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1.  Osteoid Osteoma Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:807274.
Purpose. Our aim is to evaluate the results of treatment with computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for osteoid osteomas which were localized in a difficult area for operation. Materials and Methods. Glenoid, distal tibia, humerus shaft, proximal humerus, and in third finger of the hand proximal phalanx were involved in one patient. Proximal femur was involved in three patients, distal femur was involved in three patients, and proximal tibia was involved in two patients. 9 males and 4 females were aged 4 to 34 years (mean age: 18.5 years). All patients had pain and were evaluated with X-rays, CT, bone scintigraphy, and MRI. In all patients, RF ablation was performed with local anesthesia. The lesion heated to 90°C for 6 minutes. Results. All of the patients achieved complete pain relief after ablation and were fully weight bearing without any support. In all patients, there was soft tissue edema after the procedure. During follow-up, all patients were free from the pain and there was no sign about the tumor. There was no other complication after the process. Conclusion. CT guided RFA is a minimally invasive, safe, and cost-effective treatment for osteoid osteoma placed in difficult area for surgery.
PMCID: PMC4332763
2.  Low Infection Rate after Tumor Hip Arthroplasty for Metastatic Bone Disease in a Cohort Treated with Extended Antibiotic Prophylaxis 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:428986.
Background. Compared to conventional hip arthroplasty, endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumor resection is associated with a substantially increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), with reported rates of around 10% in a recent systematic review. The optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis for this patient population remains unknown. Material and Methods. To establish the infection rate associated with prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in our department, we performed a retrospective review of all adult patients who underwent endoprosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur after tumor resection for metastatic bone disease during a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 (n = 105 patients). Results. Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis was administrated for an extended duration of a mean of 7.4 days. The overall infection rate was 3.6% (4/111 implants), infection free survival was 96% at 2 years, and the risk of amputation associated with infection was 25% (1/4 patients). Discussion. Preemptive eradication of bacterial contamination may be of value in certain clinical situations, where the risk level and consequences of implant-associated infection are unacceptable. Our findings suggest that extended postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the risk of PJI in patients undergoing tumor resection and endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic bone disease associated impending or de facto pathologic fractures of the proximal femur.
PMCID: PMC4330951
3.  Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation with Polyethylene Mesh and Allograft Bone for Traumatic Thoracolumbar Fractures 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:412607.
Purpose. In cases of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures, percutaneous vertebral augmentation can be used in addition to posterior stabilisation. The use of an augmentation technique with a bone-filled polyethylene mesh as a stand-alone treatment for traumatic vertebral fractures has not yet been investigated. Methods. In this retrospective study, 17 patients with acute type A3.1 fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine underwent stand-alone augmentation with mesh and allograft bone and were followed up for one year using pain scales and sagittal endplate angles. Results. From before surgery to 12 months after surgery, pain and physical function improved significantly, as indicated by an improvement in the median VAS score and in the median pain and work scale scores. From before to immediately after surgery, all patients showed a significant improvement in mean mono- and bisegmental kyphoses. During the one-year period, there was a significant loss of correction. Conclusions. Based on this data a stand-alone approach with vertebral augmentation with polyethylene mesh and allograft bone is not a suitable therapy option for incomplete burst fractures for a young patient collective.
PMCID: PMC4321100
4.  Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:543412.
Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition.
PMCID: PMC4320895
5.  The Use of a Dehydrated Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft in Patients Who Subsequently Undergo Reexploration after Posterior Lumbar Instrumentation 
Advances in Orthopedics  2015;2015:501202.
