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1.  Functional and Aesthetic Tragal Reconstruction in the Age of Mobile Electronic Devices 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:2591705.
We present a method to create a tragus using the patient's conchal cartilage. It is a simplified, single-stage technique with well-hidden incisions, yet it maintains the rigidity of a natural tragus. This patient did not have a history of radiation to the area, which may compromise healing with this technique. The cosmetic importance of the tragus has been described, but its functionality in accommodating modern technology has not been previously discussed. The main treatment goal for this patient was to gain the ability to wear earphones (clinical question/level of evidence: therapeutic, V).
PMCID: PMC5214463
2.  Acoustic Neuroma Mimicking Orofacial Pain: A Unique Case Report 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:1947616.
Acoustic neuroma (AN), also called vestibular schwannoma, is a tumor composed of Schwann cells that most frequently involve the vestibular division of the VII cranial nerve. The most common symptoms include orofacial pain, facial paralysis, trigeminal neuralgia, tinnitus, hearing loss, and imbalance that result from compression of cranial nerves V–IX. Symptoms of acoustic neuromas can mimic and present as temporomandibular disorder. Therefore, a thorough medical and dental history, radiographic evaluation, and properly conducted diagnostic testing are essential in differentiating odontogenic pain from pain that is nonodontogenic in nature. This article reports a rare case of a young pregnant female patient diagnosed with an acoustic neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle that was originally treated for musculoskeletal temporomandibular joint disorder.
PMCID: PMC5174163  PMID: 28053796
3.  Acute Marjolin's Ulcer in a Postauricular Scar after Mastoidectomy 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:2046954.
Background. Marjolin's ulcer is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy that arises primarily in burn scars but can occur in other types of scars. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant, and while malignant degeneration usually takes a long time, it can develop acutely. Case Report. a 30-year-old man who developed Marjolin's ulcer acutely in a right postauricular scar after mastoidectomy and the incision and drainage of a mastoid abscess. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a Marjolin's ulcer in a postauricular surgical scar. However, it has been reported in others areas in the head and neck. Conclusion. Marjolin's ulcer is most commonly observed after postburn scars, but it may be observed after any type of scars, as our patient developed an SCC with a postsurgical scar. Early diagnosis is essential, and a biopsy should be performed on any nonhealing wound or chronic wound that undergoes a sudden change. Tissue samples should be taken from both the centre and the margins of the wound.
PMCID: PMC5168475  PMID: 28050297
5.  Rhinosporidiosis: A Rare Cause of Proptosis and an Imaging Dilemma for Sinonasal Masses 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:3573512.
Background. Rhinosporidiosis is a common disease entity in tropical countries; however, it can be encountered in other parts of the world as well due to increasing medical tourism. It may mimic other more malignant and vigorous pathologies of the involved part. Case Report. We present a case of a 36-year-old male presenting with proptosis due to involvement of nasolacrimal duct which is rare. We will discuss typical CT and MRI features of the disease which were present in the case. Conclusion. For a surgeon and a radiologist, this is a necessary differential to be kept in mind for sinonasal masses. CT and MRI are invaluable investigations. However, FNAC is confirmatory. Both clinical and radiological aspects are required to reach correct diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC5155101  PMID: 28042489
6.  Recurrent Massive Epistaxis from an Anomalous Posterior Ethmoid Artery 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:8504348.
A 50-year-old man, with no previous history of epistaxis, was hospitalized at our facility for left recurrent posterior epistaxis. The patient underwent surgical treatment three times and only the operator's experience and radiological support (cranial angiography) allowed us to control the epistaxis and stop the bleeding. The difficult bleeding management and control was attributed to an abnormal course of the left posterior ethmoidal artery. When bleeding seems to come from the roof of the nasal cavity, it is important to identify the ethmoid arteries always bearing in mind the possible existence of anomalous courses.
PMCID: PMC5153481  PMID: 28025632
7.  Intra-Attack Vestibuloocular Reflex Changes in Ménière's Disease 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:2427983.
Ménière's attack has been shown to temporarily alter the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). A patient with unilateral Ménière's disease was serially evaluated with the video Head Impulse Test during single, untreated episodes of acute vertigo. Spontaneous nystagmus activity was concurrently recorded in order to establish the three typical phases of Ménière's attack (irritative, paralytic, and recovery) and correlate them with VOR performance. The onset of attack was associated with a quick change in VOR gain on the side of the affected ear. While a rapidly progressive reduction of the VOR was evident at the paralytic nystagmus phase, in the recovery phase the VOR gain returned to normal and the direction of the previous nystagmus reversed. The membrane rupture potassium intoxication theory provides a good foundation with which to explain these dynamic VOR changes and the observed triphasic direction behavior of the spontaneous nystagmus. We additionally postulated that endolymphatic fluid displacement could have a synergic effect during the earliest phase of attack.
