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1.  A Novel SMAD4 Mutation Causing Severe Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome with Protein Losing Enteropathy, Immunodeficiency, and Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia 
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by juvenile polyps of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a new pathogenic mutation of the SMAD4 gene and illustrate the need for a multidisciplinary health care approach to facilitate the correct diagnosis. The patient, a 47-year-old Caucasian woman, was diagnosed with anaemia at the age of 12. During the following 30 years, she developed numerous gastrointestinal polyps. The patient underwent several operations, and suffered chronic abdominal pain, malnutrition, and multiple infections. Screening of the SMAD4 gene revealed a novel, disease-causing mutation. In 2012, the patient suffered hypoalbuminemia and a large polyp in the small bowel was found. Gamma globulin was given but the patient responded with fever and influenza-like symptoms and refused more treatment. The patient underwent surgery in 2014 and made an uneventful recovery. At follow-up two months later albumin was 38 g/L and IgG was 6.9 g/L. Accurate diagnosis is essential for medical care. For patients with complex symptomatology, often with rare diseases, this is best provided by multidisciplinary teams including representatives from clinical genetics. Patients with a SMAD4 mutation should be followed up both for JPS and haemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia and may develop protein loosing enteropathy and immunodeficiency.
doi:10.1155/2015/140616
PMCID: PMC4331480
2.  Deciphering Autoimmune Pancreatitis, a Great Mimicker: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Background. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an atypical chronic inflammatory pancreatic disease that appears to involve autoimmune mechanisms. In recent years, AIP has presented as a new clinical entity with its protean pancreaticobiliary and systemic presentations. Its unique pathology and overlap of clinical and radiological features and absence of serological markers foster the disease's unique position. We report a case of diffuse type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice managed with biliary sphincterotomy, stent placement, and corticosteroids. A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. Workup showed elevated liver function tests (LFT) suggestive of obstructive jaundice, MRCP done showed diffusely enlarged abnormal appearing pancreas with loss of normal lobulated contours, and IgG4 antibody level was 765 mg/dL. EUS revealed a diffusely hypoechoic and rounded pancreatic parenchyma with distal common bile duct (CBD) stricture and dilated proximal CBD and common hepatic duct (CHD). ERCP showed tight mid to distal CBD stricture that needed dilatation, sphincterotomy, and placement of stent that led to significant improvement in the symptoms and bilirubin level. Based on clinical, radiological, and immunological findings, a definitive diagnosis of AIP was made. Patient was started on prednisone 40 mg/day and she clinically responded in 4 weeks.
doi:10.1155/2015/924532
PMCID: PMC4326036
3.  Littoral Cell Angioma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease 
Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. The pathogenesis is unknown but the lesion is associated with several malignancies and immunological disorders. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination. The malignant potential of this lesion is unknown, which is why splenectomy is recommend for all cases. Symptomatic cases generally suffer from hypersplenism and pyrexia. A previously healthy 20-year-old female was diagnosed with colonic Crohn's disease; as part of the work-up a magnetic resonance enterography was performed which showed multiple signal changes of the spleen. The patient reported chronic abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, malaise, and fever. The unknown splenic lesions prompted a laparoscopic splenectomy; pathology revealed a littoral cell angioma. The abdominal pain and malaise remitted but the fever persisted one year despite adequate treatment of the patient's Crohn's disease. Littoral cell angioma is associated with immune-dysregulation including Crohn's disease with several reported cases. Signs and symptoms of hypersplenism and splenic lesions on imaging should raise suspicion of littoral cell angioma in patients with Crohn's disease. Magnetic resonance enterography to assess disease severity in Crohn's disease may provide an opportunity to study the prevalence and natural history of this rare splenic tumor.
doi:10.1155/2015/474969
PMCID: PMC4326338
4.  Rapid Progression of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Complicated with Ulcerative Colitis 
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a cholestatic condition with unknown etiology and long-standing, progressive course, leading to cirrhosis and requiring orthotropic liver transplant. In approximately 80%, primary sclerosing cholangitis is accompanied by inflammatory bowel disease, and in most cases the recognition of bowel disease precedes the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. We describe a case of 22-year-old male diagnosed simultaneously with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis, with a medical history suggesting uncommon prior development of the liver disease. Five months after the initial diagnosis, we observed advanced lesions of bile tree due to progression of primary sclerosing cholangitis, which led to the unusually fast necessity for the orthotopic liver transplant.