Background Context. Products that can reduce development of epidural fibrosis may reduce risk for ongoing pain associated with development of scar tissue and make subsequent epidural reexploration easier. Purpose. To evaluate the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) on the formation of soft tissue scarring in the epidural space. Study Design. Case series. Patient Sample. Five patients having transforaminal lumbar interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) with posterior instrumentation and implantation of dHACM in the epidural space and subsequent epidural reexploration. Outcome Measures. Degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space at reexploration. Intraoperative and postoperative complications related to dHACM and patient reported outcomes. Methods. The degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space was assessed during the reexploration surgery. Patients' outcomes were collected using standard validated questionnaires. Results. Four of 5 cases had easily detachable tissue during epidural reexploration. Angiolipoma of 10% was noted in 1 case and 5% in 2 cases. Significant improvements in patient reported outcomes were observed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that dHACM implant during TLIF may have favorable effects on epidural fibrosis and is well tolerated. Further studies with larger cohorts are required to prove our results.
PMCID: PMC4309213  PMID: 25653880
6.  Outcomes of Geriatric Hip Fractures Treated with AFFIXUS Hip Fracture Nail 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:509592.
Geriatric hip fractures are one of the commonest fractures worldwide. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of a series of unstable geriatric hip fractures treated with AFFIXUS hip fracture nail. A retrospective study of 100 unstable geriatric hip fractures treated with AFFIXUS hip fracture nail is presented. The mean follow-up duration was 8 months (range 3–32). Of the patients 83% were female. The average age was 85 years. The fracture was treated by closed reduction and intramedullary fixation. The mean acute hospital stay was 17.6 days. Systemic complications occurred in 29 patients (29%) and local complications in 3 patients (3%) including lag screw cutout in one patient (1%), lag screw backout in one patient (1%), and deep infection in one patient (1%). Mechanical failures and periprosthetic fractures were not observed in our series. Fractures united in all patients. Preinjury activity level was recovered in 78% of the patients. The results of AFFIXUS hip fracture nail were satisfactory in most elderly patients. The unique design of the lag screw and its thread spacing had effectively reduced cut-out rate.
PMCID: PMC4281450  PMID: 25580303
7.  Cartilage Degeneration at Symptomatic Persistent Olecranon Physis in Adolescent Baseball Players 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:545438.
Background. Elbow overuse injuries are common in adolescent baseball players, but symptomatic persistent olecranon physis is rare, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Purpose. To examine the histopathological and imaging findings of advanced persistent olecranon physis. Methods. The olecranon physes of 2 baseball pitchers, aged 14 and 15 years, were examined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical specimens were examined histologically. Results. T2-weighted MRI revealed alterations in the intrachondral signal intensity possibly related to collagen degeneration and increased free water content. Histological findings of specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed complete disorganization of the cartilage structure, hypocellularity, chondrocyte cluster formation, and moderately reduced staining. All these findings are hallmarks of osteoarthritis and are suggestive of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion. Growth plate degeneration was evident in advanced cases of symptomatic persistent olecranon physis. These findings contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of this disease.
PMCID: PMC4281472  PMID: 25580304
8.  Management of Late Onset Perthes: Evaluation of Distraction by External Fixator—5-Year Follow-Up 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:135236.
Background. Hip distraction in Perthes' disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surfaces, which may promote the sound healing of the area of necrosis. We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes' disease. Methods and Materials. Twelve children with age more than 8 years with Perthes' disease of less than one year were treated with hip distraction by a hinged monolateral external fixator. Observation and Results. Mean duration of distraction was 13.9 days. These children were evaluated by clinicoradiological parameters for a mean period of 32.4 months. There was a significant improvement in the range of movements and mean epiphyseal index, but the change in the percentage of uncovered head femur was insignificant. There was significant improvement in Harris Hip score. Conclusions. Hip distraction by hinged monolateral external fixator seems to be a valid treatment option in cases with Perthes' disease in the selected group of patients, where poor results are expected from conventional treatment.
PMCID: PMC4279912  PMID: 25580302
9.  Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected? 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:806363.
Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening.
PMCID: PMC4273594  PMID: 25544899
10.  Utility of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring during Minimally Invasive Fusion of the Sacroiliac Joint 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:154041.
Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To document the clinical utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion for patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (as a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruptions or degenerative sacroiliitis) and determine stimulated electromyography thresholds reflective of favorable implant position. Summary of Background Data. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is a well-accepted adjunct to minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion using a series of triangular, titanium porous plasma coated implants has not been evaluated. Methods. A medical chart review of consecutive patients treated with minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion was undertaken at a single center. Baseline patient demographics and medical history, intraoperative electromyography thresholds, and perioperative adverse events were collected after obtaining IRB approval. Results. 111 implants were placed in 37 patients. Sensitivity of EMG was 80% and specificity was 97%. Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentially avoided neurologic sequelae as a result of improper positioning in 7% of implants. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that intraoperative neuromonitoring may be a useful adjunct to minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion in avoiding nerve injury during implant placement.
PMCID: PMC4273583  PMID: 25544898
11.  The Costs of Operative Complications for Ankle Fractures: A Case Control Study 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:709241.
As our healthcare system moves towards bundling payments, it is vital to understand the potential financial implications associated with treatment of surgical complications. Considering that surgical treatment of ankle fractures is common, there remains minimal data relating costs to postsurgical intervention. We aimed to identify costs associated with ankle fracture complications through case-control analysis. Using retrospective analysis at a level I trauma center, 28 patients with isolated ankle fractures who developed complications (cases) were matched with 28 isolated ankle fracture patients without complications (controls) based on ASA score, age, surgery type, and fracture type. Patient charts were reviewed for demographics and complications leading to readmission/reoperation and costs were obtained from the financial department. Wilcoxon tests measured differences in the costs between the cases and controls. 28 out of 439 patients (6.4%) developed complications. Length of stay and median costs were significantly higher for cases than controls. Specifically, differences in total costs existed for infection and hardware-related pain. This is the first study to highlight the considerable costs associated with the treatment of complications due to isolated ankle fractures. Physicians must therefore emphasize methods to control surgical and nonsurgical factors that may impact postoperative complications, especially under a global payment system.
PMCID: PMC4265548  PMID: 25525521
12.  Early Postoperative Results after Removal of Cranially Migrated Lumbar Disc Prolapse: Retrospective Comparison of Three Different Surgical Strategies 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:702163.
Background. To compare the early postoperative results of three surgical approaches to lumbar disc herniations that migrated cranially. Minimally invasive techniques such as the translaminar and endoscopic transforaminal approaches are utilized in patients with lumbar disc herniations to gain access to cranially located disc material and to avoid the potentially destabilizing resection of ligament and bone tissue, which is associated with an extended interlaminar approach. Methods. This retrospective study compares the postoperative pain and functional capacity levels of 69 patients who underwent an interlaminar (Group A, n = 27), a translaminar (Group B, n = 22), or an endoscopic transforaminal procedure (Group C, n = 20). Results. Median VAS scores for leg pain decreased significantly from before to after surgery in all groups. Surgical revisions were required in thirteen cases (five in Group A, one in Group B, and seven in Group C; P = 0.031). After six weeks, there were significant differences in back pain and functional outcome scores and in the results for the MacNab criteria but not in leg pain scores. Conclusions. The interlaminar and translaminar techniques were the safest and fastest ways of gaining access to cranially migrated disc material and the most effective approaches over a period of six weeks.
PMCID: PMC4247947  PMID: 25478234
13.  Assessment of Patients with a DePuy ASR Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement: Results of Applying the Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery in a Tertiary Referral Hospital 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:982523.
The prognosis associated with the DePuy ASR hip cup is poor and varies according to the series. This implant was withdrawn from use in 2010 and all patients needed to be assessed. We present the results of the assessment of our patients treated with this device, according to the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery (SECCA) algorithm published in 2011. This retrospective study evaluates 83 consecutive ASR cups, followed up at a mean of 2.9 years. Serum levels of chromium and cobalt, as well as the acetabular abduction angle, were determined in order to assess their possible correlation with failure, defined as the need for revision surgery. The mean Harris Hip Score was 83.2 (range 42–97). Eight arthroplasties (13.3%) required revision due to persistent pain and/or elevated serum levels of chromium/cobalt. All the cups had a correct abduction angle, and there was no correlation between elevated serum levels of metal ions and implant failure. Since two previous ASR implants were exchanged previously to the recall, the revision rate for ASR cups in our centre is 18.2% at 2.9 years.