PMCID: PMC5149633  PMID: 28018691
8.  Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in the Only Hearing Ear: Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:8909124.
Sudden hearing loss in the only hearing ear cases are rarely published in the English literature; most of the cases are idiopathic. It is an otologic emergency needing urgent treatment. Delayed diagnosis can interfere with patient's social life with interrupting the verbal communication. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old female patient having sudden sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear diagnosed as bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
PMCID: PMC5149634  PMID: 28018692
9.  An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:5798070.
The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.
PMCID: PMC5141548  PMID: 27999701
10.  A Case of Periodontal Necrosis following Embolization of Maxillary Artery for Epistaxis 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:6467974.
Embolization of the maxillary artery (MA) is a common treatment modality for refractory epistaxis. Tissue necrosis after embolization of the MA is a rare complication. Here, we reported the first case of the development of necrosis of soft tissue and alveolar bone in the periodontium after embolization. A 48-year-old man with poor oral hygiene and a heavy smoking habit was referred to our clinic due to intractable epistaxis. After treatment with anterior-posterior nasal packing (AP nasal packing), the epistaxis relapsed. Therefore, he underwent embolization of the MA. Although he did not experience epistaxis after embolization, periodontal necrosis developed gradually. The wound healed with necrotomy, administration of antibiotics and prostaglandin, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. We speculated that the periodontal necrosis was provoked by reduction of blood supply due to embolization and AP nasal packing based on this preexisting morbid state in the periodontium. Poor condition of the oral cavity and smoking may increase the risk of periodontal necrosis after embolization.
PMCID: PMC5136633  PMID: 27990309
11.  Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:4253090.
Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature.
PMCID: PMC5131229  PMID: 27980871
12.  A Rare Tumor in the Cervical Sympathetic Trunk: Ganglioneuroblastoma 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:1454932.
Ganglioneuroblastoma is a rare tumor with moderate malignancy, which is composed of mature ganglion cells and seen in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. The diagnosis is possible after cytological and immunohistochemical studies following a needle biopsy or surgical excision. There is no consensus regarding the need for chemo- or radiotherapy after surgery. In this case report, clinical behavior and diagnosis and treatment of the rare tumor cervical ganglioneuroblastoma were discussed.
PMCID: PMC5124665  PMID: 27965907
13.  Angiofibroma Originating outside the Nasopharynx: A Management Dilemma 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:3065657.
Background. Angiofibroma is a benign tumor, consisting of fibrous tissue with varying degrees of vascularity, characterized by proliferation of stellate and spindle cells around the blood vessels. It most commonly arises from the nasopharynx, although it may rarely arise in extranasopharyngeal sites. Case Report. A 46-year-old male presented with left side nasal obstruction and epistaxis for one month. Clinical nasal examination revealed left sided polypoidal mass arising from the vestibular region of the lateral nasal wall. Results. CT scan and MRI showed highly vascular soft tissue mass occupying the anterior part of the left nostril. Preoperative selective embolization followed by transnasal excision was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnoses of nasal vestibular angiofibroma. Conclusion. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a very rare pathology. It should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis with any unilateral nasal vestibular mass causing nasal obstruction and epistaxis. A biopsy without further investigation can cause life threatening bleeding in the patient.
PMCID: PMC5124446  PMID: 27957369
14.  Transnasal, Transethmoidal Endoscopic Removal of a Foreign Body in the Medial Extraconal Orbital Space 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:1981456.
Intraorbital foreign bodies are located within the orbit but outside the ocular globe. Though not uncommon, removal of these objects poses a challenge for surgeons. External approaches have been the most frequently used but are associated with increased complications and morbidity. An endoscopic endonasal approach can be an appropriate and less complicated technique in these cases. We report a case of a chronic intraorbital foreign body located within the medial extraconal space lateral to the lamina papyracea and behind the lacrimonasal duct, which was successfully removed using a transnasal, transethmoidal endoscopic technique. Neither postoperative complications nor ocular impairment was reported. The patient improved and remains asymptomatic. The transnasal transethmoidal endoscopic approach can be used as a safer and less invasive alternative when removing foreign bodies from the medial orbital compartment.
PMCID: PMC5124478  PMID: 27957368
15.  Refractory Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Patient with Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:4906863.
