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1.  Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:458786.
Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.
doi:10.1155/2015/458786
PMCID: PMC4480800  PMID: 26171251
2.  Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcome from Neck-Preserving, Short-Stem Arthroplasty and Resurfacing Arthroplasty in Younger Osteoarthritis Patients 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:817689.
Hip resurfacing has been considered a good treatment option for younger, active osteoarthritis patients. However, there are several identified issues concerning risk for neck fractures and issues related to current metal-on-metal implant designs. Neck-preserving short-stem implants have been discussed as a potential alternative, but it is yet unclear which method is better suited for younger adults. We compared hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome scores (HOOS) from a young group of patients (n = 52, age 48.9 ± 6.1 years) who had received hip resurfacing (HR) with a cohort of patients (n = 73, age 48.2 ± 6.6 years) who had received neck-preserving, short-stem implant total hip arthroplasty (THA). Additionally, durations for both types of surgery were compared. HOOS improved significantly preoperatively to last followup (>1 year) in both groups (p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.69); there were no group effects or interactions. Surgery duration was significantly longer for resurfacing (104.4 min ± 17.8) than MiniHip surgery (62.5 min ± 14.8), U = 85.0, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.56. The neck-preserving short-stem approach may be preferable to resurfacing due to the less challenging surgery, similar outcome, and controversy regarding resurfacing implant designs.
doi:10.1155/2015/817689
PMCID: PMC4460199  PMID: 26101669
3.  The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:928301.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables.
doi:10.1155/2015/928301
PMCID: PMC4410751  PMID: 25954533
4.  Perceptions and Realities for Distal Freehand Interlocking of Intramedullary Nails 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:834582.
There is a perception that distal freehand interlocking (DFHI) of intramedullary nails can be difficult and time consuming. This study consists of a survey of surgeons' practices for DFHI screws and their reasons for not using this technique. A survey was sent to 1400 orthopaedic surgeons who were asked to agree or disagree with statements regarding the difficulty and indications for the usage of distal freehand interlocking screws. The results were analyzed by practice demographics, resident availability, and completion of an orthopaedic trauma fellowship. Overall, 316 surgeons (22.6%) responded to the survey. Fellowship trained surgeons were 60% less likely to find DFHI difficult when compared to nonfellowship surgeons and surgeons with residents were 76% less likely to perceive DFHI as difficult than surgeons without residents. In all groups, 40–43% of surgeons used distal interlocking based on their comfort with the technique and not the fracture pattern. Distal freehand interlocking is perceived as difficult by community orthopaedic surgeons without residents and surgeons who have not done an orthopaedic trauma fellowship. Forty percent of surgeons based their usage of DFHI screws on their comfort with the technique and not the fracture pattern.
doi:10.1155/2015/834582
PMCID: PMC4402206  PMID: 25945259
5.  Factors Driving Readmissions in Tibia and Femur Fractures 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:974543.
As the American healthcare system shifts towards bundled payments, readmissions will become a measure of healthcare quality. The purpose of this study was to characterize readmission trends and factors influencing readmission in patients with diaphyseal femur and tibia fractures. Through a retrospective chart review, all patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center from 2004 to 2006 were evaluated. By using current procedural terminology codes, 1,040 patients with diaphyseal tibia or femur fractures fixed by IMN were identified. 645 patients were included for analysis. 30-day, 60-day, and 90-day readmission rates were compared with fracture type, reason for readmission, and basic demographic information. The 60-day readmission rate for open tibia fractures (14.8%) was significantly higher than the 60-day readmission rate for closed tibia fractures (8.0%) (p = 0.037). When comparing reasons for 60-day readmissions, 50% of closed fractures were readmitted due to infection, while the other 50% needed additional surgery. 91.7% of open fractures readmitted in 60 days were due to infection. In a bundled payment system, orthopedic trauma must gain insight into drivers of readmission to identify those at risk for readmission and design effective healthcare plans for these patients.
doi:10.1155/2015/974543
PMCID: PMC4377446  PMID: 25861480
6.  Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:103580.
Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%), with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.
doi:10.1155/2015/103580
PMCID: PMC4357029  PMID: 25815214
7.  The Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Bone Metastases 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:525363.