PMCID: PMC4241718  PMID: 25431677
14.  A Longitudinal Low Dose μCT Analysis of Bone Healing in Mice: A Pilot Study 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:791539.
Low dose microcomputed tomography (μCT) is a recently matured technique that enables the study of longitudinal bone healing and the testing of experimental treatments for bone repair. This imaging technique has been used for studying craniofacial repair in mice but not in an orthopedic context. This is mainly due to the size of the defects (approximately 1.0 mm) in long bone, which heal rapidly and may thus negatively impact the assessment of the effectiveness of experimental treatments. We developed a longitudinal low dose μCT scan analysis method combined with a new image segmentation and extraction software using Hounsfield unit (HU) scores to quantitatively monitor bone healing in small femoral cortical defects in live mice. We were able to reproducibly quantify bone healing longitudinally over time with three observers. We used high speed intramedullary reaming to prolong healing in order to circumvent the rapid healing typical of small defects. Bone healing prolongation combined with μCT imaging to study small bone defects in live mice thus shows potential as a promising tool for future preclinical research on bone healing.
PMCID: PMC4241339  PMID: 25431676
15.  The Mechanisms of Medial Pedicle Wall Violation: Insertion Method Is as Important as Correct Cannulation of the Pedicle 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:283783.
A cadaver study aims to determine the mechanisms of medial pedicle wall violation after a correct cannulation of the pedicle. The study presents finding out the effect of insertion angle and insertion force on medial wall violation. We used 100 lumbar pedicles of cadavers. Special wooden blocks were produced to simulate a fixed angle fault after a correct pedicle cannulation. Pedicles were divided into 4 groups: 10-degree free drive (group 10), 15-degree free drive (group 15), 10-degree push drive (group 10P), and 15-degree push drive (group 15P). After insertion of pedicle screws, laminectomies were done and the pedicles were evaluated from the inside. Pedicle complications were more in group 10P than group 10 (P = 0.009). Medial wall fracture (P = 0.002) and canal penetration were more in group 15P than group 15 (P = 0.001). Groups 10P and 15P were similar regarding medial wall fractures but canal penetration was significantly higher in group 15P (P = 0.001). Medial wall breaches can happen after correct cannulation of pedicles. Change in insertion angle is one factor but the most important factor is the use of a pushing force while inserting a screw. The pedicle seems to be extremely tolerant to insertion angulation mistakes up to 10 degrees and tends to lead the screw into the correct path spontaneously.
PMCID: PMC4221974  PMID: 25400951
16.  Increasing Resistance of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Total Hip Arthroplasty Infections: 278 THA-Revisions due to Infection Reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register from 1993 to 2007 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:580359.
We investigated bacterial findings from intraoperative tissue samples taken during revision due to infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim was to investigate whether the susceptibility patterns changed during the period from 1993 through 2007. Reported revisions due to infection in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR) were identified, and 10 representative hospitals in Norway were visited. All relevant information on patients reported to the NAR for a revision due to infection, including bacteriological findings, was collected from the medical records. A total of 278 revision surgeries with bacterial growth in more than 2 samples were identified and included. Differences between three 5-year time periods were tested by the chi-square test for linear trend. The most frequent isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (41%, 113/278) and Staphylococcus aureus (19%, 53/278). The proportion of CoNS resistant to the methicillin-group increased from 57% (16/28) in the first period, 1993–1997, to 84% (52/62) in the last period, 2003–2007 (P = 0.003). There was also significant increase in resistance for CoNS to cotrimoxazole, quinolones, clindamycin, and macrolides. All S. aureus isolates were sensitive to both the methicillin-group and the aminoglycosides. For the other bacteria identified no changes in susceptibility patterns were found.
PMCID: PMC4209759  PMID: 25371827
17.  Manipulation of Displaced Distal Radial Fractures in the Superelderly: Prediction of Malunion and the Degree of Radiographic Improvement 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:785473.