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) can cause ossification of ligaments and may affect the spine. We report a case of obstructive sleep apnea in a patient with significant upper airway narrowing secondary to cervical DISH. This patient had an initial apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 145 events/hour and was treated with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, genial tubercle advancement, hyoid suspension, septoplasty, inferior turbinoplasties, and radiofrequency ablations to the tongue base which reduced his AHI to 40 events/hour. He redeveloped symptoms, was started on positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, and later underwent a maxillomandibular advancement which improved his AHI to 16.3 events/hour. A few years later his AHI was 100.4 events/hour. His disease has gradually progressed over time and he was restarted on PAP therapy. Despite PAP titration, years of using PAP therapy, and being 100 percent compliant for the past three months (average daily use of 7.6 hours/night), he has an AHI of 5.1 events/hour and has persistent hypersomnia with an Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire score of 18/24. At this time he is pending further hypersomnia work-up. DISH patients require prolonged follow-up to monitor the progression of disease, and they may require unconventional measures for adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.
PMCID: PMC5120192  PMID: 27957370
16.  Tortuous Carotid Artery Extended to Neck Level IIb Mimicking the Metastatic Mass 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:1376926.
Specifically in neck level IIb, the expected normal anatomy does not contain any vital structures and consequently it might direct a surgeon to perform rapid surgical dissection of tissues. Therefore aberrant anatomy of the vessels in the patients may be overlooked during neck dissection. Unexpected and potentially devastating injuries can be avoided by respecting the possible aberrant anatomy in any level of the neck. In this case report, a 74-year-old man was presented with laryngeal carcinoma who was treated with laryngectomy and bilateral neck dissection. During the left side neck dissection, tortuous internal carotid artery imitating a metastatic mass was unexpectedly encountered in level IIb. As in this case, surgeons should keep in mind possible aberrant anatomy during the neck dissection and perform surgery staying in surgical principles to be safe for an unforeseen and potential dangerous injuries.
PMCID: PMC5116511  PMID: 27891275
17.  A Case of Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma Extending Maxillary Sinus with Erupted Tooth: Is Transcanine Approach with Alveolectomy Feasible? 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:8594074.
Ameloblastic fibroodontoma (AFO) is a rare entity of mixed odontogenic tumors and frequently arises from posterior portion of the maxilla or mandible in first two decades of life. Herein, a 35-year-old woman with a noncontributory medical history who presented with a progressive left maxillary toothache, left maxillary first molar tooth mobility, and swelling in the left maxillary molar area for the last 2 months was reported. Radiologically, a tumor that originated from periapical area of the second mature molar teeth of maxilla was seen and additively unerupted tooth was not detected. The histopathologic examination revealed AFO. The patient is disease-free for five years after treated with limited segmental alveolectomy combining with Caldwell-Luc procedure.
PMCID: PMC5116332  PMID: 27891277
18.  Blue Ear Cyst: A Rare Eccrine Hidrocystoma of the Ear Canal and Successful Endoscopic Excision 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:5902547.
Aims. Hidrocystomas are benign cystic growths of the apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. These cystic lesions have been well documented on the face, head, and neck, but rarely in the external auditory canal. Presentation of Case. A 67-year-old woman presented with a bluish cystic mass partially occluding the external auditory canal and interfering with hearing aid use. Lesion was excised completely via a transcanal endoscopic approach with excellent cosmetic results, no canal stenosis, and no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Discussion. We present a rare eccrine hidrocystoma of the external auditory canal and successful excision of this benign lesion. We describe the surgical management using a transcanal endoscopic approach and follow-up results. An eccrine gland cyst that presents as a mass occluding the external auditory canal is quite rare. There are only a few such cases reported in the literature. These masses can be mistaken for basal cell carcinomas or cholesterol granulomas but can be easily differentiated using histopathology. Conclusion. Eccrine hidrocystoma is a cystic lesion of sweat glands, rarely found in the external auditory canal. A characteristic bluish hue aids in diagnosis and surgical excision using ear endoscopy provides excellent control.
PMCID: PMC5116350  PMID: 27891276
19.  Primary Lymphangioma of the Palatine Tonsil in a 9-Year-Old Boy: A Case Presentation and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:1505202.
Primary lymphangiomas or lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign lesions that are described infrequently in the literature. The majority of the published cases concern adults. We report a case of a lymphangiomatous lesion of the right palatine tonsil of a 9-year-old boy. Our clinical suspicion was confirmed by the histological examination after tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of primary lymphangioma of the tonsil was made. In this case we discuss the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion and present a short review of the current literature.
