BAFF-R expression was modulated as in coculture, and nitric oxide synthase and IL-6 expression increased. BAFF expression also increased in WAT of DIO mice. We propose that BAFF can regulate adipokine expression and possibly mediate adipocyte and macrophage interaction.
3T3-L1 adipocytes; B-cell-activating factor; coculture; diet-induced obesity; inflammation
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channel, a member of the TRP vanilloid subfamily, is expressed in a broad range of tissues where it participates in the generation of Ca2+ signals and/or depolarization of the membrane potential. Regulation of TRPV4 abundance at the cell surface is critical for osmo- and mechanotransduction. Defects in TRPV4 are the cause of several human diseases, including brachyolmia type 3 (MIM:113500) (also known as brachyrachia or spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Kozlowski type [MIM:118452]), and metatropic dysplasia (MIM:156530) (also called metatropic dwarfism or parastremmatic dwarfism [MIM:168400]). These bone dysplasia mutants are characterized by severe dwarfism, kyphoscoliosis, distortion and bowing of the extremities, and contractures of the large joints. These diseases are characterized by a combination of decreased bone density, bowing of the long bones, platyspondyly, and striking irregularities of endochondral ossification with areas of calcific stippling and streaking in radiolucent epiphyses, metaphyses, and apophyses. In this review, we discuss the potential effect of the mutation on the regulation of TRPV4 functions, which are related to human diseases through deviated function. In particular, we emphasize how the constitutive active TRPV4 mutant affects endochondral ossification with a reduced number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and the presence of cartilage islands within the zone of primary mineralization. In addition, we summarize current knowledge about the role of TRPV4 in the pathogenesis of several diseases.
genetic diseases, inborn; osteochondrodysplasias; osteogenesis; phosphorylation; TRPV cation channels
Estrogen has anti-colorectal cancer effects which are thought to be mediated by mismatch repair gene (MMR) activity. Estrogen receptor (ER) expression is associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression in ER-positive tumors. However, studies of direct link between estrogen (especially estradiol E2), miRNA expression, and MMR in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been done. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of estradiol (E2) and its antagonist ICI182,780 on the expression of miRNAs (miR-31, miR-155 and miR-135b) using COLO205, SW480 and MCF-7 cell lines, followed by examining the association of tissue miRNA expression and serum E2 levels using samples collected from 18 colorectal cancer patients. E2 inhibited the expressions of miRNAs in COLO205 cells, which could be reversed by E2 antagonist ICI 182.780. The expression of miR-135b was inversely correlated with serum E2 level and ER-β mRNA expression in CRC patients' cancer tissues. There were significant correlations between serum E2 level and expression of ER-β, miR-135b, and MMR in colon cancer tissue. This study suggests that the effects of estrogen on MMR function may be related to regulating miRNA expression via ER-β, which may be the basis for the anti-cancer effect in colorectal cells.
colon neoplasms; DNA mismatch repair; estrogen receptor β; estrogen; microRNAs
KR-31543, (2S, 3R, 4S)-6-amino-4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl) amino]-3,4-dihydro-2-dimethyoxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benz opyran is a new neuroprotective agent for ischemia-reperfusion damage. It has also been reported that KR-31543 has protective effects on lipid peroxidation and H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties of KR-31543. We observed that KR-31543 treatment reduced the production of MCP-1, IL-8, and VCAM-1 in HUVECs, and of MCP-1 and IL-6 in THP-1 human monocytes. We also examined the effect of KR-31543 on monocytes migration in vitro. KR-31543 treatment effectively reduced the migration of THP-1 human monocytes to the HUVEC monolayer in a dose-dependent manner. We next examined the effects of this compound on atherogenesis in LDL receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice. After 10 weeks of western diet, the formation of atherosclerotic lesion in aorta was reduced in the KR-31543-treated group compared to the control group. The accumulation of macrophages in lesion was also reduced in KR-31543 treated group. However, the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride were not affected by KR-31543 treatment. Taken together, these results show that KR-31543 has anti-inflammatory properties on human monocytes and endothelial cells, and inhibits fatty streak lesion formation in mouse model of atherosclerosis, suggesting the potential of KR-31543 for the treatment for atherosclerosis.