Superelderly patients (≥80 years old) account for 20% of all distal radial fractures and are at an increased risk of malunion. The primary aim of this study was to identify predictors of malunion and the degree of improvement in the fracture position offered by closed manipulation of displaced distal radial fractures in the superelderly. We retrospectively identified 228 displaced distal radial fractures in superelderly patients from a prospective database of 4024 distal radial fractures. The inclusion criterion was a patient that underwent closed manipulation as their primary intervention. The majority of patients (n = 196, 86%) were defined as having a malunion. A premanipulation dorsal angulation of greater than 25 degrees (P = 0.047) and an ulnar variance of 6 mm or more (P = 0.02) significantly increased the risk of malunion. The premanipulation dorsal angulation was a significant independent predictor of the degree of improvement in the final dorsal angulation (P < 0.001) and ulnar variance (P = 0.01). Patients with a high risk of malunion or poor improvement in the fracture position can be identified before manipulation and these patients may benefit from primary surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC4206921  PMID: 25374698
18.  Total Knee Arthroplasty Designed to Accommodate the Presence or Absence of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:178156.
Evidence for selecting the same total knee arthroplasty prosthesis whether the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is retained or resected is rarely documented. This study reports prospective midterm clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes of a fixed-bearing design implanted using two different surgical techniques. The PCL was completely retained in 116 knees and completely resected in 43 knees. For the entire cohort, clinical knee (96 ± 7) and function (92 ± 13) scores and radiographic outcomes were good to excellent for 84% of patients after 5–10 years in vivo. Range of motion averaged 124° ± 9°, with 126 knees exhibiting ≥120° flexion. Small differences in average knee flexion and function scores were noted, with the PCL-resected group exhibiting an average of 5° more flexion but an average function score that was 7 points lower compared to the PCL-retained group. Fluoroscopic analysis of 33 knees revealed stable tibiofemoral translations. This study demonstrates that a TKA articular design with progressive congruency in the lateral compartment can provide for femoral condyle rollback in maximal flexion activities and achieve good clinical and functional performance in patients with PCL-retained and PCL-resected TKA. This TKA design proved suitable for use with either surgical technique, providing surgeons with the choice of maintaining or sacrificing the PCL.
PMCID: PMC4206927  PMID: 25374697
19.  Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty and Perioperative Blood Testing 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:109378.
It is standard practice in many institutions to routinely perform preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin level testing in association with hip joint arthroplasty procedures. It is our observation, however, that blood transfusion after uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty in healthy patients is uncommon and that the decision to proceed with blood transfusion is typically made on clinical grounds. We therefore question the necessity and clinical value of routine perioperative blood testing about the time of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. We present analysis of perioperative blood tests and transfusion rates in 107 patients undertaking unilateral hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty by the senior author at a single institution over a three-year period. We conclude that routine perioperative testing of haemoglobin levels for hip resurfacing arthroplasty procedures does not assist in clinical management. We recommend that postoperative blood testing only be considered should the patient demonstrate clinical signs of symptomatic anaemia or if particular clinical circumstances necessitate.
PMCID: PMC4198812  PMID: 25349744
20.  Prevalence of Hyponatremia in Femur Neck Fractures: A One-Year Survey in an Urban Emergency Department 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:397059.
This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of hyponatremia in patients with intracapsular femoral neck fracture. All records containing clinical and laboratory information of patients admitted with femoral neck fractures to the Academic Hospital of Parma (Italy) during the year 2013 were retrieved from the hospital database. The control population consisted of subjects admitted to the outpatient phlebotomy center during the same period. The final population consisted of 543 patients with femoral neck fractures and 700 outpatients. The category of elderly subjects (i.e., ≥65 years) included 491 patients and 380 controls. In both the entire population and elderly subjects, serum sodium was lower in patients than in controls (138 versus 139 mmol/L, P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyponatremia was also higher in cases than in controls, both in the entire population (19.5 versus 10.4%, P < 0.001) and in elderly subjects (20.8 versus 11.8%, P < 0.001). The odds ratio of hyponatremia for femoral neck fracture was 2.08 in the entire study population and 1.95 in those aged 65 years and older. In conclusion, we found that hyponatremia is significantly associated with femoral neck fracture. Serum sodium should hence be regularly assessed and hyponatremia eventually corrected.