PMCID: PMC5107230  PMID: 27872780
20.  Filariasis of Stensen's Duct: An Index Case 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:7646451.
Filariasis, a neglected tropical disease, is a global health problem and is endemic to 73 countries including India. It is caused by nematodes of Filariodidea family, namely, W. bancrofti and B. malayi in India, which have a predilection for the lower limbs and testis. We report a never before reported case of filariasis of the main parotid duct in a 25-year-old male that resolved on medical management, exemplifying the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion and careful examination of cytological smears in endemic countries, allowing for an early diagnosis and treatment, decreasing the morbidity of this debilitating disease.
PMCID: PMC5102720  PMID: 27867674
21.  A Case of Reactive Cervical Lymphadenopathy with Fat Necrosis Impinging on Adjacent Vascular Structures 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:6019501.
A tender neck mass in adults can be a diagnostic challenge due to a wide differential diagnosis, which ranges from reactive lymphadenopathy to malignancy. In this report, we describe a case of a young female with an unusually large and tender reactive lymph node with fat necrosis. The diagnostic imaging findings alone mimicked that of scrofula and malignancy, which prompted a complete workup. Additionally, the enlarged lymph node was compressing the internal jugular vein in the setting of oral contraceptive use by the patient, raising concern for Lemierre's syndrome or internal jugular vein thrombosis. This report shows how, in the appropriate clinical context, and especially with the involvement of adjacent respiratory or neurovascular structures, aggressive diagnostic testing can be indicated.
PMCID: PMC5093268  PMID: 27840758
22.  Nonodontogenic Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Sialadenitis 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:9520516.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infectious disease of the soft tissue with high mortality and morbidity rates. Necrotizing fasciitis is occasionally located in the head and neck region and develops after odontogenic infections. Factors affecting treatment success rates are early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment, and surgical debridement. We present a necrotizing fasciitis case located in the neck region that developed after sialoadenitis. It is important to emphasize that necrotizing fasciitis to be seen in the neck region is very rare. Nonodontogenic necrotizing fasciitis is even more rare.
PMCID: PMC5086371  PMID: 27822398
23.  Tortuous Common Carotid Artery: A Report of Four Cases Observed in Cadaveric Dissections 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:2028402.
A tortuous common carotid artery poses a high risk of injury during tracheotomy. Preoperative diagnosis is therefore important to avoid serious complications. We found four cases of tortuous common carotid artery during an anatomical dissection course for students. The first case was a 91-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries without arteriosclerosis. Case 2 was a 78-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries without arteriosclerosis. Case 3 was an 86-year-old woman who died from bladder cancer and who also had a right tortuous common carotid artery without arteriosclerosis. Case 4 was an 89-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries and a tortuous brachiocephalic artery with severe arteriosclerosis. Case 4 was also examined using computed tomography to evaluate the arteriosclerosis. Computed tomography revealed severe calcification of the vascular wall, which was confirmed in the aortic arch and origins of its branches. In all four cases, the tortuosity was located below the level of the thyroid gland. Based on prior study results indicating that fusion between the carotid sheath and visceral fascia was often evident at the level of the thyroid gland, we speculated that the major region in which tortuosity occurs is at the same level or inferior to the level of the thyroid gland.
PMCID: PMC5081439  PMID: 27818819
24.  Lipoma of Piriform Sinus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:2521583.
The lipomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx are so rare that up to now approximately there have been 100 cases reported. The lipomas are slow-growing lesions that are capable of reaching considerable dimensions and are often detected at a late stage. The symptoms can vary both in dimension and in location, semiobstructing the aerodigestive tract or exerting compression on adjacent structure. In this case, the lesion, which originated from the piriform sinus, was removed endoscopically urgently due to obvious signs of tissue suffering caused by stretching of the pedicle as a result of displacement of the mass. The two aims of this case report are to expose an interesting and rare case study mainly for an Emergency Room Specialist and an ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Specialist involved in solving the problem and to demonstrate that the choice of an endoscopic approach is useful in order to have an optimal visualization of the lesion and to perform a total eradication. The use of endoscopic devices also allows a rapid postoperative recovery, compared to external access and optimum locoregional control in the follow-up procedures to prevent possible relapses.
PMCID: PMC5067318  PMID: 27795863
25.  Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway Obstruction 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2016;2016:1537276.
We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting urgently with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) with difficulty breathing, inability to swallow, and respiratory distress following throat swelling. The swelling was reduced with administration of dexamethasone and the JNA was surgically resected within 48 hours. This presentation was atypical given the acuity of presentation and the patient's older age.
PMCID: PMC5056289  PMID: 27752379

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