Glioma is a heterogeneous disease process with differential histology and treatment response. It was previously thought that the histological features of glial tumors indicated their cell of origin. However, the discovery of continuous neuro-gliogenesis in the normal adult brain and the identification of brain tumor stem cells within glioma have led to the hypothesis that these brain tumors originate from multipotent neural stem or progenitor cells, which primarily divide asymmetrically during the postnatal period. Asymmetric cell division allows these cell types to concurrently self-renew whilst also producing cells for the differentiation pathway. It has recently been shown that increased symmetrical cell division, favoring the self-renewal pathway, leads to oligodendroglioma formation from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In contrast, there is some evidence that asymmetric cell division maintenance in tumor stem-like cells within astrocytoma may lead to acquisition of treatment resistance. Therefore cell division mode in normal brain stem and progenitor cells may play a role in setting tumorigenic potential and the type of tumor formed. Moreover, heterogeneous tumor cell populations and their respective cell division mode may confer differential sensitivity to therapy. This review aims to shed light on the controllers of cell division mode which may be therapeutically targeted to prevent glioma formation and improve treatment response.
Brain tumor; Astrocytoma; Oligodendroglioma; Asymmetric cell division; Symmetrical cell division; Stem cell; Progenitor cell; Cancer stem cell; Chemotherapy; Cell of origin
Suicide and bipolar disorder (BD) are challenging, complex, and intertwined areas of study in contemporary psychiatry. Indeed, BD is associated with the highest lifetime risk for suicide attempt and completion of all the psychiatric conditions. Given that several clinical risk factors for both suicide and BD have been well noted in the literature, exploring the neurobiological aspects of suicide in BD may provide insights into both preventive measures and future novel treatments. This review synthesizes findings regarding the neurobiological aspects of suicide and, when applicable, their link to BD. Neurochemical findings, genes/epigenetics, and potential molecular targets for current or future treatments are discussed. The role of endophenotypes and related proximal and distal risk factors underlying suicidal behavior are also explored. Lastly, we discuss the manner in which preclinical work on aggression and impulsivity may provide additional insights for the future development of novel treatments.
Suicide; Suicidal behavior; Bipolar disorder; Glutamate; Neurobiology; Depression; Treatment
Transgenic mouse models with knock-in (KI) expression of human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or human presenilin 1 (PS1) may be helpful to elucidate the cellular consequences of APP and PS1 misprocessing in the aging brain. Age-related alterations in total numbers of neurons and in numbers of synaptophysin-immunoreactive presynaptic boutons (SIPB), as well as the amyloid plaque load were analyzed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1–2 of 2- and 10-month-old APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI, APPSL (expressing human mutant APP751 carrying the Swedish [K670N/M671L] and London [V717I] mutations under Thy-1 promoter), and PS1 homozygous KI mice (expressing human PS1 mutations [M233T and L235P]). APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI mice, but neither APPSL mice nor PS1 homozygous KI mice, showed substantial age-related loss of neurons (−47.2%) and SIPB (−22.6%), specifically in CA1–2. PS1 homozygous KI mice showed an age-related increase in hippocampal granule cell numbers (+37.9%). Loss of neurons and SIPB greatly exceeded the amount of local extracellular Aβ aggregation and astrocytes, whereas region-specific accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ preceded neuron and synapse loss. An age-related increase in the ratio of SIPB to neuron numbers in CA1–2 of APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI mice was suggestive of compensatory synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate a region-selectivity in intra- and extraneuronal Aβ accumulation in connection with neuron and synapse loss in the hippocampus of APPSL/PS1 homozygous KI mice.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid precursor protein; Neuron loss; Synapse loss; Hippocampus; Presenilin-1; Stereology; Image analysis
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been shown to have significantly augmented and prolonged event-related potentials (ERP) to irrelevant visual stimuli compared to controls at both early and later stages (e.g., N200, P300) of visual processing and evidence of an overall lack of stimulus discrimination. Abnormally large and indiscriminative cortical responses to sensory stimuli may reflect cortical inhibitory deficits and a disruption in the excitation/inhibition ratio. Low-frequency (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. It was our prediction that after 12 sessions of low-frequency rTMS applied bilaterally to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices in individuals with ASD there would be a significant improvement in ERP indices of selective attention evoked at later (i.e., 200–600 ms) stages of attentional processing as well as an improvement in motor response error rate. We assessed 25 participants with ASD in a task of selective attention using illusory figures before and after 12 sessions of rTMS in a controlled design where a waiting-list group of 20 children with ASD performed the same task twice. We found a significant improvement in both N200 and P300 components as a result of rTMS as well as a significant reduction in response errors. We also found significant reductions in both repetitive behavior and irritability according to clinical behavioral questionnaires as a result of rTMS. We propose that rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD research and treatment.
