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1.  Postnatal Systemic Blood Flow in Neonates with Abnormal Fetal Umbilical Artery Doppler 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2014;2014:957180.
Objective. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) studies are associated with poor neonatal outcomes. We sought to determine if postnatal measures of systemic blood flow (SBF), as measured by functional echocardiography (fECHO), could identify which fetuses with abnormal UAD were at the highest risk of adverse outcomes. Study Design. This is a retrospective review of fetuses with abnormal UAD who received fECHO in the first 72 hours of life. Measures of SBF (right ventricular output (RVO) and superior vena cava (SVC) flow) were performed and compared with prenatal variables and postnatal outcomes. Result. 63 subjects had abnormal UAD, 20 of which also had fECHO. Six subjects had abnormal flow. Gestational age at delivery was similar between the two groups. Those with abnormal SBF had fewer days of abnormal UAD prior to delivery and developed RDS (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Postnatal measures of SBF were associated with poor postnatal outcomes in fetuses with abnormal UAD. Future studies incorporating antenatal measures of SBF may help obstetricians determine which pregnancies complicated by UAD are likely to have postnatal morbidity.
PMCID: PMC3963112
2.  Evaluation of the Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus DNA Test with Liquid-Based Cytology in Primary Cervical Cancer Screening and the Importance of the ASC/SIL Ratio: A Belgian Study 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2014;2014:536495.
Objectives. In Belgium, very few studies have focused on cervical high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) prevalence and the relationship between HPV and cervical cytological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate hrHPV prevalence and its relationship with cytological screening and histological results in the French-speaking community in Belgium (Brussels and Wallonia). Methods. A total of 58,265 liquid-based cytology tests were performed during this period. All cases of ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, and HSIL were tested by Hybrid Capture 2 for hrHPV screening. Results. The prevalence of cytological abnormalities was 3.1% for ASC-US, 0.3% for ASC-H, 1.5% for LSIL, and 0.3% for HSIL. The frequency of hrHPV infection was 47% in ASC-US, 90% in ASC-H, 86% in LSIL, and 98.4% in HSIL. CIN 2+ lesions were found in 12.2% of smears with an ASC-US result, in 54% of smears with an ASC-H result, in 12.5% of smears with a LSIL result, and in 89.3% of smears with a HSIL result. The ASC/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Conclusions. This study provides a good representation of cytological abnormalities and HPV status in patients living in Belgium's French-speaking community. The prevalence in our study was similar to that derived from meta-analyses of European studies. Our ASC/SIL ratio was 1.9%, being within the lower and upper limits proposed in the literature, which tends to prove the good quality diagnosis of cervical smears in our laboratory.
PMCID: PMC3945153
3.  Review of Management and Outcomes in Women with Thrombophilia Risk during Pregnancy at a Single Institution 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2014;2014:381826.
Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). We retrospectively studied 38 Caucasian pregnant women with thrombophilia risk and compared their obstetric outcomes with a matched cohort without known thrombophilia risk during the period between January 2007 and December 2010. There were (2) cases with factor V Leiden, (6) prothrombin gene mutation, (1) antithrombin III deficiency, (2) protein C deficiency, (3) protein S deficiency, (10) MTHFR mutation, (7) anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and (1) lupus anticoagulant. Patients without thrombophilia who presented with recurrent unprovoked VTE were considered as high risk (6 cases). Most patients received anticoagulation (34/38) with aspirin only (6), enoxaparin (27), and warfarin (1). Twenty-six out of thirty-eight pregnant women (68.4%) with an increased risk of thrombophilia experienced one or more obstetric complications defined as hypertension, preeclampsia, placenta abruptio, VTE, and oligohydramnios, compared with 15 out of 40 (37.5%) pregnant women in the control group (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.42, 9.21, P < 0.001). The incidence of obstetric complications was significantly higher in the thrombophilia group compared to the controls. However, these complications were the lowest among patients who received full-dose anticoagulation. Our study suggests that strict application of anticoagulation therapy for thrombophilia of pregnancy is associated with an improved pregnancy outcome. The study was registered in the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under ACTRN12612001094864.