doi:10.1155/2015/125718
PMCID: PMC4324808
5.  Magnetic Resonance Enterography: The Test of Choice in Diagnosing Intestinal “Zebras” 
Small bowel tumors and other rare intestinal disorders are often exceedingly difficult to identify. Even cutting-edge technologies, such as push enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy, can fail to determine the cause of a patient's symptoms. At our institution magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has become an increasingly reliable tool in the difficult-to-diagnose or difficult-to-monitor patient. In this retrospective case series, we discuss four patients with four rare intestinal disorders that were successfully diagnosed using MRE after failing to be diagnosed using more routine technologies, such as CT scans and flexible sigmoidoscopies. With the discussion of these four cases we demonstrate that MRE is a useful diagnostic modality in patients whose surveillance is difficult or to diagnose rare colorectal disease phenomena, colloquially referred to as “zebras.”
doi:10.1155/2015/206469
PMCID: PMC4321082
6.  Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease Treated with Azathioprine and Infliximab: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Hepatocellular carcinoma most commonly occurs in patients with underlying liver disease or cirrhosis. We describe a case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 34-year-old man with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine and infliximab. The patient had no history of liver disease and a complete autoimmune and viral workup was unremarkable. Unfortunately, the patient developed widespread metastatic disease and passed away 5 months after his initial diagnosis. The mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients' with Crohn's disease is poorly understood and may include both autoimmunity and treatment-related complications. Previous case reports suggest the possibility of a concerning association between azathioprine therapy and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Crohn's disease. Clinicians may consider early imaging in patients with Crohn's disease presenting with concerning symptomatology or abnormal liver enzymes, especially in those being treated with azathioprine alone or in combination with infliximab. Future research may help to uncover additional risk factors for this exceedingly rare diagnosis in this patient population.
doi:10.1155/2014/340836
PMCID: PMC4283353  PMID: 25587469
7.  Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer 
Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.
doi:10.1155/2014/232165
PMCID: PMC4276682  PMID: 25574403
8.  Does Gastrointestinal Dysmotility Predispose to Recurrent or Severe Forms of Clostridium difficile Infections? 
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. A limited number of studies have looked at the risk factors for recurrent CDI. Mitochondrial NeuroGastroIntestinal Encephalopathy (MNGIE) is a rare multisystemic disorder that causes gastrointestinal dysmotility. Herein we present a patient with MNGIE who suffered recurrent and severe C. difficile infection despite appropriate treatment. We aim to bring the gastroenterologist's attention to gastrointestinal dysmotility as a possible risk factor for the development of recurrent or severe forms of C. difficile infections.
doi:10.1155/2014/575216
PMCID: PMC4279149  PMID: 25580313
9.  Epigenetic Alterations in a Gastric Leiomyoma 
Leiomyomas constitute 2.5% of all resected neoplasms of the stomach. They are usually asymptomatic, but may present mucosal ulceration. Aberrant DNA methylation is a well-defined epigenetic change in human neoplasms; however, gene-acquired methylation may not necessarily be related with a malignant phenotype. In this report we analyzed in a gastric leiomyoma, the methylation status of 84 CpGI in tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes. We analyzed the tumor center (TC) and tumor periphery (TP) separately. We found aberrant methylation in 2/84 CpGI in the TC portion, that is, MLH1 and MSH3, and 5/84 CpGI in the TP, that is, MLH1, MSH3, APC, MSH6, and MGMT. The gene with the highest methylation percentage in the TC and TP was MLH1. Given that MLH1 methylation has been associated with microsatellite instability, we analyzed the status of the microsatellite Bat-26. We found that neither the TC nor the TP presented instability. The methylation of MLH1, MGMT, and APC has been described in GISTs, but to the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the methylation of these genes has been associated with gastric leiomyoma. Further research should be conducted to identify reliable molecular markers that could differentiate between GISTs and gastric leiomyomas.
