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1.  Contralateral Occlusion Increases the Risk of Neurological Complications Associated with Carotid Endarterectomy 
Objective. To report on the incidence and factors associated with the development of perioperative neurological complications following CEA in patients affected by carotid stenosis with contralateral occlusion (CO) and to compare results between those patients and the whole group of patients submitted to CEA at our vascular division from 1997 to 2012. Methods. Our nonrandomized prospective experience including 1639 patients consecutively submitted to CEA was retrospectively reviewed. 136 patients presented a CO contralateral to the treated carotid stenosis. Outcomes considered for analysis were perioperative neurological death rates, major and minor stroke rates, and a combined endpoint of all neurological complications. Results. CO patients more frequently were male, smokers, younger, and symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented with a preoperative brain infarct and associated peripheral arterial disease (P < 0.0001), and presented with higher perioperative major stroke rate than patients without CO (4.4% versus 1.2%, resp., P = 0.009). Factors associated with the highest neurological risk in CO patients were age >74 years and preoperative brain infarct (P = 0.03). The combination of the abovementioned factors significantly increased complication rates in CO patients submitted to CEA. Conclusions. In our experience CO patients were at high risk for postoperative neurological complications particularly when presenting association of advanced age and preoperative brain infarction.
doi:10.1155/2015/942146
PMCID: PMC4326273
2.  Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data 
Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency.
doi:10.1155/2015/831369
PMCID: PMC4310239  PMID: 25648145
3.  Comparison of Colour Duplex Ultrasound with Computed Tomography to Measure the Maximum Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmal Diameter 
Introduction. Maximum diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the main indication for surgery. This study compared colour duplex ultrasound (CDU) and computed tomography (CT) in assessing AAA diameter. Patients and Methods. Patients were included if they had both scans performed within 90 days. Pearson's correlation coefficient, paired t-test, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated for the whole group. Subgroup analysis of small (<5.0 cm), medium (5.0–6.5 cm), and large (>6.5 cm) aneurysms was performed. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. 389 patients were included, giving 130 pairs of tests for comparison. Excellent correlation was in the whole group (r = 0.95) and in the subgroups (r = 0.94; 0.69; 0.96, resp.). Small LOA between the two imaging modalities was found in all subgroups. Conclusion. Small aneurysms can be accurately measured using CDU. CDU is preferable for small AAAs, but cannot supplant CT for planning aortic intervention.
doi:10.1155/2014/574762
PMCID: PMC4258918  PMID: 25506431
4.  Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat Model 
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm.
doi:10.1155/2014/254270
PMCID: PMC4251792  PMID: 25485154
5.  Complex Common and Internal Iliac or Aortoiliac Aneurysms and Current Approach: Individualised Open-Endovascular or Combined Procedures 
Objective. Bilateral internal iliac artery aneurysms constitute the utmost configuration of infrarenal aortoiliac disease. We detail characteristic aortoiliac disease patterns and reconstructive techniques we have used, along with a visualized decision-making chart and a short review of the literature. Material and Methods. A retrospective, observational study of twelve clinical cases of patients with aortoiliac disease are described. Two patients had a common iliac artery aneurysm and were managed by the application of inversed stent-grafts; another case was repaired by the insertion of a standard bifurcated stent-graft flared in the right common iliac artery and with an iliac branched device in the left iliac arterial axis. Open approach was used in 5 cases and in 4 cases a combination of aortouniliac stent-grafting with femoral-femoral bypass was applied. Results. Technical success was 100%. One endoleak type Ib in a flared iliac limb was observed and corrected by internal iliac embolism and use of an iliac limb stent-graft extension. We report 100% patency rate during 26.3 months of followup. Conclusion. Individualized techniques for the management of isolated iliac or aortoiliac aneurismal desease with special concern in maintaining internal iliac artery perfusion lead to elimination of perioperative complications and long-term durability and patency rates.
doi:10.1155/2014/178610
PMCID: PMC4195433  PMID: 25328706
6.  Synergistic Effect of Adjustments of Elastic Stockings to Maintain Reduction in Leg Volume after Mechanical Lymph Drainage 
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of elastic compression stockings on volumetric variations of lymphedematous limbs between mechanical lymph drainage sessions. Eleven patients with Grade II leg lymphedema, regardless of etiology, were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The ages ranged from 47 to 83 years old with a mean of 62.4 years. Participants were submitted to mechanical lymph drainage (RAGodoy) associated with adjusted and unadjusted knee-high elastic compression stockings (20/30 Venosan). The effect of these stockings on the maintenance of volumetric reductions between sessions of lymph drainage was assessed. In all, 33 evaluations were carried out, 18 of patients using well-adjusted stockings and 15 with badly-adjusted stockings. The differences in volumes were significant (unpaired t-test; P-value < 0.0001). Adjusting the compression provided by elastic stockings according to the size of the leg has a synergistic effect in reducing volume during mechanical lymph drainage.