PMCID: PMC3945432
4.  Occurrence of Pre- and Postoperative Stress Urinary Incontinence in 105 Patients Who Underwent Tension-Free Vaginal Mesh Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Retrospective Study 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2014;2014:643495.
Objective. To examine retrospectively the occurrence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in patients who underwent transvaginal mesh repair (TVM) for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. The presence of preoperative SUI and postoperative changes in SUI was retrospectively analyzed for 105 patients who underwent TVM for POP between September 2009 and September 2012. Results. Preoperative SUI was observed in almost half of the patients (n = 50) who underwent TVM surgery. No significant differences were seen in patient age, pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) stage, or primary POP complaint between those with and without preoperative SUI. Of the 50 patients with preoperative SUI, SUI was resolved in 14 (28%) following TVM surgery. Of the 55 patients without preoperative SUI, de novo postoperative SUI appeared in 26 (47.3%), of whom approximately half experienced resolution or improvement of SUI within 6 months postoperatively. There was no relationship between preoperative residual urine volume and occurrence of postoperative SUI. Conclusion. TVM surgery is a useful surgical method that can replace traditional methods for treating POP, but sufficient informed consent with regards to the onset of postoperative SUI is required.
PMCID: PMC3933322  PMID: 24653836
5.  Fenestration Labioreduction of the Labium Minus: A New Surgical Intervention Concept 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2014;2014:671068.
Objectives. To test applicability of the new surgical concept for labioreduction of the labia minora. Study Design. The observational, prospective, case series study was designed. Subjects. Three consecutive subjects were included. Methods. The application of new surgical intervention was tested. Main Outcome Measures. A primary outcome measured applicability of the fenestration labioplasty and secondary measures was used to evaluate surgical resolution of medical, emotional, and social symptoms; aesthetic outcomes; and potential complications. Results. Symptomatic, asymmetrical, and enlarged labia minora were associated with aesthetic dissatisfaction from deformations of the labia minora. The new operation was applied easily and without complications. The procedure reduced height and length, accomplished symmetries, preserved natural color and contour, and accomplished the labium minus expected appearance. Postoperatively, physical, emotional, social symptoms and signs resolved, pleasing surgical outcomes exceeded subjects' aesthetic expectations. Meaningfully, self-image and self-confidence improved in all subjects. No feelings of regrets were reported. Emotional tensions were reduced, social openness improved, intimate interaction increased, and their body image perception improved following the operation. Conclusion. In this study group, fenestration labioreduction with inferior flap transposition was easy to execute without complications and the method was reproducible; the new operation achieves pleasing aesthetic results and the procedure improves physical, emotional, and social wellbeing.
PMCID: PMC3945180
6.  Posterior Deep Infiltrating Endometriotic Nodules: Operative Considerations according to Lesion Size, Location, and Geometry, during One's Learning Curve 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2014;2014:853902.
We conducted this prospective cohort study to standardize our laparoscopic technique of excision of posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) nodules, according to their size, location, and geometry, including 36 patients who were grouped, according to principal pelvic expansion of the nodule, into groups with central (group 1) and lateral (group 2) lesions, and according to nodule size, into ≤2 cm (group A) and >2 cm (group B) lesions, respectively. In cases of group 1 the following operative steps were more frequently performed compared to those of group 2: suspension of the rectosigmoid, colpectomy, and placement of bowel wall reinforcement sutures. The opposite was true regarding suspension of the adnexa, systematic ureteric dissection, and removal of the diseased pelvic peritoneum. When grouping patients according to nodule size, almost all of the examined parameters were more frequently applied to patients of group B: adnexal suspension, suspension of the rectosigmoid, systematic ureteric dissection, division of uterine vein, colpectomy, and placement of bowel wall reinforcement sutures. Nodule size was the single most important determinant of duration of surgery. In conclusion, during the building-up of one's learning curve of laparoscopic excision of posterior DIE nodules, technique standardization is very important to avoid complications.