doi:10.1155/2014/371638
PMCID: PMC4273588  PMID: 25544907
10.  Appendiceal Diverticulitis Clinically Masquerading as an Appendiceal Carcinoma 
Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare condition. Herein reported is a case of appendiceal diverticulosis and diverticulitis clinically masquerading as appendiceal carcinoma. A 62-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. US and CT showed a tumor measuring 5 × 4 × 4 cm in vermiform appendix. Colon endoscopy showed mucosal elevation and irregularity in the orifice of vermiform appendix. A biopsy of the appendiceal mucosa showed no significant changes. Clinical diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoma and wide excision of terminal ileum, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon was performed. Grossly, the appendix showed a tumor measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm. The appendiceal lumen was opened, and the appendiceal mucosa was elevated and irregular. The periappendiceal tissue showed thickening. Microscopically, the lesion was multiple appendiceal diverticula. The diverticula were penetrating the muscle layer. The mucosa showed erosions in places. Much fibrosis, abscess formations, and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the subserosa. Abscesses were also seen in the diverticular lumens. Some diverticula penetrated into the subserosa. The pathologic diagnosis was appendiceal diverticulitis. When they encounter an appendiceal mass, clinicians should consider appendiceal diverticulitis as a differential diagnosis.
doi:10.1155/2014/837860
PMCID: PMC4273474  PMID: 25544908
11.  Pancreatic Mass Leading to Left-Sided Portal Hypertension, Causing Bleeding from Isolated Gastric Varices 
Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) are an uncommon form of exocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. Symptoms are most often vague and this makes the diagnosis more difficult. The current case is one of three cases yet reported where the MCN caused left-sided portal hypertension leading to the formation of isolated gastric varices and subsequent bleeding from the varices. In the previously reported cases the main symptom was hematemesis. However in the current case the patient experienced no hematemesis, only isolated incidents of dark coloured diarrhea, but the main symptoms were those of iron-deficiency anemia. We present the case report of a 34-year-old woman who presented with dizziness and lethargy and was found to have 12 cm MCN in the pancreas.
doi:10.1155/2014/956490
PMCID: PMC4266757  PMID: 25525530
12.  Treatment of a Gastric Lactobezoar with N-Acetylcysteine 
Lactobezoars are a rare finding with potentially serious sequelae in pediatric patients with feeding intolerance. Aggressive treatment may be preferred to traditional treatments to avoid complications in medically complex patients. In our patient, N-acetylcysteine lavage was a safe and effective alternative that resulted in rapid resolution of his feeding intolerance.
doi:10.1155/2014/254741
PMCID: PMC4258365  PMID: 25505999
13.  Biliary Cystadenoma: An Unusual Cause of Acute Pancreatitis and Indication for Mesohepatectomy 
The classic presentation of cystic hepatobiliary lesions is usually nonspecific and often identified incidentally. Here we describe the case of a patient presenting with acute pancreatitis resulting from a large centrally located biliary cystadenoma compressing the pancreas. Determination of the origin of the cystic lesion was difficult on imaging studies. Due to the difficult location of the lesion, a complete surgical resection was achieved with mesohepatectomy and the suspected diagnosis confirmed by pathology. The patient continues to do well 2 years post-op with no signs of recurrence.
doi:10.1155/2014/643032
PMCID: PMC4255055  PMID: 25506000
14.  Leclercia adecarboxylata Bacteremia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis 
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a high risk population for bacteremia. Derangement in the mucosal architecture of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and frequent endoscopic interventions in immunocompromised individuals are considered primary causes. Isolation of opportunistic microorganisms from the bloodstream of IBD patients has been increasingly reported in recent years. Leclercia adecarboxylata is a ubiquitous, aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacillus. The human GI tract is known to harbor this rarely pathogenic microorganism. There are only a few case reports of bacteremia with this microorganism; the majority are either polymicrobial or associated with immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of monomicrobial L. adecarboxylata bacteremia in a 43-year-old female who presented with bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colonic mucosal inflammation with numerous ulcers, and histopathology revealed crypt abscesses. Following an episode of rectal bleeding, two sets of blood cultures grew L. adecarboxylata, which was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. After a complicated hospital course, she was eventually diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and enteropathic arthritis, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, mesalamine, and infliximab which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. In our previously immunocompetent patient, derangement of the gut mucosal barrier was the likely cause of bacteremia, yet performing endoscopic intervention may have contributed to bacterial translocation.