Autism; TMS; Event-related potentials; Attention; Perception
Neurotrophins and other growth factors have been advanced as critical modulators of depressive behavior. Support for this model is based on analyses of knockout and transgenic mouse models, human genetic studies, and screens for gene products that are regulated by depressive behavior and/or antidepressants. Even subtle alteration in the regulated secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), for example, due to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-encoded Val-Met substitution in proBDNF that affects processing and sorting, impacts behavior and cognition. Alterations in growth factor expression result in changes in neurogenesis as well as structural changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture, including effects on dendritic length and spine density, in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex. These changes have the potential to impact the plasticity and stability of synapses in the CNS, and the complex brain circuitry that regulates behavior. Here we review the role that neurotrophins play in the modulation of depressive behavior, and the downstream signaling targets they regulate that potentially mediate these behavioral pro-depressant and antidepressant effects.
Antidepressant; Arc; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF); Depression; Ketamine; Nerve Growth Factor (NGF); Neuritin; Neurtrophin-3 (NT-3); Trk; VGF
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA results from deletions or mutations of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), an essential gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy, can compensate for SMN1 loss if SMN2 exon 7 skipping is prevented. Among the many cis-elements involved in the splicing regulation of SMN exon 7, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most effective target for an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated splicing correction of SMN2 exon 7. Blocking of ISS-N1 by an ASO has been shown to fully restore SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in SMA patient cells as well as in vivo. Here we review how ISS-N1 targeting ASOs that use different chemistries respond differently in the various SMA mouse models. We also compare other ASO-based strategies for therapeutic splicing correction in SMA. Given that substantial progress on ASO-based strategies to promote SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in SMA has been made, and that similar approaches in a growing number of genetic diseases are possible, this report has wide implications.
Antisense oligonucleotide; splicing; ISS-N1; ASO; SMA; SMN; PMO; MOE
Amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are the main cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Detection of AD is critically important in view of the growing number of potential new drugs that may influence the course of the disease in its early phases. However, cut-off levels for these CSF biomarkers have not yet been established. Variability in absolute concentrations of AD biomarkers is high among studies and significant differences were noticed even within the same datasets. Variability in biomarkers levels in these assays may be due to many aspects of operating procedures. Standardization of pre-analytical and analytical procedures in collection, treatment, and storage of CSF samples is crucial because differences in sample handling can drastically influence results. Multicenter studies showed that usage of ELISA kits from different manufacturers also affects outcome. So far only very few studies tested the efficiency of ELISA kits produced by different vendors. In this study, the performance of Innogenetics (Gent, Belgium) and Invitrogen (Camarillo, CA, USA) ELISA kits for t-tau and Aβ1-42 was tested. Passing-Bablok analysis showed significant differences between Invitrogen and Innogenetics ELISA methods, making it impossible to use them interchangeably.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid β1-42; Biomarkers; Cerebrospinal fluid; ELISA; Standardization; Tau proteins
Astrocytes are the predominant glial cell population in the central nervous system (CNS). Once considered only passive scaffolding elements, astrocytes are now recognised as cells playing essential roles in CNS development and function. They control extracellular water and ion homeostasis, provide substrates for energy metabolism, and regulate neurogenesis, myelination and synaptic transmission. Due to these multiple activities astrocytes have been implicated in almost all brain pathologies, contributing to various aspects of disease initiation, progression and resolution. Evidence is emerging that astrocyte dysfunction can be the direct cause of neurodegeneration, as shown in Alexander’s disease where myelin degeneration is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the astrocyte-specific cytoskeleton protein glial fibrillary acidic protein. Recent studies point to a primary role for astrocytes in the pathogenesis of other genetic leukodystrophies such as megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts and vanishing white matter disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge of the pathophysiological role of astrocytes focusing on their contribution to the development of the above mentioned leukodystrophies and on new perspectives for the treatment of neurological disorders.
Leukodystrophies; Glial cells; Myelin; Ion homeostasis; CNS diseases; Alexander’s disease; Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC); Vanishing white matter disease
Computational methods have complemented experimental and clinical neurosciences and led to improvements in our understanding of the nervous systems in health and disease. In parallel, neuromodulation in form of electric and magnetic stimulation is gaining increasing acceptance in chronic and intractable diseases. In this paper, we firstly explore the relevant state of the art in fusion of both developments towards translational computational neuroscience. Then, we propose a strategy to employ the new theoretical concept of dynamical network biomarkers (DNB) in episodic manifestations of chronic disorders. In particular, as a first example, we introduce the use of computational models in migraine and illustrate on the basis of this example the potential of DNB as early-warning signals for neuromodulation in episodic migraine.