doi:10.1155/2014/640189
PMCID: PMC4190019  PMID: 25328707
7.  Prevalence, Correlates, and Prognosis of Peripheral Artery Disease in Rural Ecuador—Rationale, Protocol, and Phase I Results of a Population-Based Survey: An Atahualpa Project-Ancillary Study 
Background. Little is known on the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in developing countries. Study design. Population-based study in Atahualpa. In Phase I, the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire (ECQ) was used for detection of suspected symptomatic PAD; persons with a negative ECQ but a pulse pressure ≥65 mmHg were suspected of asymptomatic PAD. In Phase II, the ankle-brachial index will be used to test reliability of screening instruments and to determine PAD prevalence. In Phase III, participants will be followed up to estimate the relevance of PAD as a predictor of vascular outcomes. Results. During Phase I, 665 Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were enrolled (mean age: 59.5 ± 12.6 years, 58% women). A poor cardiovascular health status was noticed in 464 (70%) persons of which 27 (4%) had a stroke and 14 (2%) had ischemic heart disease. Forty-four subjects (7%) had suspected symptomatic PAD and 170 (26%) had suspected asymptomatic PAD. Individuals with suspected PAD were older, more often women, and had a worse cardiovascular profile than those with nonsuspected PAD. Conclusions. Prevalence of suspected PAD in this underserved population is high. Subsequent phases of this study will determine whether prompt detection of PAD is useful to reduce the incidence of catastrophic vascular diseases in the region.
doi:10.1155/2014/643589
PMCID: PMC4217317  PMID: 25389500
8.  Potential Risk Factors for Varicose Veins with Superficial Venous Reflux 
The objective of the study is to evaluate a range of potential risk factors in the etiology of varicose veins with superficial venous reflux. Forty-nine patients attending a cardiovascular surgery clinic for the management of varicose disease between 2009 and 2010 were enrolled for the study. The age range of the patient group was 44,04 ± 15,05 years and female/male (F/M) ratio was 30/19. Twenty-six normal, healthy volunteers with the age of 40,94 ± 13,60 years and with the female/male ratio of 15/11 acted as control subjects. We investigated several parameters including body mass index, age, birth number > 1, standing for a long time (standing for 8 or more hours without taking a break), systemic diseases, family history, venous Doppler fındings, the levels of homocysteine, ferritin, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin, sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume, low density lipoprotein, and rheumatoid factor of the patient group and the control group. We also determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms and FV Leiden in both groups. In this small study, there appears to be no association between varicose veins and body mass index, smoking, type 2 DM, hypertension, family history, and birth number. A history of increased standing duration period (>8 hours) and rheumatoid factor positivity have association with varicose veins with superficial venous reflux.
doi:10.1155/2014/531689
PMCID: PMC4180898  PMID: 25302121
9.  Occipital Artery Function during the Development of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip Hypertension in Rats 
This study compared the contractile responses elicited by angiotensin II (AII), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated occipital arteries (OAs) from sham-operated (SHAM) and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. OAs were isolated and bisected into proximal segments (closer to the common carotid artery) and distal segments (closer to the nodose ganglion) and mounted separately on myographs. On day 9, 2K-1C rats had higher mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, and plasma renin concentrations than SHAM rats. The contractile responses to AII were markedly diminished in both proximal and distal segments of OAs from 2K-1C rats as compared to those from SHAM rats. The responses elicited by AVP were substantially greater in distal than in proximal segments of OAs from SHAM rats and that AVP elicited similar responses in OA segments from 2K-1C rats. The responses elicited by 5-HT were similar in proximal and distal segments from SHAM and 2K-1C rats. These results demonstrate that continued exposure to circulating AII and AVP in 2K-1C rats reduces the contractile efficacy of AII but not AVP or 5-HT. The diminished responsiveness to AII may alter the physiological status of OAs in vivo.