atherosclerosis; endothelial cells; KR-31543; monocytes; transendothelial and transepithelial migration
The plant viral protease, NIa, has a strict substrate specificity for the consensus sequence of Val-Xaa-His-Gln, with a scissoring property after Gln. We recently reported that NIa efficiently cleaved the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which contains the sequence Val-His-His-Gln in the vicinity of the cleavage site by α-secretase, and that the expression of NIa using a lentiviral system in the brain of AD mouse model reduced plaque deposition levels. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous expression of NIa in the brain of AD mouse model is beneficial to the improvement of cognitive deficits. To address this question, Lenti-NIa was intracerebrally injected into the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 (Tg-APP/PS1) mice at 7 months of age and behavioral tests were performed 15-30 days afterwards. The results of the water maze test indicated that Tg-APP/PS1 mice which had been injected with Lenti-GFP showed an increased latency in finding the hidden-platform and markedly enhanced navigation near the maze-wall, and that such behavioral deficits were significantly reversed in Tg-APP/PS1 mice injected with Lenti-NIa. In the passive avoidance test, Tg-APP/PS1 mice exhibited a severe deficit in their contextual memory retention, which was reversed by NIa expression. In the marble burying test, Tg-APP/PS1 mice buried marbles fewer than non-transgenic mice, which was also significantly improved by NIa. After behavioral tests, it was verified that the Tg-APP/PS1 mice with Lenti-NIa injection had reduced Aβ levels and plaque deposition when compared to Tg-APP/PS1 mice. These results showed that the plant viral protease, NIa, not only reduces Aβ pathology, but also improves behavioral deficits.
Alzheimer disease; amyloid β-peptides; disease models, animal; endopeptidases; maze learning
Cinnamyl alcohol (CAL) is known as an antipyretic, and a recent study showed its vasodilatory activity without explaining the mechanism. Here we demonstrate the vasodilatory effect and the mechanism of action of CAL in rat thoracic aorta. The change of tension in aortic strips treated with CAL was measured in an organ bath system. In addition, vascular strips or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for biochemical experiments such as Western blot and nitrite and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) measurements. CAL attenuated the vasoconstriction of phenylephrine (PE, 1 µM)-precontracted aortic strips in an endothelium-dependent manner. CAL-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10-4 M), methylene blue (MB; 10-5 M) and 1 H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolole-[4,3-a] quinoxalin-10one, (ODQ; 10-6 or 10-7 M) in the endothelium-intact aortic strips. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; 10-8 or 10-9 M) did not affect the vasodilatory effect of CAL. The phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and generation of nitric oxide (NO) were stimulated by CAL treatment in HUVECs and inhibited by treatment with L-NAME. In addition, cGMP and PKG1 activation in aortic strips treated with CAL were also significantly inhibited by L-NAME. Furthermore, CAL relaxed Rho-kinase activator calpeptin-precontracted aortic strips, and the vasodilatory effect of CAL was inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor glibenclamide (Gli; 10-5 M) and the voltage-dependent K+ channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 2 × 10-4 M). These results suggest that CAL induces vasorelaxation by activating K+ channels via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway and the inhibition of Rho-kinase.
cinnamyl alcohol; cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I; nitric oxide; potassium channels; rho-associated kinases
Triptolide, a compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine preparation of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. However, its effect on ovarian cancer invasion is unknown. We observed that MMP7 and MMP19 expression increased in ovarian cancer tissue. Triptolide treatment inhibited the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells SKOV3 and A2780 at the concentration of 15 nM. We also observed that triptolide suppressed MMP7 and MMP19 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner, down-regulating the expressions of these promoters on mRNA and protein level. Moreover, triptolide enhanced E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer cells. In vivo, triptolide inhibited tumor formation and metastasis in nude mice, and suppressed MMP7 and MMP19 expression; it also enhanced E-cadherin expression in tumor in a dose-dependent manner. Over expression of MMP7 and MMP19, or suppression of E-cadherin expression partially abolished the inhibitory effect of triptolide on invasion of ovarian cancer cells. To summarize, triptolide significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by suppression of MMP7 and MMP19 and up-regulation of E-cadherin expression. This study shows that triptolide is a good candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer and reduction of metastasis.