PMCID: PMC3918354  PMID: 24579050
7.  Fundal Height Growth Curve for Underweight and Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women in Thai Population 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:657692.
Objectives. To develop fundal height growth curves for underweight and overweight and obese pregnant women based on gestational age from last menstrual period and/or ultrasound. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted at four hospitals in the northern part of Thailand between January 2009 and March 2011. Fundal height, gestational age, height, and prepregnancy weight were extracted from antenatal care and delivery records. Fundal height growth curves were presented as smoothed function of the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation, derived from multilevel models. Results. Fundal height growth curve of the underweight was derived from 1,486 measurements (208 women) and the overweight and obese curve was derived from 1,281 measurements (169 women). The 50th percentile line of the underweight was 0.1–0.4 cm below the normal weight at weeks 23–31 and 0.5–0.8 cm at weeks 32–40. The overweight and obese line was 0.1–0.4 cm above the normal weight at weeks 22–29 and 0.6–0.8 cm at weeks 30–40. Conclusions. Fundal height growth curves of the underweight and overweight and obese pregnant women were different from the normal weight. In monitoring or screening for abnormal intrauterine growth in these women, fundal height growth curves specifically developed for such women should be applied.
PMCID: PMC3880769  PMID: 24455289
8.  A New Surgical Method of Suprapubic and Extraperitoneal Approach with Uterine Preservation for Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Kurt Extraperitoneal Ligamentopexy 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:748232.
Objective. To introduce an alternative surgical approach for the optimal treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. Twenty symptomatic women with grades 2–4 POP diagnosis who opted to choose this alternative surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Results. A total of 22 cases were included. The mean age of the patients was 50.6 ± 13.2 years (29–72 years) with a mean gravid and parity of 5.5 ± 2.66 and 3.4 ± 2.06, respectively. The mean body-mass index of the patients was 24.25 ± 2.43. Nine (45%) patients were premenopausal and 11 (55%) patients were postmenopausal. Uterine descensus was present in all patients, and additionally cystorectocele in 9 patients (45%), cystocele in 6 patients (30%), rectocele in 4 patients (20%), and elangatio colli in 6 patients (30%) were diagnosed. In addition to the alternative surgery, Manchester procedure and anteroposterior vaginal wall repair or Burch procedure was performed where necessary. Mean follow-up time was 48.95 ± 42.8 months (6–171 months). No recurrence of POP occurred. Conclusions. Suprapubic, extraperitoneal, and minimally invasive ligamentopexy of the round ligament to the anterior rectus fascia offers an alternative to conventional POP surgery with favorable outcomes without any recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3877640  PMID: 24455290
9.  The Intrauterine Device in Women with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and II: A Systematic Review 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:814062.
Background. Women with diabetes mellitus type I and type II need effective contraception for personal and medical reasons. Long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are among the most efficient and cost-effective methods. Study Design. We searched the Popline, PubMed, and databases from 1961 to March 2013 for studies on the efficacy of the IUD in diabetic women and the possible changes it may produce in laboratory parameters. Studies of at least 30 subjects with DM1 or DM2 who were studied for 6 to 12 months depending on the method of analysis were eligible. Results. The search produced seven articles which gave event rate efficacy evaluable results and three which evaluated the effect of the IUD on laboratory parameters. One of the earlier efficacy studies showed an abnormally high pregnancy rate which sparked a controversy which is discussed in the Introduction section. The remaining 6 studies produced acceptable pregnancy rates. The three laboratory studies showed that the copper and levonorgestrel releasing IUD/IUS do not affect the diabetic state in any way. Conclusions. The copper bearing and levonorgestrel releasing IUDs are safe and effective in women with diabetes type I and diabetes type II although the evidence in the latter is limited.
PMCID: PMC3874344  PMID: 24396605
10.  Survival Rate of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants and Its Risk Factors: Case-Control Study in Japan 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:873563.