doi:10.1155/2014/457687
PMCID: PMC4227368  PMID: 25405041
15.  Dieulafoy Lesion in the Ascending Colon Presenting with Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Severe Anemia Complicated by a Coexisting Severe Resistant Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Background. GI (gastrointestinal) bleeding can be due to a variety of etiologies ranging from being common like bleeding peptic ulcer disease or esophageal varices. One of the rarely documented causes is the Dieulafoy lesion which is known as an abnormally large ectatic artery that penetrates the gut wall, occasionally eroding through the mucosa causing massive bleeding. In addition to that, we refer to the uncommon presentation of Dieulafoy lesion itself as it is well known to be found in the stomach, esophagus, duodenum, and jejunum but not the ascending colon as in our case. The patient had a coexisting ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) that was resistant to different therapies. Case Report. We report a case of a 48-year-old Egyptian female known for chronic ITP resistant to treatment. The patient presented with bright red bleeding per rectum and severe life threatening anemia. Endoscopic study showed a Dieulafoy lesion. Endoscopic clipping was successful in controlling the bleeding. Conclusion. Dieulafoy lesion is a rare reason for GI bleeding and can present in common or unexpected places. Also extreme caution should be used in patients with bleeding tendency due to different reasons, like ITP in our case.
doi:10.1155/2014/203678
PMCID: PMC4227380  PMID: 25405040
16.  Colonic Dieulafoy's Lesion: A Rare Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Review of Endoscopic Management 
Dieulafoy's lesions are a rare cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesions are even more uncommon. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding from a transverse colonic Dieulafoy's lesion. She presented with two episodes of melena followed by one episode of fresh blood per rectum. In addition, there was associated presyncope and anemia (hemoglobin 69 g/L) in the setting of supratherapeutic warfarin anticoagulation (INR 6.2) for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was negative for an upper GI source of bleeding but on colonoscopy an actively oozing Dieulafoy's lesion was identified in the transverse colon. Bipolar cautery and hemostatic endoclips were applied to achieve hemostasis. Clinicians should consider this rare entity as a potential cause of potentially life-threatening lower gastrointestinal bleeding and we review the endoscopic modalities effective for managing colonic Dieulafoy's lesions.
doi:10.1155/2014/436293
PMCID: PMC4217370  PMID: 25386369
17.  Self-Expandable Metal Stent Placement for Closure of a Leak after Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: Report on Three Cases and Review of the Literature 
In the setting of the curative oncological surgery, the gastric surgery is exposed to complicated upper gastrointestinal leaks, and consequently the management of this problem has become more critically focused than was previously possible. We report here three cases of placement of a partially silicone-coated SEMS (Evolution Controlled Release Esophageal Stent System, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, NC, USA) in patients who underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y end-to-side esophagojejunostomy for a gastric adenocarcinoma. The promising results of our report, despite the small number of patients, suggest that early stenting (through a partially silicone-coated SEMS) is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment in this subset of patients. In fact, in the treatment of leakage after total gastrectomy, plastic stents and totally covered metallic stents may not adhere sufficiently to the esophagojejunal walls and, as a result, migrate beyond the anastomosis. However, prospective studies with a larger number of patients might assess the real effectiveness and safety of this procedure.
doi:10.1155/2014/409283
PMCID: PMC4209762  PMID: 25371833
18.  Immediate Free Jejunum Transfer for Salvage Surgery of Gastric Tube Necrosis 
Gastric tube necrosis after esophagus cancer surgery is a rare but critical situation. Salvage reconstruction of the esophagus remains a challenging procedure for head and neck surgeons. Historically, surgeons have employed a two-stage salvage surgery consisting of debridement followed by reconstruction. While this procedure generates good results, the time to restart oral alimentation is long. The present report describes the case of a 62-year-old male who developed gastric tube necrosis 3 days after undergoing surgery for thoracic-cervical esophageal cancer and immediate reconstruction with the retrosternal gastric pullup technique. He was treated with debridement and simultaneous free jejunum transfer 4 days after the primary surgery. He was able to restart oral alimentation 10 days after the salvage surgery. This rapid return to oral alimentation is a major advantage of the one-stage immediate esophagus salvage reconstruction. Another advantage is the ease of the reconstructive procedure: the absence of scarring and prolonged inflammation, which are disadvantages of the two-stage procedure, meant that recipient vessel selection and anastomosis were uncomplicated. The one-step procedure may be particularly useful in cases where the inflammation is discovered early.
doi:10.1155/2014/327549
PMCID: PMC4198814  PMID: 25349746
19.  Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction 
An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones.