cadherins; matrix metalloproteinase 19; matrix metalloproteinase 7; ovarian neoplasms; triptolide
Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays an important role in the cholesterol homeostasis. We examined the possible circadian regulation of LDLR and mechanism(s) underlying it. In mice, blood glucose and plasma triglyceride, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol varied distinctively throughout a day. In addition, LDLR mRNA oscillated in the liver in a functional clock-dependent manner. Accordingly, analysis of human LDLR promoter sequence revealed three putative E-boxes, raising the possible regulation of LDLR expression by E-box-binding transcription factors. To test this possibility, human LDLR promoter reporter constructs were transfected into HepG2 cells and the effects of CLOCK/BMAL1, Hes1, and Hes6 expression were analyzed. It was found that positive circadian transcription factor complex CLOCK/BMAL1 upregulated human LDLR promoter activity in a serum-independent manner, while Hes family members Hes1 and Hes6 downregulated it only under serum-depleted conditions. Both effects were mapped to proximal promoter region of human LDLR, where mutation or deletion of well-known sterol regulatory element (SRE) abolished only the repressive effect of Hes1. Interestingly, hes6 and hes1 mRNA oscillated in an anti-phasic manner in the wild-type but not in the per1-/-per2-/- mouse. Comparative analysis of mouse, rat and human hes6 genes revealed that three E-boxes are conserved among three species. Transfection and site-directed mutagenesis studies with hes6 reporter constructs confirmed that the third E-box in the exon IV is functionally induced by CLOCK/BMAL1. Taken together, these results suggest that LDLR expression is under circadian control involving CLOCK/BMAL1 and Hes family members Hes1 and Hes6.
ARNTL transcription factors; circadian rhythm; CLOCK proteins; HES1 protein, human; HES6 protein, human; receptors, LDL
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the prenylated flavonoid kurarinone on TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis and its underlying mechanism. A low dose of kurarinone had no significant effect on apoptosis, but this compound markedly promoted tumor cell death through elevation of Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release and caspase activation in HeLa cells treated with TRAIL. Caspase inhibitors inhibited kurarinone-mediated cell death, which indicates that the cytotoxic effect of this compound is mediated by caspase-dependent apoptosis. The cytotoxic effect of kurarinone was not associated with expression levels of Bcl-2 and IAP family proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bid, Bad, Bax, XIAP, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2. In addition, this compound did not regulate the death-inducing receptors DR4 and DR5. On the other hand, kurarinone significantly inhibited TRAIL-induced IKK activation, IκB degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, as well as effectively suppressed cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein long form (cFLIPL) expression. The synergistic effects of kurarinone on TRAIL-induced apoptosis were mimicked when kurarinone was replaced by the NF-κB inhibitor withaferin A or following siRNA-mediated knockdown of cFLIPL. Moreover, cFLIP overexpression effectively antagonized kurarinone-mediated TRAIL sensitization. These data suggest that kurarinone sensitizes TRAIL-induced tumor cell apoptosis via suppression of NF-κB-dependent cFLIP expression, indicating that this compound can be used as an anti-tumor agent in combination with TRAIL.
apoptosis; CASP8 and FADD-Like apoptosis regulating protein; kurarinone; NF-κB; TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients.
diabetes mellitus, type 2; dyslipidemias; hyperglycemia; rats, Long-Evans; taurine
Relative deficiency in production of glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is a major cause of renal anemia. This study planned to investigate whether the hypoxia-regulated system of Epo expression, constructed by fusing Epo gene to the chimeric phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) hypoxia response elements (HRE) in combination with cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV IE) basal gene promoter and delivered by plasmid intramuscular injection, might provide a long-term physiologically regulated Epo secretion expression to correct the anemia in adenine-induced uremic rats. Plasmid vectors (pHRE-Epo) were synthesized by fusing human Epo cDNA to the HRE/CMV promoter. Hypoxia-inducible activity of this promoter was evaluated first in vitro and then in vivo in healthy and uremic rats (n = 30 per group). The vectors (pCMV-Epo) in which Epo expression was directed by a constitutive CMV gene promoter served as control. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used to analyze between-group differences. A high-level expression of Epo was induced by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. Though both pHRE-Epo and pCMV-Epo corrected anemia, the hematocrit of the pCMV-Epo-treated rats exceeded the normal (P < 0.05), but that of the pHRE-Epo-treated rats didn't. Hypoxia-regulated system of Epo gene expression constructed by fusing Epo to the HRE/CMV promoter and delivered by plasmid intramuscular injection may provide a long-term and stable Epo expression and secretion in vivo to correct the anemia in adenine-induced uremic rats.