Aim. To clarify the effect of perinatal events on the survival of ELBW infants in Japan. Methods. 1,713 ELBW infants, from 92,630 live births in 2001 and 2002, born at 22–36 weeks of gestation were registered. Case was defined as death at discharge. The relevant variables were compared between the cases (n = 366) and the controls (n = 1,347). Results. The total survival rate was 78.6%. There was a significant difference between the survival rate in cesarean and vaginal delivery at 24–31 weeks of gestation. Cesarean delivery in infants with a birth weight >400 g was significantly advantageous to the survival rate of ELBW infants than vaginal delivery. The significant contributing factors were gestational age at delivery (OR: 0.97), Apgar score at 5 min (0.56), antenatal steroid (0.41), and birth weight (0.996). Nonvertex presentation (1.81), vaginal delivery (1.56), and placental abruption (2.50) were found to be significantly associated with neonatal death. Conclusions. Cesarean section might be advantageous for survival in ELBW infants over 24 gestational weeks or 400 grams of birth weight. Nonvertex presentation, vaginal delivery, and placental abruption could be significant risk factors for survival of ELBW infants.
PMCID: PMC3858981  PMID: 24371528
11.  Outcome of Late Second Trimester Emergency Cerclage in Patients with Advanced Cervical Dilatation with Bulging Amniotic Membranes: A Report of Six Cases Managed at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:843158.
Purpose. To show the feasibility of emergency late second trimester cerclage with advanced cervical dilatation and bulging of amniotic membranes. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Douala General Hospital. Method. This is a retrospective study of case files of patients who underwent emergency late second trimester cerclage with advanced cervical dilatation, some with bulging of fetal membranes between June 2003 and June 2010. The modified Shirodkar technique was employed in all the cases. Results. Altogether, six patients (100%) underwent late second trimester cervical cerclage between 24 and 26 weeks of gestational age. Four cases (66.7%) carried on their pregnancies to term that resulted in healthy live-born babies all delivered vaginally. The other two cases (33.3%) presented with preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM) which led us to undo the stitch with eventual delivery of live-born premature fetuses which died in the neonatal intensive care unit because of complications of prematurity and neonatal infection. Conclusion. In experienced hands and in the absence of other risk factors like infection, the success rates of this procedure are encouraging with improved prognosis. Finally, the modified Shirodkar technique yielded excellent results in our series.
PMCID: PMC3859266  PMID: 24371527
12.  Similar Adverse Pregnancy Outcome in Native and Nonnative Dutch Women with Pregestational Type 2 Diabetes: A Multicentre Retrospective Study 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:361435.
Objective. To assess the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome in native and nonnative Dutch women with pregestational type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a multicenter study in The Netherlands. Methods. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcome were retrospectively reviewed and the influence of ethnicity on outcome was evaluated using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and chi-square test. Results. 272 pregnant women (80 native and 192 non-native Dutch) with pregestational T2D were included. Overall outcome was unfavourable, with a perinatal mortality of 4.8%, major congenital malformations of 6.3%, preeclampsia of 11%, preterm birth of 19%, birth weight >90th percentile of 32%, and a Caesarean section rate of 42%. In nonnative Dutch women, the glycemic control was slightly poorer and the gestational age at booking somewhat later as compared to native Dutch women. However, there were no differences in incidence of preeclampsia/HELLP, preterm birth, perinatal mortality, macrosomia, and congenital malformations between those two groups. Conclusions. A high incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was found in women with pregestational T2D, although the outcome was comparable between native and non-native Dutch women. This suggests that easy access to and adequate participation in the local health care systems contribute to these comparable outcomes, offsetting potential disadvantages in the non-native group.
PMCID: PMC3833010  PMID: 24294525
13.  An Evaluation of the Effects of the Transobturator Tape Procedure on Sexual Satisfaction in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence Using the Libido Scoring System 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:627671.