doi:10.1155/2014/659617
PMCID: PMC4129976  PMID: 25140254
10.  Influence of Acquired and Genetic Risk Factors on the Prevention, Management, and Treatment of Thromboembolic Disease 
Prevention, management, and treatment of venous thromboembolism requires understanding of the epidemiology and associated risk factors, particularly in recognizing populations warranting prophylaxis, in evaluating patients with high risk situations, and in determining the duration of anticoagulation required to minimize recurrent thrombosis and to avoid postthrombotic syndrome. The present paper reviews recent advances concerning acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis, analyses individual risks related to age, and focuses on thrombotic genetic risk factors and the synergistic gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and their importance in the management and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease.
doi:10.1155/2014/859726
PMCID: PMC4099036  PMID: 25057415
11.  Local Intracoronary Eptifibatide versus Mechanical Aspiration in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction 
Objectives. We compared local delivery of intracoronary eptifibatide via perfusion catheter to thrombus aspiration in primary PCI. Background. Perfusion catheter increases local concentration of the drugs at the culprit site and prolongs their residency time. Methods. 75 patients with acute STEMI were randomized to three groups: 25 received local intracoronary eptifibatide and verapamil via perfusion catheter; 25 patients were managed by Diver CE thrombectomy device and 25 patients by primary PCI without thrombus aspiration. Primary end point was assessment of postprocedural TIMI flow, MPG, and corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) in the culprit vessel. Results. Perfusion catheter was superior to thrombus aspiration and conventional PCI as regards MBG (68% versus 36% in Diver CE and 20% in the control arm; P value = 0.002), with shorter cTFC rates than thrombectomy and control groups (20.76 ± 4.44 versus 26.68 ± 8.40 and 28.16 ± 5.96, resp.; P = 0.001). TIMI flow was not different between the 3 groups. Eptifibatide led to less time to peak CK (13.12 hours versus 16.5 and 19.5 hours, respectively, P value = 0.001). Conclusion. Local intracoronary eptifibatide by perfusion catheter reduces thrombus burden with better results in microvascular perfusion assessed by cTFC and MBG compared to aspiration device or conventional PCI.
doi:10.1155/2014/294065
PMCID: PMC4060498  PMID: 24987529
12.  Greater Endothelial Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease 
We compared apoptosis, cellular oxidative stress, and inflammation of cultured endothelial cells treated with sera from 156 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and 16 healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we compared circulating inflammatory, antioxidant capacity, and vascular biomarkers between the two groups. The PAD group had a 164% higher value for endothelial cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) and a 62% higher value for endothelial cellular reactive oxygen species production (P < 0.001) than the control group. Furthermore, the PAD group had lower systemic antioxidant capacity measured by hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity activity (P < 0.001), higher inflammatory and vascular measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), interleukin-8 (P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (P < 0.001), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < 0.001), adiponectin (P < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (P = 0.013), apolipoprotein CIII (P = 0.035), lower vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.001), and hepatocyte growth factor (P < 0.001) than the control group. Subjects with PAD have greater endothelial apoptosis and oxidative stress than control subjects with low burden of comorbid conditions and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, subjects with PAD have lower systemic antioxidant capacity and angiogenic measures and higher circulating inflammatory parameters.
doi:10.1155/2014/160534
PMCID: PMC4054861  PMID: 24963409
13.  Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender 
Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.
doi:10.1155/2014/876527
PMCID: PMC4016930  PMID: 24860669
14.  Angiographic and Clinical Impact of Successful Manual Thrombus Aspiration in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Primary PCI 
Background. Diabetes mellitus is associated with worse angiographic and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Aim. To investigate the impact of manual thrombus aspiration on in-stent restenosis (ISR) and clinical outcome in patients treated by bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods. 100 diabetic patients were prospectively enrolled. They were randomly assigned to undergo either standard primary PCI (group A, 50 patients) or PCI with thrombus aspiration using Export catheter (group B, 50 patients). The primary endpoint was the rate of eight-month ISR. The secondary endpoint included follow-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results. Mean age of the study cohort was 59.86 ± 8.3 years, with 64 (64%) being males. Baseline characteristics did not differ between both groups. Eight-month angiogram showed that group B patients had significantly less late lumen loss (0.17 ± 0.35 versus 0.60 ± 0.42 mm, P < 0.001), with lower incidence of ISR (4% versus 16.6%, P < 0.001). There was a trend towards lower rate of MACE in the same group of patients. Conclusion. In diabetic patients undergoing primary PCI, manual thrombus aspiration (compared with standard PCI) was associated with better ISR rate after BMS implantation.