Migraine; Neuromodulation; Nonlinear dynamics; Biomarkers; Spreading depression; Hodgkin-Huxley models; Central pattern generator; Pain
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related dementia, with the pathological hallmarks of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, brain atrophy and loss of synaptic terminals. Dysfunctional mitochondrial bioenergetics is implicated as a contributing factor to the cognitive decline observed in AD. We hypothesized that, in the presence of the AD neurotoxic peptide beta-amyloid, mitochondrial respiration is impaired early in synaptic terminals, which are vital to cognitive performance, preferentially in cognitive centers of the brain. We compared oxygen consumption in synaptosomal and perikaryal mitochondria prepared from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of wild type (WT) and AD transgenic Tg2576 mice. Compared to WT mice, Tg2576 mice showed decreased mitochondrial respiration in the cerebral cortex specifically in synaptosomal fraction, while the perikaryal mitochondria were unaffected. Neither mitochondrial fraction was affected in the cerebellum of Tg2576 mice as compared to WT. The occurrence of a bioenergetic defect in synaptic terminals of mice overexpressing mutant beta-amyloid, in particular in an area of the brain important to cognition, points to an early role of mitochondrial defects in the onset of cognitive deficits in AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid; Dementia; Energy Metabolism; Memory; Mitochondria; Oxidative phosphorylation; Oxygen Consumption; Tg2576
Vertebrate brains share many features in common. Early in development, both the hindbrain and diencephalon are built similarly. Only later in time do differences in morphology occur. Factors that could potentially influence such changes include certain physiological properties of neurons. As an initial step to investigate this problem, embryonic Alligator brain neurons were cultured and calcium responses were characterized. The present report is the first to document culture of Alligator brain neurons in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) as well as in standard mammalian tissue culture medium supplemented with growth factors. Alligator brain neuron cultures were viable for at least 1 week with unipolar neurites emerging by 24 hours. Employing Fura-2 AM, robust depolarization-induced calcium influx, was observed in these neurons. Using selective blockers of the voltage-gated calcium channels, the contributions of N-, P/Q-, R-, T-, and L-type channels in these neurons were assessed and their presence documented. Lastly, Alligator brain neurons were challenged with an excitotoxic stimulus (glutamate + glycine) where delayed calcium deregulation could be prevented by a classical NMDA receptor antagonist.
Alligator; Calcium mobilization; Immunoblot; Neuronal culture; NMDA receptor; Voltage-gated calcium channels
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurostimulation and neuromodulation technique that has provided over two decades of data in focal, non-invasive brain stimulation based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Its minimal risk, excellent tolerability and increasingly sophisticated ability to interrogate neurophysiology and plasticity make it an enviable technology for use in pediatric research with future extension into therapeutic trials. While adult trials show promise in using TMS as a novel, non-invasive, non-pharmacologic diagnostic and therapeutic tool in a variety of nervous system disorders, its use in children is only just emerging. TMS represents an exciting advancement to better understand and improve outcomes from disorders of the developing brain.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Neuromodulation; Neurostimulation; Child; Pediatrics; Safety; Therapeutic trials
Accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), intracellular inclusions of fibrillar forms of tau, is a hallmark of Alzheimer Disease. NFT have been considered causative of neuronal death, however, recent evidence challenges this idea. Other species of tau, such as soluble misfolded, hyperphosphorylated, and mislocalized forms, are now being implicated as toxic. Here we review the data supporting soluble tau as toxic to neurons and synapses in the brain and the implications of these data for development of therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies.
Alzheimer; tauopathy; neurofibrillary tangle; hyperphosphorylated tau
A body of epidemiological literature has suggested an association between prenatal infection, subsequent maternal immune activation (MIA), and later risk of schizophrenia. These epidemiological studies have inspired preclinical research using rodent and primate models of prenatal infection and MIA. The findings from these preclinical studies indicate that severe infection and immune activation during pregnancy can negatively impact offspring brain development and impair adult behavior. This review aims to summarize the major epidemiological and preclinical findings addressing the connection between prenatal infection and immune activation and later risk of developing schizophrenia, as well as the more limited literature addressing the mechanisms by which this gestational insult might affect offspring neurodevelopment. Finally, directions for future research will be discussed.