Introduction and Hypothesis. Most women experience automatic urine leakage in their lifetimes. SUI is the most common type in women. Suburethral slings have become a standard surgical procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence when conservative therapy failed. The treatment of stress urinary incontinence by suburethral sling may improve body image by reducing urinary leakage and may improve sexual satisfaction. Methods. A total of 59 sexually active patients were included in the study and underwent a TOT outside-in procedure. The LSS was applied in all patients by self-completion of questionnaires preoperatively and 6 months after the operation. General pleasure with the operation was measured by visual analogue score (VAS). Pre- and postoperative scores were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results. Two parameters of the LSS, orgasm and who starts the sexual activity, increased at a statistically significant rate. Conclusion. Sexual satisfaction and desire have partially improved after the TOT procedure.
PMCID: PMC3830852  PMID: 24288621
14.  Listeriosis during Pregnancy: A Public Health Concern 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:851712.
Listeria was first described in 1926 by Murray, Webb, and Swann, who discovered it while investigating an epidemic infection among laboratory rabbits and guinea pigs. The role of Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen was definitively recognized during the 1980s. This recognition was the consequence of a number of epidemic human outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated foods, in Canada, in the USA and in Europe. Listeriosis is especially severe in immunocompromised individuals such as pregnant women. The disease has a low incidence of infection, although this is undeniably increasing, with a high fatality rate amongst those infected. In pregnant women listeriosis may cause abortion, fetal death, or neonatal morbidity in the form of septicemia and meningitis. Improved education concerning the disease, its transmission, and prevention measures for immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women has been identified as a pressing need.
PMCID: PMC3804396  PMID: 24191199
15.  An Analysis of the NSW Midwives Data Collection over an 11-Year Period to Determine the Risks to the Mother and the Neonate of Induced Delivery for Non-Obstetric Indication at Term 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:178415.
Objective. To determine the risks of induced term delivery to the mother and neonate at different gestational ages in the absence of obstetric indications. Study Design. All deliveries in New South Wales (NSW) between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed from the MDC. Uncomplicated pregnancies which were induced for non-obstetric reasons after 37 completed weeks were reviewed. This was a retrospective, historical cohort study, and both maternal and neonatal outcomes were analysed and compared between different gestational age groups. Results. An analysis of the data shows that induction of labour after 37 completed weeks exposes the fetus and mother to different levels of risk at different gestations. Conclusion. In an uncomplicated pregnancy, induction of labour is associated with the highest rate of neonatal complication at 37 weeks as compared with rates at later gestations. With each ensuing week, the neonatal outcome improves. At 40 weeks the likelihood of neonatal intensive care admission, low Apgar scores, and perinatal death rate is at its lowest, and then there is a slight but not significant rise after 41 weeks. The likelihood of caesarean section is the lowest when inductions are carried out at 39 weeks and is the highest at 41 weeks and over.
PMCID: PMC3800658  PMID: 24187627
16.  The Impact of Centralization of Obstetric Care Resources in Japan on the Perinatal Mortality Rate 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:709616.
Objective. We investigated the effects of the centralization of obstetricians and obstetric care facilities on the perinatal mortality rate in Japan. Methods. We used the Gini coefficient as an index to represent the centralization of obstetricians and obstetric care facilities. The Gini coefficients were calculated for the number of obstetricians and obstetric care facilities of 47 prefectures using secondary medical care zones as units. To measure the effects of the centralization of obstetricians and obstetric care facilities on the outcomes (perinatal mortality rates), we performed multiple regression analysis using the perinatal mortality rate as the dependent variable. Results. Obstetric care facilities were more evenly distributed than obstetricians. The perinatal mortality rate was found to be significantly negatively correlated with the number of obstetricians per capita and the Gini coefficient of obstetric care facilities. The latter had a slightly stronger effect on the perinatal mortality rate. Conclusion. The centralization of obstetric care facilities can improve the perinatal mortality rate, even when increasing the number of obstetricians is difficult.