doi:10.1155/2014/263926
PMCID: PMC3996962  PMID: 24804102
15.  Changes in Cardiopulmonary Reserve and Peripheral Arterial Function Concomitantly with Subclinical Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction 
Background. Changes in cardiopulmonary reserve and biomarkers related to wall stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress concomitantly with the evaluation of peripheral arterial blood flow have not been investigated in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) compared with healthy subjects (CTL). Methods and Results. Eighteen HFpEF patients and 14 CTL were recruited. Plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at rest. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured at rest and peak exercise. Cardiopulmonary reserve was assessed using an exercise protocol with gas exchange analyses. Peripheral arterial blood flow was determined by strain gauge plethysmography. Peak VO2 (12.0 ± 0.4 versus 19.1 ± 1.1 mL/min/kg, P < 0.001) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1.55 ± 0.12 versus 2.06 ± 0.14, P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in HFpEF patients compared with CTL. BNP at rest and following stress, C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6, and TBARS were significantly elevated in HFpEF. Both basal and posthyperemic arterial blood flow were not significantly different between the HFpEF patients and CTL. Conclusions. HFpEF exhibits a severe reduction in cardiopulmonary reserve and oxygen uptake efficiency concomitantly with an elevation in a broad spectrum of biomarkers confirming an inflammatory and prooxidative status in patients with HFpEF.
doi:10.1155/2014/917271
PMCID: PMC3955597  PMID: 24719767
16.  Pre- and Postoperative Evaluation by Photoplethysmography in Patients Receiving Surgery for Lower-Limb Varicose Veins 
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery in treating primary varicose veins in the lower limbs by photoplethysmography (PPG) and duplex mapping (DM). Method. Forty-eight lower limbs were clinically evaluated according to the CEAP classification system and subjected to PPG and DM exams. Each limb had a venous refill time (VRT) of <20 seconds and a normal deep vein system (DVS) by DM. Results. The mean pre- and postoperative VRTs were 13.79 and 26.43 seconds, respectively (P < 0.0001). After surgery, 42 limbs (87.50%) had normal results by PPG (VRT > 20 seconds). Four limbs (8.33%) showed improved VRTs, but the VRTs did not reach 20 seconds. In the 2 limbs (4.17%) that maintained their original VRTs, the DM exams showed the presence of insufficient perforating veins. Conclusion. In most cases, PPG allows for a satisfactory evaluation of the outcome of varicose vein surgery.
doi:10.1155/2014/562782
PMCID: PMC3950472  PMID: 24696783
17.  Prognostic Significance of Circulating and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Foot 
Objective. We studied circulating precursor cells (CPC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with neuropathic foot lesions with or without critical limb ischemia and relationships between endothelial precursor cells (EPC) and peripheral neuropathy. Methods and Subjects. We measured peripheral blood CD34, CD133, and CD45 markers for CPC and KDR, CD31 markers for EPC by citofluorimetry and systemic neural nociceptor CGRP (calcitonin gene related protein) by ELISA in 8 healthy controls (C) and 62 T2DM patients: 14 with neuropathy (N), 20 with neuropathic foot lesions (N1), and 28 with neuroischemic recent revascularized (N2) foot lesions. Timing of lesions was: acute (until 6 weeks), healed, and not healed. Results. CD34+ and CD133+ were reduced in N, N1, and N2 versus C, and CD34+ were lower in N2 versus N1 (P = 0.03). In N2 CD34+KDR+ remain elevated in healed versus chronic lesions and, in N1 CD133+31+ were elevated in acute lesions. CGRP was reduced in N2 and N1 versus C (P < 0.04 versus C 26 ± 2 pg/mL). CD34+KDR+ correlated in N2 with oximetry and negatively in N1 with CGRP. Conclusions. CD34+ CPC are reduced in diabetes with advanced complications and diabetic foot. CD34+KDR+ and CD31+133+ EPC differentiation could have a prognostic and therapeutic significance in the healing process of neuropathic and neuroischemic lesions.
doi:10.1155/2014/589412
PMCID: PMC3929532  PMID: 24624298
18.  Investigation of Serum Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein IgG Levels in Patients with Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease 
It has been suggested that antioxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-oxLDL) antibodies play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to measure serum ox-LDL IgG levels in 31 patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) (≥50% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery; CAD+ group) and compare these levels with those of 32 subjects with <50% coronary stenosis (CAD− group) and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls using ELISA. We did not find any significant difference between CAD+, CAD−, and control groups in regard to oxLDL IgG levels (P = 0.83). Serum oxLDL IgG levels did not differ between 1VD (one vessel disease), 2VD (2 vessels disease), and 3VD (3 vessels disease) subgroups of CAD+ patients (P = 0.20). Serum anti-oxLDL titers were only significantly correlated with LDL-C in the CAD+ group (P < 0.05) and waist and hip circumference (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, resp.) in the CAD− group. In stepwise regression analysis, none of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors was associated with serum ox-LDL IgG levels. The present results suggest that serum levels of ox-LDL IgG are neither associated with the presence and severity of CAD nor with the conventional cardiovascular risk factors.