Prenatal infection; Maternal immune activation; Schizophrenia; Polyinosinic-polycytosinic acid (Poly IC); Cytokines; Neurodevelopment
Gene products such as organelles, proteins and RNAs are actively transported to synaptic terminals for the remodeling of pre-existing neuronal connections and formation of new ones. Proteins described as molecular motors mediate this transport and utilize specialized cytoskeletal proteins that function as molecular tracks for the motor based transport of cargos. Molecular motors such as kinesins and dynein's move along microtubule tracks formed by tubulins whereas myosin motors utilize tracks formed by actin. Deficits in active transport of gene products have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. We describe such disorders collectively as “transportopathies”. Here we review current knowledge of critical components of active transport and their relevance to neurodegenerative diseases.
Axonal transport; Neurodegenerative diseases
As a neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia found in the aging population. Immunotherapy with passive or active immunizations targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) build-up in the brain may provide a possible treatment option and may help prevent AD from progressing. A number of passive immunizations with anti-Aβ42 antibodies are in different phases of clinical trials. One active immunization approach, AN-1792, was stopped after the development of autoimmune encephalitis in 6% of patients and a second one, CAD106, in which a small Aβ epitope is used, is currently in safety and tolerability studies. Besides active immunizations with proteins or peptides, active immunizations using DNA which codes for the protein against which the immune response will be directed, so called genetic immunizations, provide additional safety as the immune response in DNA immunizations differs quantitatively and qualitatively from the response elicited by peptide immunizations. In this review, we summarize our data using DNA Aβ42 immunizations in mouse models and discuss the results together with the results presented by other groups working on a DNA vaccine as treatment option for AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-beta; immunotherapy; vaccination
Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can be secreted from many cells including activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Elevated levels of osteopontin in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid or brain of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease and more recently in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder has been reported. However, except for the case of MS, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which OPN may exacerbate disease. Alternatively, OPN through its ability to promote cell survival may in some contexts function in the brain in a protective capacity. OPN has several protein motifs that allow it to engage with several different signaling pathways involved in immunity and inflammation. A better understanding of the cellular pathways that are regulated by OPN in cells of the central nervous system is required to uncover its putative role in neuronal homeostasis.
Neurodegeneration; Integrin; CD44; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder; Macrophage; Microglia
Alterations in gyral form and complexity have been consistently noted in both autism and dyslexia. In this present study, we apply spherical harmonics, an established technique which we have exapted to estimate surface complexity of the brain, in order to identify abnormalities in gyrification between autistics, dyslexics, and controls. On the order of absolute surface complexity, autism exhibits the most extreme phenotype, controls occupy the intermediate ranges, and dyslexics exhibit lesser surface complexity. Here, we synthesize our findings which demarcate these three groups and review how factors controlling neocortical proliferation and neuronal migration may lead to these distinctive phenotypes.
Cerebral cortex; Gyral window; Gyrification index; Minicolumn; Neurogenesis
Diffuse axonal injury is a common pathological consequence of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Diffusion Tensor Imaging is an ideal technique to study white matter integrity using the Fractional Anisotropy (FA) index which is a measure of axonal integrity and coherence. There have been several reports showing reduced FA in individuals with TBI, which suggest demyelination or reduced fiber density in white matter tracts secondary to injury. Individuals with TBI are usually diagnosed with cognitive deficits such as reduced attention span, memory and executive function. In this study we sought to investigate correlations between brain functional networks, white matter integrity, and TBI severity in individuals with TBI ranging from mild to severe. A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol was used to study the default mode network in subjects at rest. FA values were decreased throughout all white matter tracts in the mild to severe TBI subjects. FA values were also negatively correlated with TBI injury severity ratings. The default mode network showed several brain regions in which connectivity measures were higher among individuals with TBI relative to control subjects. These findings suggest that, subsequent to TBI, the brain may undergo adaptation responses at the cellular level to compensate for functional impairment due to axonal injury.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI); Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); DTI; Cognitive Function
The name astroglia unifies many non-excitable neural cells that act as primary homeostatic cells in the nervous system. Neuronal activity triggers multiple homeostatic responses of astroglia that include increase in metabolic activity and synthesis of neuronal preferred energy substrate lactate, clearance of neurotransmitters and buffering of extracellular K+ ions to name but a few. Many (if not all) of astroglial homeostatic responses are controlled by dynamic changes in the cytoplasmic concentration of two cations, Ca2+ and Na+. Intracellular concentration of these ions is tightly controlled by several transporters and can be rapidly affected by the activation of respective fluxes through ionic channels or ion exchangers. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of astroglial Ca2+ and Na+ signalling.