PMCID: PMC3791613  PMID: 24167731
17.  Tubercular Ascites Simulating Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Pregnancy 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:176487.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a known complication of using ovulation induction drugs in assisted reproductive techniques. Its incidence and severity vary. Tuberculosis is a very common disease in the developing world, and ascites is one of its sequelae. The newer aids in diagnosing tuberculosis include measuring levels of Adenosine DeAminase (ADA) in the third-space fluids or serum. This case report is from a tertiary care center, reflecting how tubercular ascites simulated OHSS, and the right diagnosis was made and managed. This is being presented due to its rarity.
PMCID: PMC3791626  PMID: 24167730
18.  Serum Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, and Nitric Oxide Metabolite Levels in Preeclampsia Patients 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:104213.
Background. Hypertensive disorder generally complicates 5–10 percent of all pregnancies. Angiogenic growth factors may be helpful for the diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia. Therefore, in this study we attempted to determine the serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nitric oxide (NO) metabolite (nitrite) in preeclampsia patients and compared the levels with those obtained from normal pregnant women. Methods. Ninety pregnant women (19–33 years old) in two groups of preeclampsia and normal were considered during 2012. The levels of ADMA, VEGF, and nitrite were measured in maternal serum samples using ELISA kits. Results. Significant increase of VEGF and nitrite levels was observed in preeclampsia patients when compared with other groups (P < 0.05). The serum level of ADMA demonstrated a similar increased trend in preeclampsia patients; however, the increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The findings reveal that the elevation of serum levels of VEGF and nitrite and possibly ADMA may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
PMCID: PMC3786521  PMID: 24109515
19.  Effectiveness of a Novel Device in the Reduction of Cesarean Deliveries 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:173278.
Objective. To test the hypothesis that the use of the HEM-AVERT Perianal Stabilizer will result in a reduction of cesarean births and shorter duration of second-stage labor. Study Design. In a prospective controlled trial, 102 women scheduled for vaginal delivery were randomized to either the HEM-AVERT investigational device or control group. Ninety eight (98) patients completed the study. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the difference in the number of cesarean deliveries between the investigational and control groups. Duration of second-stage labor was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results. Six (6) of the 50 patients in the investigational group (12%) failed to deliver vaginally and required cesarean delivery. Comparatively, 19 of the 48 control patients (39.6%) required cesarean delivery. Duration of second-stage labor was shorter in the investigational group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Results from 4 patients were excluded due to protocol violations. Conclusion. The HEM-AVERT device effectively reduced the incidence rate of cesarean deliveries in the investigational group when compared to women who delivered without use of the device. This trial is registered with NCT01739543.
PMCID: PMC3773949  PMID: 24078876
20.  Posterior Intravaginal Slingplasty versus Unilateral Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation in Treatment of Vaginal Vault Prolapse 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:958670.
Objective. To investigate the differences in efficacy, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction between posterior intravaginal slingplasty (PIVS) and unilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF) procedures. Study Design. A retrospective study of thirty-three women who underwent PIVS or SSLF treatment for vaginal vault prolapse in Oulu University Hospital. The patients were invited to a follow-up visit to evaluate the objective and subjective outcomes. Median follow-up time was 16 months (range 6–52). The anatomical outcome was detected by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system. Information on urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions and overall satisfaction was gathered with specific questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test. Results. Mesh erosion was found in 4 (25%) patients in the PIVS group. Anatomical stage II prolapse or worse (any POP-Q point ≥−1) was detected in 8 (50%) patients in the PIVS group and 9 (53%) patients in the SSLF group. Overall satisfaction rates were 62% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The efficacy of PIVS and SSLF is equally poor, and the rate of vaginal erosion is intolerably high with the PIVS method. Based on our study, we cannot recommend the usage of either technique in operative treatment of vaginal vault prolapse.
PMCID: PMC3755413  PMID: 23997961
21.  Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Exercise in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension and/or Previous Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:857047.
Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with NCT01395342.
PMCID: PMC3753734  PMID: 23997960
22.  Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:312982.
Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development.
PMCID: PMC3753758  PMID: 23997959
23.  Investigating the Relationship between Serum Level of s-Met (Soluble Hepatic Growth Factor Receptor) and Preeclampsia in the First and Second Trimesters of Pregnancy 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:925062.