doi:10.1155/2014/845960
PMCID: PMC3930021  PMID: 24639897
19.  Wound Morphology and Topography in the Diabetic Foot: Hurdles in Implementing Angiosome-Guided Revascularization 
Purpose. Angiosome-guided revascularization is an approach that improves wound healing but requires a surgeon to determine which angiosomes are ischemic. This process can be more difficult than anticipated because diabetic foot (DF) wounds vary greatly in quantity, morphology, and topography. This paper explores to what extent the heterogeneous presentation of DF wounds impedes development of a proper revascularization strategy. Methods. Data was retrieved from a registry of patients scheduled for below-the-knee (BTK) revascularization. Photographs of the foot and historic benchmark diagrams were used to assign wounds to their respective angiosomes. Results. In 185 limbs we detected 345 wounds. Toe wounds (53.9%) could not be designated to a specific angiosome due to dual blood supply. Ambiguity in wound stratification into angiosomes was highest at the heel, achilles tendon, and lateral/medial side of the foot and lowest for malleolar wounds. In 18.4% of the DF, at least some wounds could not confidently be categorized. Proximal wounds (coinciding with toe wounds) further steered revascularization strategy in 63.6%. Multiple wounds required multiple BTK revascularization in 8.6%. Conclusion. The heterogeneous presentation in diabetic foot wounds hampers unambiguous identification of ischemic angiosomes, and as such diminishes the capacity of the angiosome model to optimize revascularization strategy.
doi:10.1155/2014/672897
PMCID: PMC3929512  PMID: 24624299
20.  Cross-Sectional Association between the Number of Missing Teeth and Cardiovascular Disease among Adults Aged 50 or Older: BRFSS 2010 
Objective. The relationship between oral health and cardiovascular disease is an emerging area of research. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the association of cardiovascular disease and the number of missing teeth as a risk indicator. Methods. Cross-sectional study design with data on 275,424 respondents aged 50 or older from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was used. The dependent variable was self-reported cardiovascular disease. The association between the number of missing teeth and cardiovascular disease was analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The regression was adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, income, dental visits, smoking status, physical activity, and body mass index. Results. In our study sample, 9.9% reported edentulism. Cardiovascular prevalence rates for those with edentulism were 25.4% and for those without any missing teeth were 7.5%. Respondents who reported edentulism teeth were more likely to report cardiovascular disease (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.71, 2.01). Conclusion. There was an independent association between the number of missing teeth and cardiovascular disease even after controlling for a comprehensive set of risk factors. These findings highlight the need to explore the potential role the number of missing teeth have in the risk of cardiovascular disease among older adults.
doi:10.1155/2014/421567
PMCID: PMC3928861  PMID: 24624297
21.  Interarm Difference in Blood Pressure: Reproducibility and Association with Peripheral Vascular Disease 
The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50–101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mmHg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P < 0.0005). 443 patients were measured on two separate occasions and the interarm difference for systolic blood pressure was reproducible for differences >20 mmHg. This study confirmed the presence of a systematic but clinically insignificant difference in systolic blood pressure between arms. The interarm difference was larger in hypertension and PAD. Consistent lateralisation is present for differences ≥20 mmHg and an interarm difference >25 mmHg is a reliable indicator of PAD in the legs.
doi:10.1155/2014/841542
PMCID: PMC3927742  PMID: 24616810
22.  The Impact of Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm on the Gastrointestinal and Renal Function 
Introduction. Systemic effects of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) may be altered by the mode of surgery. This study aimed to determine systemic effects of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compared to open repair (OR). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients with rAAA were repaired by OR or EVAR according to computerised tomographic (CT) findings. Renal function was monitored by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum urea and creatinine, and urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Hepatic function was assessed postoperatively for 5 days. Intestinal function was determined by the paracetamol absorption test. Intestinal permeability was assessed by urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio. Results. 30 rAAA patients were included. Fourteen had eEVAR and sixteen eOR. Serum urea were higher in eOR, while creatinine was similar between groups. Hepatic function showed no intergroup difference. Paracetamol absorption was increased in eEVAR group at day 3 compared to day 1 (P = 0.03), with no similar result in eOR (P = 0.24). Peak lactulose/mannitol ratio was higher in eOR (P = 0.03), with higher urinary L/M ratio in eOR at day 3 (P = 0.02). Clinical intestinal function returned quicker in eEVAR (P = 0.02). Conclusion. EVAR attenuated the organ dysfunction compared to open repair. However, a larger comparative trial would be required to validate this. The clinical trial is registered with reference number EUDRACT: 2013-003373-12.