Pelvic bone metastases are a growing concern in the field of orthopedic surgery. Patients with pelvic metastasis are individually different with different needs of treatment in order to attain the best possible quality of life despite the advanced stage of disease. A holistic collaboration among the oncologist, radiation therapist, and orthopedic surgeon is mandatory. Special attention has to be directed to osteolytic lesions in the periacetabular region as they can provoke pathological fractures and subsequent functional impairment. Different reconstruction techniques for the pelvis are available; the choice depends on the patient's prognosis, size of the bone defect, and response of the tumor to adjuvant treatment. If all the conservative treatments are exhausted and the patient is not eligible for surgery, one of the various percutaneous ablation procedures can be considered. We propose a pelvic analogue to the treatment algorithm in long bone metastasis and a scoring system in pelvic metastasis. This algorithm aims to simplify the teamwork and to avoid under- or overtreatment of pelvic bone metastases.
doi:10.1155/2015/525363
PMCID: PMC4355119  PMID: 25810925
8.  Hyponatraemia after Fracture Is Often Caused by Hypovolaemia, Not SIADH 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:959213.
doi:10.1155/2015/959213
PMCID: PMC4359876  PMID: 25815215
9.  Immediate Weight-Bearing after Ankle Fracture Fixation 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:491976.
We believe that a certain subset of surgical ankle fracture patients can be made weight-bearing as tolerated immediately following surgery. Immediate weight-bearing as tolerated (IWBAT) allows patients to return to ambulation and activities of daily living faster and may facilitate rehabilitation. A prospectively gathered orthopaedic trauma database at a Level 1 trauma center was reviewed retrospectively to identify patients who had ORIF after unstable ankle injuries treated by the senior author. Patients were excluded if they were not IWBAT based on specific criteria or if they did meet followup requirement. Only 1/26 patients was noted to have loss of fixation. This was found at the 6-week followup and was attributed to a missed syndesmotic injury. At 2-week followup, 2 patients had peri-incisional erythema that resolved with a short course of oral antibiotics. At 6-week followup, 20 patients were wearing normal shoes and 6 patients continued to wear the CAM Boot for comfort. To conclude, IWBAT in a certain subset of patients with stable osteosynthesis following an ankle fracture could potentially be a safe alternative to a period of protected weight-bearing.
doi:10.1155/2015/491976
PMCID: PMC4345246  PMID: 25785201
10.  Ponseti Casting for Severe Club Foot Deformity: Are Clinical Outcomes Promising? 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:821690.
Between 2007 and 2010, a prospective study was done on 85 patients with severe idiopathic nonsyndromic clubfeet, in our center. Demographic features, severity of the deformity before and after serial casting according to Diméglio classification, and complications were assessed. The mean age of the patients was 8 days and 69% were male. The mean follow-up period was 26 months. The average number of castings used to correct the deformity was 5.7 times (range: 4 to 8). Tenotomy was performed in 76 (89.4%) of the feet. In all patients, plantigrade foot was achieved. Tenotomy occurred more in patients with higher Diméglio scores. Although patients who underwent Achilles tenotomy began to walk later than those who did not (13 ± 7.2 versus 9.2 ± 18), it was not significant (P = 0.06). Relapse rate, at the end of follow-up, was 27.1%. Diméglio score before casting was 16 ± 3.4 and at the end of follow-up it was 1.6 ± 6.2. The patients with bilateral clubfeet had inferior final outcome compared to those with unilateral clubfoot. Eighty percent of parents' were completely satisfied with their child's gait and foot appearance (94.1%). Ponseti method of manipulation and casting is a valuable technique in severe club foot as well as in common types.
doi:10.1155/2015/821690
PMCID: PMC4338373  PMID: 25755894
11.  Osteoid Osteoma Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:807274.
Purpose. Our aim is to evaluate the results of treatment with computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for osteoid osteomas which were localized in a difficult area for operation. Materials and Methods. Glenoid, distal tibia, humerus shaft, proximal humerus, and in third finger of the hand proximal phalanx were involved in one patient. Proximal femur was involved in three patients, distal femur was involved in three patients, and proximal tibia was involved in two patients. 9 males and 4 females were aged 4 to 34 years (mean age: 18.5 years). All patients had pain and were evaluated with X-rays, CT, bone scintigraphy, and MRI. In all patients, RF ablation was performed with local anesthesia. The lesion heated to 90°C for 6 minutes. Results. All of the patients achieved complete pain relief after ablation and were fully weight bearing without any support. In all patients, there was soft tissue edema after the procedure. During follow-up, all patients were free from the pain and there was no sign about the tumor. There was no other complication after the process. Conclusion. CT guided RFA is a minimally invasive, safe, and cost-effective treatment for osteoid osteoma placed in difficult area for surgery.
doi:10.1155/2015/807274
PMCID: PMC4332763  PMID: 25705522
12.  Low Infection Rate after Tumor Hip Arthroplasty for Metastatic Bone Disease in a Cohort Treated with Extended Antibiotic Prophylaxis 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:428986.