PMCID: PMC4179951  PMID: 25298896
21.  Is End-Stage Ankle Arthrosis Best Managed with Total Ankle Replacement or Arthrodesis? A Systematic Review 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:986285.
Introduction. End-stage ankle osteoarthritis is a debilitating condition. Traditionally, ankle arthrodesis (AA) has been the surgical intervention of choice but the emergence of total ankle replacement (TAR) has challenged this concept. This systematic review aims to address whether TAR or AA is optimal in terms of functional outcomes. Methods. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA checklist using the online databases Medline and EMBASE after January 1, 2005. Participants must be skeletally mature and suffering from ankle arthrosis of any cause. The intervention had to be an uncemented TAR comprising two or three modular components. The comparative group could include any type of ankle arthrodesis, either open or arthroscopic, using any implant for fixation. The study must have reported at least one functional outcome measure. Results. Of the four studies included, two reported some significant improvement in functional outcome in favour of TAR. The complication rate was higher in the TAR group. However, the quality of studies reviewed was poor and the methodological weaknesses limited any definitive conclusions being drawn. Conclusion. The available literature is insufficient to conclude which treatment is superior. Further research is indicated and should be in the form of an adequately powered randomised controlled trial.
PMCID: PMC4158286  PMID: 25215242
22.  Primary TKA Patients with Quantifiably Balanced Soft-Tissue Achieve Significant Clinical Gains Sooner than Unbalanced Patients 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:628695.
Although total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate, poor outcomes and early revision are associated with ligament imbalance. This multicenter evaluation was performed in order to provide 1-year followup of a previously reported group of patients who had sensor-assisted TKA, comparing the clinical outcomes of quantitatively balanced versus unbalanced patients. At 1 year, the balanced cohort scored 179.3 and 10.4 in KSS and WOMAC, respectively; the unbalanced cohort scored 156.1 and 17.9 in KSS and WOMAC (P < 0.001; P = 0.085). The average activity level scores of quantitatively balanced patients were 68.6 (corresponding to tennis, light jogging, and heavy yard work), while the average activity level of unbalanced patients was 46.7 (corresponding to light housework, and limited walking distances) (P = 0.015). Out of all confounding variables, a balanced articulation was the most significant contributing factor to improved postoperative outcomes (P < 0.001).
PMCID: PMC4151591  PMID: 25210632
23.  Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:640952.
Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted.
PMCID: PMC4124833  PMID: 25136461
24.  Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:534658.
Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability.
PMCID: PMC4119622  PMID: 25110591
25.  External Rotator Sparing with Posterior Acetabular Fracture Surgery: Does It Change Outcome? 
Advances in Orthopedics  2014;2014:520196.
This study analyses the results of the treatment with external rotator sparing approach in acetabular fractures to determine whether muscle sparing has a positive impact on functional outcome. 20 patients with a mean age of 45.9 years (range: 26–64) that had been treated for displaced acetabular fractures were included in this series. Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire and hip muscle strength measurement were done at the 24-month of follow-up period. The radiographic results at the final followup were excellent in 9 hips (45%), good in 6 hips (30%), fair in 4 hips (20%), and poor in one hip (5%) according to the criteria developed by Matta. The average SMFA score for all of the patients was 18.3 (range: 0–55.4). The mean dysfunctional and bother indexes were 17.2 and 20.6, respectively. The overall muscle strength deficit was 11.8%. The greatest loss of strength was in internal rotation. In patients with better postoperative reduction quality of acetabular fracture, peak torque, and maximum work of hip flexion, extension and also internal rotation maximum work deficit were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Accurate initial reduction and longer postoperative muscle strengthening exercise programs seem critical to decrease postoperative hip muscle weakness after acetabular fractures.
PMCID: PMC4109071  PMID: 25110590

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