doi:10.1155/2014/178323
PMCID: PMC3927867  PMID: 24616809
23.  Is Repeat PTA of a Failing Hemodialysis Fistula Durable? 
Purpose. Our objective was to evaluate the outcome of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and particularly rePTA in a failing arteriovenous fistula (AV-fistula). Are multiple redilations worthwhile? Patients and Methods. All 159 stenoses of AV fistulas that were treated with PTA, with or without stenting, during 2008 and 2009, were included. Occluded fistulas that were dilated after successful thrombolysis were also included. Median age was 68 (interquartile range 61.5–78.5) years and 75% were male. Results. Seventy-nine (50%) of the primary PTAs required no further reintervention. The primary patency was 61% at 6 months and 42% at 12 months. Eighty (50%) of the stenoses needed at least one reintervention. Primary assisted patency (defined as patency after subsequent reinterventions) was 89% at 6 months and 85% at 12 months. The durability of repeated PTAs was similar to the durability of the primary PTA. However, an early primary PTA carried a higher risk for subsequent reinterventions. Successful dialysis was achieved after 98% of treatments. Nine percent of the stenoses eventually required surgical revision and 13% of the fistulas failed permanently. Conclusion. The present study suggests that most failing AV-fistulas can be salvaged endovascularly. Repeated PTA seems similarly durable as the primary PTA.
doi:10.1155/2014/369687
PMCID: PMC3920629  PMID: 24587906
24.  Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Small Vessel Cerebral Stroke in Indian Population 
Background. Hypertension is an established risk factor for small-vessel cerebral stroke and the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the maintenance of blood pressure. We aimed at evaluating the contribution of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to the risk of small-vessel stroke in south Indian population. Materials and Methods. We investigated 128 patients diagnosed with small-vessel stroke and 236 age, and gender-matched healthy controls. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results. Hypertension was significantly more prevalent in the patient group and was associated with 6-fold increase in risk for stroke. ACE genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both patients and controls. Prevalence of DD, ID, and II genotypes in cases (34.4%, 43.7%, and 28%) did not differ significantly from controls (31.8%, 43.2%, and 25%). The polymorphism was not associated with small-vessel stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.52–1.55). However, diastolic blood pressure was associated with the ACE I/D genotypes in the patients. (DD; 90.2 ± 14.2> ID; 86.2 ± 11.9> II; 82.3 ± 7.8 mm Hg,  P = 0.047). Conclusion. Our study showed that hypertension, but not ACE I/D polymorphism, increased the risk of small-vessel stroke.
doi:10.1155/2014/305309
PMCID: PMC3913494  PMID: 24523965
25.  Results of Infrapopliteal Endovascular Procedures Performed in Diabetic Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia and Tissue Loss from the Perspective of an Angiosome-Oriented Revascularization Strategy 
Our aim was to describe our experience with infrapopliteal endovascular procedures performed in diabetic patients with ischemic ulcers and critical ischemia (CLI). A retrospective study of 101 procedures was performed. Our cohort was divided into groups according to the number of tibial vessels attempted and the number of patent tibial vessels achieved to the foot. An angiosome anatomical classification of ulcers were used to describe the local perfusion obtained after revascularization. Ischemic ulcer healing and limb salvage rates were measured. Ischemic ulcer healing at 12 months and limb salvage at 24 months was similar between a single revascularization and multiple revascularization attempts. The group in whom none patent tibial vessel to the foot was obtained presented lower healing and limb salvage rates. No differences were observed between obtaining a single patent tibial vessel versus more than one tibial vessel. Indirect revascularization of the ulcer through arterial-arterial connections provided similar results than those obtained after direct revascularization via its specific angiosome tibial artery. Our results suggest that, in CLI diabetic patients with ischemic ulcers that undergo infrapopliteal endovascular procedures, better results are expected if at least one patent vessel is obtained and flow is restored to the local ischemic area of the foot.
doi:10.1155/2014/270539
PMCID: PMC3914461  PMID: 24527215

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