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1.  Management of Metachronous Bilateral Testis Cancer in a Patient with Pre-B Cell ALL 
Case Reports in Urology  2015;2015:646875.
We present a patient with a metachronous, second testicular cancer after being diagnosed with pre-B cell ALL and receiving induction chemotherapy for a bone marrow transplant. We discuss the management of bilateral testis masses in a young patient with a hematologic malignancy as well as the role of immunosuppressive chemotherapy in developing a second cancer. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing bilateral testicular cancer early, as well as the importance of follow-up care in oncology patients including routine measurements of tumor markers. A multidisciplinary approach between medical oncology and urology, including close monitoring of the contralateral testis, remains paramount to patient care.
doi:10.1155/2015/646875
PMCID: PMC4332972
2.  Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Kidney and Its Prognosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Urology  2015;2015:469327.
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the renal parenchyma is an extremely rare entity. The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is usually unsuspected due to the rarity and inconclusive clinical and radiological features. Most of the patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and are with poor outcome. Radical nephrectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. We reported a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney in a 50-year-old female who presented with the right sided abdomen pain. The patient was treated with radical nephrectomy.
doi:10.1155/2015/469327
PMCID: PMC4325206
3.  Seminoma Presenting as Renal Mass, Inferior Vena Caval Thrombus, and Regressed Testicular Mass 
Case Reports in Urology  2015;2015:835962.
Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy of men aged 15–40. Metastatic spread classically begins with involvement of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, with metastases to the liver, lung, bone, and brain representing advancing disease. Treatment is based on pathologic analysis of the excised testicle and presence of elevated tumor markers. We report a case of a 34-year-old male presenting with back pain who was found to have a right renal mass with tumor extension into the inferior vena cava. Subsequent biopsy was consistent with seminoma. We review this rare case and discuss the literature regarding its diagnosis and management.
doi:10.1155/2015/835962
PMCID: PMC4325215
4.  Torsion of Undescended Third Testis, as Rare Cause of Painful Inguinal Mass 
Case Reports in Urology  2015;2015:273508.
Twenty years old young was referred to our department due to painful inguinal mass. The mass was diagnosed as torsion of third testis which was treated by orchiectomy. Polyorchidism is a rare entity with increased risk for malignancy and torsion.
doi:10.1155/2015/273508
PMCID: PMC4321671
5.  A Case of Primary Renal Carcinoid Tumor 
Case Reports in Urology  2015;2015:736213.
Primary renal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare kidney lesions, with fewer than 100 reported cases previously. We describe a 75-year-old man with an incidentally detected cystic renal mass. Computed tomography showed a 3 cm tumor with a cystic component enhanced with contrast. No evidence of metastasis was detected. We treated the patient with radical nephrectomy. Pathological examinations revealed a cellular arrangement specific to carcinoid tumor and positive for chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule, and somatostatin receptor type 2. The tumor cells had a mitotic count of 4 mitoses/10 high-power fields, and the level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was 5%. The pathological diagnosis was renal neuroendocrine tumor grade 2. No local recurrence and no systemic metastasis were detected during the 18-month follow-up period. To our knowledge, this is the 6th case of renal neuroendocrine grade 2 tumor reported thus far.
doi:10.1155/2015/736213
PMCID: PMC4320909
6.  Bilateral Double Ureters with Bladder Neck Diverticulum in a Nigerian Woman Masquerading as an Obstetric Fistula 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:801063.
A 43-year-old woman presented with 20-year history of leakage of urine per vaginam. She had one failed repair attempt. Pelvic examination with dye test showed leakage of clear urine suggestive of ureterovaginal fistula. The preoperative intravenous urogram revealed duplex ureter and cystoscopy showed normally cited ureteric orifices with two other ectopic ureteric openings and bladder diverticula. The definitive surgery performed was ureteric reimplantation (ureteroneocystostomy) of the two distal ureteric to 2 cm superiolateral to the two normal orifices and diverticuloplasty. There was resolution of urinary incontinence after surgery. Three months after surgery, she had urodynamic testing done (cystometry), which showed 220 mLs with no signs of instability or leakage during filling phase but leaked on coughing at maximal bladder capacity. This is to showcase some diagnostic dilemma that could arise with obstetric fistula, which is generally diagnosed by clinical assessment.
doi:10.1155/2014/801063
PMCID: PMC4284928  PMID: 25587483
7.  Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:123795.
Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease.
doi:10.1155/2014/123795
PMCID: PMC4283257  PMID: 25587481
8.  Isolated Bilateral Renal Mucormycosis Masquerading as Renal Abscess in an Immunocompetent Individual: A Lesson Learnt 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:304380.
Isolated renal mucormycosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent subjects. It is usually a rapidly progressive disease with poor prognosis but it can mimic renal abscess with a protracted course.
doi:10.1155/2014/304380
PMCID: PMC4281474  PMID: 25587482
9.  Intrascrotal Dedifferentiated Leiomyosarcoma Originating from Dartos Muscle 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:841929.
A 46-year-old man, who had visited our hospital complaining of a small intrascrotal nodule ten years ago, returned to us because of the rapid growth of the nodule. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneously enhanced intrascrotal tumor of approximately 4 × 3 cm. The tumor and the right testis were excised with the adhered right scrotal skin. The pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma with dedifferentiation originating from the dartos muscle. Urological dedifferentiated leiomyosarcomas are rarely reported and the clinical features are mostly unknown. This is the first report to describe the dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma of the dartos muscle.
doi:10.1155/2014/841929
PMCID: PMC4279120  PMID: 25580348
10.  Dystrophic Calcification of the Prostate after Cryotherapy 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:471385.
We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.
doi:10.1155/2014/471385
PMCID: PMC4273508  PMID: 25548712
11.  Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis from Biopsy Associated Hematoma Disruption during Robotic Partial Nephrectomy 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:975412.
We describe a case in which a patient with a past medical history of ovarian cancer received a diagnostic renal biopsy for an incidentally discovered renal mass. During left robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), a perinephric hematoma was encountered. The hematoma was not present on preoperative imaging and was likely a result of the renal biopsy. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the associated hematoma were widely excised with negative surgical margins. On follow-up imaging at five months postoperatively, a recurrent renal mass at the surgical resection bed and several new nodules in the omentum were detected. During completion left robotic total nephrectomy and omental excision, intraoperative frozen sections confirmed metastatic RCC. We believe that a hematoma seeded with RCC formed as a result of the renal biopsy, and subsequent disruption of the hematoma during RPN caused contamination of RCC into the surrounding structures.
doi:10.1155/2014/975412
PMCID: PMC4269283  PMID: 25544929
12.  Laparoscopic Nephrectomy, Ex Vivo Partial Nephrectomy, and Autotransplantation for the Treatment of Complex Renal Masses 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:354104.
In the contemporary era of minimally invasive surgery, very few T1/T2 renal lesions are not amenable to nephron-sparing surgery. However, centrally located lesions continue to pose a clinical dilemma. We sought to describe our local experience with three cases of laparoscopic nephrectomy, ex vivo partial nephrectomy, and autotransplantation. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was performed followed by immediate renal cooling and perfusion with isotonic solution. Back-table partial nephrectomy, renorrhaphy, and autotransplantation were then performed. Mean warm ischemia (WIT) and cold ischemic times (CIT) were 2 and 39 minutes, respectively. Average blood loss was 267 mL. All patients preserved their renal function postoperatively. Final pathology confirmed pT1, clear cell renal cell carcinoma with negative margins in all. All are disease free at up to 39 months follow-up with stable renal function. In conclusion, the described approach remains a viable option for the treatment of complex renal masses preserving oncological control and renal function.
doi:10.1155/2014/354104
PMCID: PMC4260371  PMID: 25506461
13.  Hormonal Treatment for Severe Hydronephrosis Caused by Bladder Endometriosis 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:891295.
The incidence of endometriosis cases involving the urinary system has recently increased, and the bladder is a specific zone where endometriosis is most commonly seen in the urinary system. In the case presented here, a patient presented to the emergency department with the complaint of side pain and was examined and diagnosed with severe hydronephrosis and bladder endometriosis was determined in the etiology. After the patient was pathologically diagnosed, Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) was administered to the uterine cavity. At the 12-month follow-up, endometriosis was not observed in the cystoscopy and symptoms had completely regressed. Hydronephrosis may be observed after exposure of the ureter, and silent renal function loss may develop in patients suffering from endometriosis with bladder involvement. For patients with moderate or severe hydronephrosis associated with bladder endometriosis, LNG-IUS application may be separately and successfully used after conservative surgery.
doi:10.1155/2014/891295
PMCID: PMC4251884  PMID: 25506035
14.  Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:218615.