anemia; erythropoietin; gene therapy; hypoxia response element; uremia
Clinical studies reported hypomagnesaemia in long-term omeprazole usage that was probably due to intestinal Mg2+ wasting. Our previous report demonstrated the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on passive Mg2+ transport across Caco-2 monolayers. The present study aimed to identify the underlying mechanism of omeprazole suppression of passive Mg2+ absorption. By using Caco-2 monolayers, we demonstrated a potent inhibitory effect of omeprazole on passive Mg2+, but not Ca2+, transport across Caco-2 monolayers. Omeprazole shifted the %maximum passive Mg2+ transport-Mg2+ concentration curves to the right, and increased the half maximal effective concentration of those dose-response curves, indicating a lower Mg2+ affinity of the paracellular channel. By continually monitoring the apical pH, we showed that omeprazole suppressed apical acid accumulation. Neomycin and spermine had no effect on passive Mg2+ transport of either control or omeprazole treated monolayers, indicating that omeprazole suppressed passive Mg2+ transport in a calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)-independent manner. The results of western blot analysis showed that omeprazole significantly suppressed claudin (Cldn)-7 and -12, but not Cldn-2, expression in Caco-2 cells. By using apical solution of pH 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0, we found that apical acidity markedly increased passive Mg2+ transport, Mg2+ affinity of the paracellular channel, and Cldn-7 and -12 expression in Caco-2 monolayers. Apical acidity abolished the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on passive Mg2+ transport and Cldn-7 and -12 expression. Our results provided the evidence for the regulation of intestinal passive Mg2+ absorption by luminal acidity-induced increase in Cldn-7 and -12 expression.
claudins; intestines; magnesium; omeprazole; proton pump inhibitors; tight junctions
IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17) play important functions in autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection of solid organs. We examined the effects of IL 17 and its mechanism of action on arthritis in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using bone marrow transplantation (BMT) system. DBA/1J mice were administered a lethal radiation dose and then rescued with bone marrow derived from either wild-type (WT) or IL-17-/- mice on C57BL/6 background mice. CIA was induced after the bone marrow transplant, and disease progression was characterized. DBA/1J mice with CIA that received IL-17-/- donor bone marrow showed potently inhibited development and severity of clinical arthritis as compared with CIA mice that received WT bone marrow. Reduced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and collagen-specific T cell responses were observed in mice that received IL-17-/- bone marrow. IL-17 blockade also inhibited effector T cell proliferation by reciprocally regulating the Treg/Th17 ratio. IL-17 blockade prevented joint destruction in mice with CIA. These findings suggest that CIA with BMT is a viable method of immunological manipulation and that IL-17 deficiency suppresses severe joint destruction and inflammation in CIA mice. There may be clinical benefits in blocking IL-17 and BMT in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
arthritis, experimental; bone marrow transplantation; interleukin-17; Th17 cells; T-lymphocytes, regulatory; transplantation, homologous
Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate the lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid. PLD is localized in most cellular organelles, where it is likely to play different roles in signal transduction. PLD1 is primarily localized in vesicular structures such as endosomes, lysosomes and autophagosomes. However, the factors defining its localization are less clear. In this study, we found that four hydrophobic residues present in the N-terminal HKD catalytic motif of PLD1, which is involved in intramolecular association, are responsible for vesicular localization. Site-directed mutagenesis of the residues dramatically disrupted vesicular localization of PLD1. Interestingly, the hydrophobic residues of PLD1 are also involved in the interruption of its nuclear localization. Mutation of the residues increased the association of PLD1 with importin-β, which is known to mediate nuclear importation, and induced the localization of PLD1 from vesicles into the nucleus. Taken together, these data suggest that the hydrophobic amino acids involved in the interdomain association of PLD1 are required for vesicular localization and disturbance of its nuclear localization.
cytoplasmic vesicles; nuclear localization signals; phospholipase D1
Although peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ agonist have been developed as chemical tools to uncover biological roles for the PPARs such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, PPAR-δ has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of the PPAR-δ agonist GW0742 on fatty liver changes and inflammatory markers. We investigated the effects of PPAR-δ agonist GW0742 on fatty liver changes in OLETF rats. Intrahepatic triglyceride contents and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and also, PPAR-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α gene were evaluated in liver tissues of OLETF rats and HepG2 cells after GW0742 treatment. The level of TNF-α and MCP-1 was also examined in supernatant of Raw264. 7 cell culture. To address the effects of GW0742 on insulin signaling, we performed in vitro study with AML12 mouse hepatocytes. Rats treated with GW0742 (10 mg/kg/day) from 26 to 36 weeks showed improvement in fatty infiltration of the liver. In liver tissues, mRNA expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, and PGC-1α were significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with GW0742 compared to diabetic control rats. We also observed that GW0742 had inhibitory effects on palmitic acid-induced fatty accumulation and inflammatory markers in HepG2 and Raw264.7 cells. The expression level of Akt and IRS-1 was significantly increased by treatment with GW0742. The PPAR-δ agonist may attenuate hepatic fat accumulation through anti-inflammatory mechanism, reducing hepatic PGC-1α gene expression, and improvement of insulin signaling.
diabetes mellitus; fatty liver; GW0742; inflammation; monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1; PPAR δ; PPARGC1A protein, human; tumor necrosis factor-α