Introduction. Preeclampsia (PE) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity for mothers, fetuses, and the newborns. Placenta plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of PE. Hepatic growth factor (HGF) is a cytokine expressed by the mesenchymal stalk of placental villi during pregnancy and assumes a paracrine role in trophoblasts which express its receptor (c-MET). In the present study, we investigate the diagnostic value of s-Met (the soluble form of the receptor) in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy for early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Method and Materials. This is a case-control study conducted on 95 pregnant women. The serum level of s-Met was measured in the first and second trimesters, and the participants were followed until delivery. 44 individuals with preeclampsia (the case group) and 51 individuals without preeclampsia (the control group) were evaluated. Results. Serum level of s-Met in preeclamptic participants was lower than that of the control group in both the first and the second trimesters (P < 0.0001). In addition, serum levels of s-Met were significantly lower during the first and second trimesters in patients with early, severe preeclampsia compared to those with late, mild preeclampsia (P < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of s-Met in the first and second trimesters were, respectively, (83%, 94%) and (77%, 94%) for early preeclampsia and (88%, 92%) and (86%, 98%) for severe preeclampsia. Conclusion. Considering our findings, serum level of s-Met may be used as a predictive factor for early detection of preeclampsia. Further research is required to corroborate the functional and therapeutic value of s-Met in preeclampsia.
PMCID: PMC3747406  PMID: 23984083
24.  Development and Adaptation of Iranian Youth Reproductive Health Questionnaire 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:950278.
Iran is a young country, and sexual behavior is shaped in this period. This research aimed to provide an assessment tool to evaluate Iranian youth reproductive health. This multistage research was conducted to design a valid questionnaire in the domains of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the youth in order to evaluate behavior change programs. For this reason, after conducting a careful literature review and a qualitative research, the questionnaire was prepared. Forward and backward translations were performed. Professionals and students were used to make sure of qualitative and quantitative content and face validity. After conducting the pilot study on 100 students and eliminating defects in performance, reliability was evaluated by test-retest and Cronbach's alpha was calculated. In this study, out of 268 questions, 198 were retained after face and content validity. Self-efficacy of communication with father and mother, self-efficacy of condom use, and self-efficacy of abstinence had the highest Cronbach's alpha. Moreover, communication with parents regarding reproductive health issues and attitude to abstinence had a high Cronbach's alpha, as well. It seems to be a good instrument for assessment of Iranian reproductive health, and we are going to assess youth reproductive health in the future.
PMCID: PMC3747441  PMID: 23984084
25.  Expression of the H19 Oncofetal Gene in Premalignant Lesions of Cervical Cancer: A Potential Targeting Approach for Development of Nonsurgical Treatment of High-Risk Lesions 
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology  2013;2013:137509.
Background. Recent data suggest a role for H19 gene in promoting cancer transformation and progression. Cervical cancer, progresses from high-grade lesions (CIN3). At present, it is unclear if CIN lesions express H19. Objectives. To determine H19 expression in patient samples of CIN3 as well as the ability of a construct in which the promoter from the H19 gene drives expression of the diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) to inhibit cervical cancer cell growth in vitro. Methods. H19 transcript levels were evaluated on 10 biopsies of CIN3 using in situ hybridization. PCR was used to examine H19 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and in two samples from a patient with cervical carcinoma. Cell lines were transfected with H19-DTA to determine its impact on cell number. Results. H19 gene was expressed in the area of CIN3 in 9 out of 10 samples. RT-PCR indicated expression of H19 in cervical cancer samples and in one of the three cell lines examined. Transfection of all cell lines with H19-DTA vector resulted in inhibited cell growth. Conclusions. H19 is expressed in the majority of CIN3 samples. These results suggest that most CIN3 lesions could be targeted by H19-DTA. Further in vivo preclinical studies are thus warranted.
PMCID: PMC3747480  PMID: 23984081

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