Astrocyte; Homeostasis; Excitability; Ca2+ signalling; Na+ signalling
Based on evidence suggesting that deep brain stimulation (DBS) may promote certain cognitive processes, we have been interested in developing DBS as a means of mitigating memory and learning impairments in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study we used an animal model of AD (TgCRND8 mice) to determine the effects of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) on non-amyloidogenic α-secretase activity and DBS in short-term memory. We tested our hypothesis using hippocampal slices (in vitro studies) from TgCRND8 mice to evaluate whether HFS increases α-secretase activity (non-amyloidogenic pathway) in the CA1 region. In a second set of experiments, we performed in vivo studies to evaluate whether DBS in midline thalamic region re-establishes hippocampal dependent short-term memory in TgCRND8 mice. The results showed that application of HFS to isolated hippocampal slices significantly increased synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region and promoted a 2-fold increase of non-amyloidogenic α-secretase activity, in comparison to low frequency stimulated controls from TgCRND8 mice. In the in vivo studies, DBS treatment facilitated acquisition of object recognition memory in TgCRND8 mice, in comparison to their own baseline before treatment. These results provide evidence that DBS could enhance short-term memory in the CA1 region of hippocampus in a mouse model of AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; Deep brain stimulation; Hippocampus; LTP; Neuronal transmission Synaptic plasticity; Memory; TgCRND8 mice; Thalamus
The organization of the cortex can be understood as a complex system comprised of interconnected modules called minicolumns. Comparative anatomical studies suggest that evolution has prompted a scale free world network of connectivity within the white matter while simultaneously increasing the complexity of minicolumnar composition. It is this author’s opinion that this complex system is poised to collapse under the weight of environmental exigencies. Some mental disorders may be the manifestations of this collapse.
Minicolumn; Neocortex; Isocortex; Encephalization; Corticalization; Systems theory
Biological, genetic, and clinical data provide compelling proof for N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV2.2) as therapeutic targets for chronic pain. While decreasing channel function is ultimately anti-nociceptive, directly targeting the channel can lead to multiple adverse effects. Targeting regulators of channel activity may facilitate improved analgesic properties associated with channel block and afford a broader therapeutic window. Towards this end, we recently identified a short peptide, designated CBD3, derived from collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) that suppressed inflammatory and neuropathic hypersensitivity by inhibiting CRMP-2 binding to CaV2.2 [Brittain et al., Nature Medicine 17:822–829 (2011)]. Rodents administered CBD3 intraperitoneally, fused to the HIV TAT protein cell penetrating domain, exhibited antinociception lasting ~4 hours highlighting potential instability, limited oral bioavailability, and/or rapid elimination of peptide. This report focuses on improving upon the parental CBD3 peptide. Using SPOTScan analysis of synthetic versions of the parental CBD3 peptide, we identified peptides harboring single amino acid mutations that bound with greater affinity to CaV2.2. One such peptide, harboring a phenylalanine instead of glycine (G14F), was tested in rodent models of migraine and neuropathic pain. In vivo laser Doppler blood flowmetry measure of capsaicin-induced meningeal vascular responses related to headache pain was almost completely suppressed by dural application of the G14F peptide. The G14F mutant peptide, administered intraperitoneally, also exhibited greater antinociception in Stavudine (2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T)/Zerit®) model of AIDS therapy-induced peripheral neuropathy compared to the parent CBD3 peptide. These results demonstrate the patent translational value of small biologic drugs targeting CaV2.2 for management of clinical pain.
N-type calcium channel; CRMP-2; Uncoupling peptide; Meningeal blood flow; Migraine model; d4T/Zerit/Stavudine; NTR; AIDS therapy-induced neuropathic pain; Chronic pain
Most psychiatric and neurological disorders exhibit sleep disorders, and in some cases presage the disease. Study of the control of sleep and waking has the potential for making a major impact on a number of disorders, making translational neuroscience research on this area critical. One element of the reticular activating system (RAS) is the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which is the cholinergic arm of the RAS, and projects to the thalamus to trigger thalamocortical rhythms and to the brainstem to modulate muscle tone and locomotion. We developed a research program using brainstem slices containing the PPN to tell us about the cellular and molecular organization of this region. In addition, we developed the P13 midlatency auditory evoked potential, which is generated by PPN outputs, preparation in freely moving rats. This allows the study of PPN cellular and molecular mechanisms at the level of the whole animal. We also study the P50 midlatency auditory evoked potential, which is the human equivalent of the rodent P13 potential, allowing us to study processes detected in vitro, confirmed in the whole animal, and tested in humans. This translational research program led to the discovery of a novel mechanism of sleep-wake control, pointing the way to a number of new clinical applications in the development of novel stimulants and anesthetics.
Brainstem slices; Electrical coupling; Gap junctions; Modafinil; P13 potential; P50 potential