doi:10.1155/2014/271571
PMCID: PMC4195353  PMID: 25328725
20.  Combined Use of Clips and Nylon Snare (“Tulip-Bundle”) as a Rescue Endoscopic Bleeding Control in a Mallory-Weiss Syndrome 
Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) accounts for 6–14% of all cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Prognosis of patients with MWS is generally good, with a benign course and rare recurrence of bleeding. However, no strict recommendations exist in regard to the mode of action after a failure of primary endoscopic hemostasis. We report a case of an 83-year-old male with MWS and rebleeding after the initial endoscopic treatment with epinephrine and clips. The final endoscopic control of bleeding was achieved by a combined application of clips and a nylon snare in a “tulip-bundle” fashion. The patient had an uneventful postprocedural clinical course and was discharged from the hospital five days later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report showing the “tulip-bundle” technique as a rescue endoscopic bleeding control in the esophagus.
doi:10.1155/2014/972765
PMCID: PMC4195354  PMID: 25328727
21.  Acute Abdomen Resulting from Concurrent Thrombosis of Celiac Trunk and Superior Mesenteric Artery 
Mesenteric ischemia is one of the most mortal diseases of the gastrointestinal system causing acute abdomen. In most of the patients, the etiological factor is the obstructive embolism or thrombosis of superior mesenteric artery. In the literature, there have been reports regarding also celiac trunk occlusion in rare situations. The gold standard treatment relies on early diagnosis. The originality of our report relies on the concurrent obstruction of both vascular structures.
doi:10.1155/2014/142701
PMCID: PMC4190014  PMID: 25328724
22.  Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma 
Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.
doi:10.1155/2014/986453
PMCID: PMC4189767  PMID: 25309762
23.  Stomach Carcinoma Presenting with a Synchronous Liver Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Multiple primary malignant neoplasms are two or more malignancies in an individual without any relationship between the tumors. Multiple primary malignancies are relatively rare but have increased in recent decades. Two cancers are commonly observed among those with multiple primary malignancies, but two malignancies of stomach and liver are relatively rare to be reported. Mechanisms of the tumors were unclear; we described a patient who had stomach carcinoma presenting with a synchronous liver cancer and investigated his family history; we suggest that family history may be a key risk factor and early detection for additional primary malignancies should be needed for patients who had specific cancer history in their pedigree. Early diagnosis may be the key risk factor affecting prognosis.
doi:10.1155/2014/970293
PMCID: PMC4190027  PMID: 25328726
24.  A Rare Presentation of Hepatitis A Infection with Extrahepatic Manifestations 
Hepatitis A has a variety of associated extrahepatic manifestations that clinicians should be aware of for early diagnosis and treatment. We report a unique case of hepatitis A presenting with multiple extrahepatic manifestations not previously described in a single patient. A 34-year-old male presented with sudden onset of left sided facial pain, swelling, and skin rash, with diffuse body pains and muscle weakness, and was found to be positive for hepatitis A immunoglobulin M (IgM). He was initially started on antibiotics for concerns of bacterial parotitis but did not show any improvement. A punch biopsy of his mandibular rash and swelling was done which showed lymphohistiocytic infiltration with a few eosinophils. A trial of prednisone resulted in improvement of his symptoms. Clinicians should be aware to look for hepatitis A infection in a patient with atypical clinical picture causing a widespread systemic inflammatory response. Treatment with prednisone may result in resolution.
doi:10.1155/2014/286914
PMCID: PMC4177781  PMID: 25295197
25.  Lupus Enteritis as an Initial Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder which can affect multiple organs and clinical presentation is often a myriad of symptoms; therefore, the index of suspicion should rise when evaluating patients with multiorgan symptomatology. Lupus enteritis is a distinct subset of SLE, defined as either vasculitis or inflammation of the small bowel, with supportive image and/or biopsy findings. The clinical picture of lupus enteritis is often nonspecific, with mild to severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting being the cardinal manifestations. Although considered a form of visceral or serosal vasculitis, lupus enteritis is seldom confirmed on histology, making computerized tomography (CT) the gold standard for diagnosis. Lupus enteritis is generally steroid-responsive, and the route of administration is based on clinical status and organ involvement, with preference for intravenous (IV) route in flares with significant tissue edema. The following case describes a young woman presenting with lupus enteritis and lupus panniculitis as an initial manifestation of SLE, the utilization of abdominal CT in diagnosis, and current treatment protocols used for lupus enteritis.
doi:10.1155/2014/962735
PMCID: PMC4177782  PMID: 25295199

Results 1-25 (182)