Background. Compared to conventional hip arthroplasty, endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumor resection is associated with a substantially increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), with reported rates of around 10% in a recent systematic review. The optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis for this patient population remains unknown. Material and Methods. To establish the infection rate associated with prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in our department, we performed a retrospective review of all adult patients who underwent endoprosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur after tumor resection for metastatic bone disease during a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 (n = 105 patients). Results. Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis was administrated for an extended duration of a mean of 7.4 days. The overall infection rate was 3.6% (4/111 implants), infection free survival was 96% at 2 years, and the risk of amputation associated with infection was 25% (1/4 patients). Discussion. Preemptive eradication of bacterial contamination may be of value in certain clinical situations, where the risk level and consequences of implant-associated infection are unacceptable. Our findings suggest that extended postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the risk of PJI in patients undergoing tumor resection and endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic bone disease associated impending or de facto pathologic fractures of the proximal femur.
doi:10.1155/2015/428986
PMCID: PMC4330951  PMID: 25705521
13.  A Feasibility Study into the Use of Three-Dimensional Printer Modelling in Acetabular Fracture Surgery 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:617046.
There are a number of challenges associated with the operative treatment of acetabular fractures. The approach used is often extensive, while operative time and perioperative blood loss can also be significant. With the proliferation of 3D printer technology, we present a fast and economical way to aid the operative planning of complex fractures. We used augmented stereoscopic 3D CT reconstructions to allow for an appreciation of the normal 3D anatomy of the pelvis on the fractured side and to use the models for subsequent intraoperative contouring of pelvic reconstruction plates. This leads to a reduction in the associated soft tissue trauma, reduced intraoperative time and blood loss, minimal handling of the plate, and reduced fluoroscopic screening times. We feel that the use of this technology to customize implants, plates, and the operative procedure to a patient's unique anatomy can only lead to improved outcomes.
doi:10.1155/2015/617046
PMCID: PMC4325474  PMID: 25709843
14.  Long Term Anticoagulation (4–16 Years) Stops Progression of Idiopathic Hip Osteonecrosis Associated with Familial Thrombophilia 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:138382.
In 6 patients with familial thrombophilia (5 Factor V (FV) Leiden heterozygotes, 1 with resistance to activated protein C (RAPC)), we prospectively assessed whether continuous longterm (4–16 years) anticoagulation would prevent progression of idiopathic osteonecrosis (ON), ameliorate pain, and facilitate functional recovery. Four men and 2 women (9 hips, 8 Ficat stage II, 1 stage I) were anticoagulated with enoxaparin (60 mg/day) for 3 months and subsequently with Coumadin, Xarelto, or Pradaxa, warranted by ≥2 prior thrombotic events. Anticoagulation was continued for 4, 4, 9, 13, 13, and 16 years, with serial clinical and X-ray follow-up. On 4–16-years anticoagulation, 9 hips in the 6 patients (8 originally Ficat II, 1 Ficat I) remained unchanged, contrasted to untreated ON Ficat stage II, where 50%–80% of hips progress to collapse (Ficat stages III-IV) within 2 years after diagnosis. Within 3, 3, 3, 9, and 16 months after starting anticoagulation, 5 patients became pain-free and remained asymptomatic throughout follow-up; the 6th patient required Percocet for pain. There were no significant bleeding episodes. Long term (4–16 years) anticoagulation initiated in Ficat stages I-II of idiopathic hip ON in patients with FV-RAPC changes the natural history of ON, stopping progression, resolving pain, and restoring function.
doi:10.1155/2015/138382
PMCID: PMC4325553  PMID: 25709842
15.  Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation with Polyethylene Mesh and Allograft Bone for Traumatic Thoracolumbar Fractures 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:412607.
Purpose. In cases of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures, percutaneous vertebral augmentation can be used in addition to posterior stabilisation. The use of an augmentation technique with a bone-filled polyethylene mesh as a stand-alone treatment for traumatic vertebral fractures has not yet been investigated. Methods. In this retrospective study, 17 patients with acute type A3.1 fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine underwent stand-alone augmentation with mesh and allograft bone and were followed up for one year using pain scales and sagittal endplate angles. Results. From before surgery to 12 months after surgery, pain and physical function improved significantly, as indicated by an improvement in the median VAS score and in the median pain and work scale scores. From before to immediately after surgery, all patients showed a significant improvement in mean mono- and bisegmental kyphoses. During the one-year period, there was a significant loss of correction. Conclusions. Based on this data a stand-alone approach with vertebral augmentation with polyethylene mesh and allograft bone is not a suitable therapy option for incomplete burst fractures for a young patient collective.
doi:10.1155/2015/412607
PMCID: PMC4321100  PMID: 25688302
16.  Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:543412.
Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition.
doi:10.1155/2015/543412
PMCID: PMC4320895  PMID: 25688303
17.  The Use of a Dehydrated Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft in Patients Who Subsequently Undergo Reexploration after Posterior Lumbar Instrumentation 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:501202.
Background Context. Products that can reduce development of epidural fibrosis may reduce risk for ongoing pain associated with development of scar tissue and make subsequent epidural reexploration easier. Purpose. To evaluate the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) on the formation of soft tissue scarring in the epidural space. Study Design. Case series. Patient Sample. Five patients having transforaminal lumbar interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) with posterior instrumentation and implantation of dHACM in the epidural space and subsequent epidural reexploration. Outcome Measures. Degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space at reexploration. Intraoperative and postoperative complications related to dHACM and patient reported outcomes. Methods. The degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space was assessed during the reexploration surgery. Patients' outcomes were collected using standard validated questionnaires. Results. Four of 5 cases had easily detachable tissue during epidural reexploration. Angiolipoma of 10% was noted in 1 case and 5% in 2 cases. Significant improvements in patient reported outcomes were observed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that dHACM implant during TLIF may have favorable effects on epidural fibrosis and is well tolerated. Further studies with larger cohorts are required to prove our results.
doi:10.1155/2015/501202
PMCID: PMC4309213  PMID: 25653880
18.  Outcomes of Geriatric Hip Fractures Treated with AFFIXUS Hip Fracture Nail 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:509592.
Geriatric hip fractures are one of the commonest fractures worldwide. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of a series of unstable geriatric hip fractures treated with AFFIXUS hip fracture nail. A retrospective study of 100 unstable geriatric hip fractures treated with AFFIXUS hip fracture nail is presented. The mean follow-up duration was 8 months (range 3–32). Of the patients 83% were female. The average age was 85 years. The fracture was treated by closed reduction and intramedullary fixation. The mean acute hospital stay was 17.6 days. Systemic complications occurred in 29 patients (29%) and local complications in 3 patients (3%) including lag screw cutout in one patient (1%), lag screw backout in one patient (1%), and deep infection in one patient (1%). Mechanical failures and periprosthetic fractures were not observed in our series. Fractures united in all patients. Preinjury activity level was recovered in 78% of the patients. The results of AFFIXUS hip fracture nail were satisfactory in most elderly patients. The unique design of the lag screw and its thread spacing had effectively reduced cut-out rate.
doi:10.1155/2014/509592
PMCID: PMC4281450  PMID: 25580303
19.  Cartilage Degeneration at Symptomatic Persistent Olecranon Physis in Adolescent Baseball Players 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:545438.
Background. Elbow overuse injuries are common in adolescent baseball players, but symptomatic persistent olecranon physis is rare, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Purpose. To examine the histopathological and imaging findings of advanced persistent olecranon physis. Methods. The olecranon physes of 2 baseball pitchers, aged 14 and 15 years, were examined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical specimens were examined histologically. Results. T2-weighted MRI revealed alterations in the intrachondral signal intensity possibly related to collagen degeneration and increased free water content. Histological findings of specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed complete disorganization of the cartilage structure, hypocellularity, chondrocyte cluster formation, and moderately reduced staining. All these findings are hallmarks of osteoarthritis and are suggestive of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion. Growth plate degeneration was evident in advanced cases of symptomatic persistent olecranon physis. These findings contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of this disease.
doi:10.1155/2014/545438
PMCID: PMC4281472  PMID: 25580304
20.  Management of Late Onset Perthes: Evaluation of Distraction by External Fixator—5-Year Follow-Up 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:135236.
Background. Hip distraction in Perthes' disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surfaces, which may promote the sound healing of the area of necrosis. We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes' disease. Methods and Materials. Twelve children with age more than 8 years with Perthes' disease of less than one year were treated with hip distraction by a hinged monolateral external fixator. Observation and Results. Mean duration of distraction was 13.9 days. These children were evaluated by clinicoradiological parameters for a mean period of 32.4 months. There was a significant improvement in the range of movements and mean epiphyseal index, but the change in the percentage of uncovered head femur was insignificant. There was significant improvement in Harris Hip score. Conclusions. Hip distraction by hinged monolateral external fixator seems to be a valid treatment option in cases with Perthes' disease in the selected group of patients, where poor results are expected from conventional treatment.
doi:10.1155/2014/135236
PMCID: PMC4279912  PMID: 25580302
21.  Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected? 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:806363.
Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening.
doi:10.1155/2014/806363
PMCID: PMC4273594  PMID: 25544899
22.  Utility of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring during Minimally Invasive Fusion of the Sacroiliac Joint 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:154041.
Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To document the clinical utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion for patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (as a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruptions or degenerative sacroiliitis) and determine stimulated electromyography thresholds reflective of favorable implant position. Summary of Background Data. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is a well-accepted adjunct to minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion using a series of triangular, titanium porous plasma coated implants has not been evaluated. Methods. A medical chart review of consecutive patients treated with minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion was undertaken at a single center. Baseline patient demographics and medical history, intraoperative electromyography thresholds, and perioperative adverse events were collected after obtaining IRB approval. Results. 111 implants were placed in 37 patients. Sensitivity of EMG was 80% and specificity was 97%. Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentially avoided neurologic sequelae as a result of improper positioning in 7% of implants. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that intraoperative neuromonitoring may be a useful adjunct to minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion in avoiding nerve injury during implant placement.
doi:10.1155/2014/154041
PMCID: PMC4273583  PMID: 25544898
23.  The Costs of Operative Complications for Ankle Fractures: A Case Control Study 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:709241.
As our healthcare system moves towards bundling payments, it is vital to understand the potential financial implications associated with treatment of surgical complications. Considering that surgical treatment of ankle fractures is common, there remains minimal data relating costs to postsurgical intervention. We aimed to identify costs associated with ankle fracture complications through case-control analysis. Using retrospective analysis at a level I trauma center, 28 patients with isolated ankle fractures who developed complications (cases) were matched with 28 isolated ankle fracture patients without complications (controls) based on ASA score, age, surgery type, and fracture type. Patient charts were reviewed for demographics and complications leading to readmission/reoperation and costs were obtained from the financial department. Wilcoxon tests measured differences in the costs between the cases and controls. 28 out of 439 patients (6.4%) developed complications. Length of stay and median costs were significantly higher for cases than controls. Specifically, differences in total costs existed for infection and hardware-related pain. This is the first study to highlight the considerable costs associated with the treatment of complications due to isolated ankle fractures. Physicians must therefore emphasize methods to control surgical and nonsurgical factors that may impact postoperative complications, especially under a global payment system.
doi:10.1155/2014/709241
PMCID: PMC4265548  PMID: 25525521
24.  Early Postoperative Results after Removal of Cranially Migrated Lumbar Disc Prolapse: Retrospective Comparison of Three Different Surgical Strategies 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:702163.
Background. To compare the early postoperative results of three surgical approaches to lumbar disc herniations that migrated cranially. Minimally invasive techniques such as the translaminar and endoscopic transforaminal approaches are utilized in patients with lumbar disc herniations to gain access to cranially located disc material and to avoid the potentially destabilizing resection of ligament and bone tissue, which is associated with an extended interlaminar approach. Methods. This retrospective study compares the postoperative pain and functional capacity levels of 69 patients who underwent an interlaminar (Group A, n = 27), a translaminar (Group B, n = 22), or an endoscopic transforaminal procedure (Group C, n = 20). Results. Median VAS scores for leg pain decreased significantly from before to after surgery in all groups. Surgical revisions were required in thirteen cases (five in Group A, one in Group B, and seven in Group C; P = 0.031). After six weeks, there were significant differences in back pain and functional outcome scores and in the results for the MacNab criteria but not in leg pain scores. Conclusions. The interlaminar and translaminar techniques were the safest and fastest ways of gaining access to cranially migrated disc material and the most effective approaches over a period of six weeks.
doi:10.1155/2014/702163
PMCID: PMC4247947  PMID: 25478234
25.  Assessment of Patients with a DePuy ASR Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement: Results of Applying the Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery in a Tertiary Referral Hospital 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:982523.
The prognosis associated with the DePuy ASR hip cup is poor and varies according to the series. This implant was withdrawn from use in 2010 and all patients needed to be assessed. We present the results of the assessment of our patients treated with this device, according to the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery (SECCA) algorithm published in 2011. This retrospective study evaluates 83 consecutive ASR cups, followed up at a mean of 2.9 years. Serum levels of chromium and cobalt, as well as the acetabular abduction angle, were determined in order to assess their possible correlation with failure, defined as the need for revision surgery. The mean Harris Hip Score was 83.2 (range 42–97). Eight arthroplasties (13.3%) required revision due to persistent pain and/or elevated serum levels of chromium/cobalt. All the cups had a correct abduction angle, and there was no correlation between elevated serum levels of metal ions and implant failure. Since two previous ASR implants were exchanged previously to the recall, the revision rate for ASR cups in our centre is 18.2% at 2.9 years.
doi:10.1155/2014/982523
PMCID: PMC4241718  PMID: 25431677

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