Urothelial carcinoma developing in orthotopic ileal neobladder is an extremely rare entity. Fewer than 10 cases have been reported in the literature describing urothelial carcinoma recurrence in orthotopic ileal neobladder. We report a case of transitional cell carcinoma recurrence in orthotopic ileal neobladder after 11 years of surgery.
doi:10.1155/2014/218615
PMCID: PMC4251891  PMID: 25506034
15.  Ureteroarterial Fistula from Ureteral Stump: A Challenging Case 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:514625.
Ureteroarterial fistula (UAF) is a relatively rare condition with about 150 cases reported in the literature. Since it is a potentially life-threatening condition, a prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial. We present here a rare, challenging case of UAF diagnosed after left nephrectomy, thus involving the ureteral stump. The difficult diagnosis and treatment by contemporary use of endovascular stent placement and ureteral occlusion by mean of metallic coils and Onyx injection are discussed.
doi:10.1155/2014/514625
PMCID: PMC4247918  PMID: 25478282
16.  Intraneobladder Hem-o-Lok Migration with Stone Formation after Orthotopic Neobladder Cystectomy 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:872989.
Introduction. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery are widely performed in urology field, so Hem-o-Lok clips are thus extensively used in the laparoscopic procedures. We describe the first case of Hem-o-Lok clip which migrated into the neobladder with calculus formation 26 months after laparoscopic orthotopic neobladder cystectomy, which causes symptoms of gross hematuria and frequent urination. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old man with T2a muscle invasive bladder cancer underwent laparoscopic orthotopic sigmoid neobladder reconstruction after cystectomy which was complicated by intestinal anastomosis leak and peritoneal abscess requiring transverse colostomy and drainage 15 days postoperatively. Twenty-six months after cystectomy, he complained of gross hematuria and frequent urination. Computerized tomography and plain pelvic X-ray revealed a stone measuring approximately 2.8 cm in diameter in the neobladder. During cystoscopy, a closed whitish Hem-o-Lok clip was seen in the center of the calculi. No anastomotic leak or neoplasm was found during cystoscopy. Conclusion. Hem-o-Lok clip migration into the bladder after laparoscopic orthotopic neobladder cystectomy is a rare complication; the first reported case in the literature. To prevent Hem-o-Lok clip migration, it is recommended to avoid extensive use of Hem-o-Lok clip close to anastomosis site, and any loose Hem-o-Lok clip should be retrieved before closure.
doi:10.1155/2014/872989
PMCID: PMC4243739  PMID: 25436169
17.  A Unique Presentation of an Undiagnosed Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:840163.
We describe a 58-year-old lady who presented initially to her general practitioner with a palpable warty urethral nodule. She was subsequently referred to the urology department for further investigations. She underwent flexible cystoscopy and imaging, followed by rigid cystoscopy and excision of the nodule. Histological analysis was consistent with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CT imaging confirmed the presence of an invading metastatic left renal cell carcinoma with bilateral metastatic deposits to the lungs and adrenal glands. The patient was enlisted on the Panther Trial and received a course of Pazopanib before undergoing radical nephrectomy. Two years later she is still alive with metastases remaining reduced in size and numbers. During this study we have performed a literature review of similar cases with this unusual presentation of RCC.
doi:10.1155/2014/840163
PMCID: PMC4241245  PMID: 25431735
18.  A Case of Prostatic Abscess with Malignant Lymphoma Involving the Prostate 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:965823.
Here, we report a case of prostatic abscess probably due to malignant lymphoma of the prostate. An 82-year-old man was referred to our hospital with chief complaints of urinary frequency and discomfort on urination. Antibiotics were prescribed, but the symptoms remained and intermittent fever appeared. The patient was diagnosed with prostatic abscess by computed tomography (CT). Digital rectal examination (DRE) revealed soft prostate, and thick pus was milked out from the extrameatus by prostatic massage. For drainage, we performed transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Drainage by TURP was successful as CT clearly showed reduction of prostatic abscess after the operation. Nevertheless, intermittent fever did not improve and the patient's general condition deteriorated. The day before the patient died, histopathological analysis showed prostatic abscess probably due to malignant lymphoma of the prostate and incidental adenocarcinoma. This is the first report of prostatic abscess with malignant lymphoma involving the prostate.
doi:10.1155/2014/965823
PMCID: PMC4241248  PMID: 25431736
19.  Choroidal and Cutaneous Metastasis from Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder after Radical Cystectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:491541.
Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy and has variable metastatic potential; however, choroidal and cutaneous metastases are extremely rare. Generally, a patient with these uncommon metastases has a very poor prognosis. We present a bladder cancer patient with a visual disorder in the right eye and multiple nodules on head and lower abdomen that developed 17 months after a radical cystectomy. These symptoms were determined to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of bladder cancer. Although two cycles of combination chemotherapy were performed, the patient died 5 months after diagnosis of multiple metastases.
doi:10.1155/2014/491541
PMCID: PMC4241253  PMID: 25431734
20.  A Simple Technique to Facilitate Treatment of Urethral Strictures with Optical Internal Urethrotomy 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:137605.
Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization, urethroplasty, endoscopic internal urethrotomy, and dilation. Optical internal urethrotomy offers faster recovery, minimal scarring, and less risk of infection, although recurrence is possible. However, technical difficulties associated with poor visualization of the stenosis or of the urethral lumen may increase procedural time and substantially increase the failure rates of internal urethrotomy. In this report we describe a technique for urethral catheterization via a suprapubic, percutaneous approach through the urinary bladder in order to facilitate endoscopic internal urethrotomy.
doi:10.1155/2014/137605
PMCID: PMC4227455  PMID: 25405054
21.  First Report of the Stapled Mesh Stoma Reinforcement Technique in a Urologic Context 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:294304.
Parastomal hernia is a common complication of ileal conduit formation. Mesh repair of parastomal hernia has lower rate of recurrence than nonmesh techniques but can be time-consuming to perform. The stapled mesh stoma reinforcement technique (SMART) is a novel method of rapidly constructing a reinforced stapled stoma. We report the first case utilising this technique in a urologic context. The procedure was performed on a middle-aged female with recurrent parastomal hernia of her ileal conduit. There were no perioperative complications. The resited stoma remained healthy and functioned normally. Longer term data is clearly desirable though this technique deserves consideration in the treatment of urologic parastomal hernias. This case demonstrates that SMART is an easy and convenient procedure for parastomal hernia repair.
doi:10.1155/2014/294304
PMCID: PMC4227408  PMID: 25405055
22.  Inflammatory Pseudotumor Containing Necrotizing Granulomatous Lesions of Kidney: A Hitherto Undescribed Entity 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:263859.
Herein reported is a case of inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of kidney. It is not described in WHO, AFIP, and other books. A review of the literature revealed about 35 cases. A 76-year-old man underwent nephrectomy under clinical diagnosis of renal pelvic carcinoma. Grossly, a solid tumor was seen in renal parenchyma. Microscopically, it was composed of spindle cell tissue with inflammation and many necrotizing granulomas. Epithelioid histiocytes were abundant but giant cells were few. Lymphocytes and plasma cells were also seen. The features suggested tuberculosis (TB), but Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed no TB bacillus. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor spindle cells were positive for vimentin, CD68, CD45, and Ki-67 (labeling = 18%), α-smooth muscle antigen, and NSE. Focal staining of KIT (mast cells), S100 protein (Langerhans cells), and CD10 (spindle cells) was present. IgG4 was negative. The tumor spindle cells were negative for other antigens examined.
doi:10.1155/2014/263859
PMCID: PMC4212631  PMID: 25379319
23.  Urethrogluteal Fistula Developing Secondary to the Use of Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterization: First Case Report in the Literature 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:218037.
Clean intermittent self-catheterization is the standard method for bladder evacuation in these patients today. The patient was diagnosed with urethrogluteal fistula and gluteal-perineal abscess by radiological evaluation. Gluteal drainage decreased after cystostomy. In our paper, a case of urethrogluteal fistula and pelvic urinoma that developed as a result of the use of clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC), which is rarely found in the literature, is presented.
doi:10.1155/2014/218037
PMCID: PMC4202210  PMID: 25349769
24.  Autopsy Report with Clinical and Pathophysiologic Discussion of Autosomal Dominant Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:727580.
The average weight of a kidney is approximately 135 gm, measuring on average 10 × 6 × 4 cm. In hereditary conditions, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, the shape, size, and the weight can be significantly abnormal, causing progressive renal failure, often necessitating dialysis or renal transplant for survival. We report a case of adult polycystic kidney disease in a 50-year-old female without a family history, who died of complications of the disease which included accelerated hypertension, and renal and cardiac failure.
doi:10.1155/2014/727580
PMCID: PMC4182844  PMID: 25313343
25.  Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Urology  2014;2014:173076.
Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision.
doi:10.1155/2014/173076
PMCID: PMC4179948  PMID: 25298901

Results 1-25 (292)