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1.  Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody in Vitiligo: A Prevalence Study 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2015;2015:192736.
Aim. The aim of the study was to study the relation of vitiligo with demographic data like age, sex, and duration and determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in vitiligo patients. Materials and Methods. This study was a cross sectional study consisting of 100 patients clinically diagnosed (old and new) as having vitiligo irrespective of age or sex. Patients with known thyroid disease on supplementation therapy, or who had undergone thyroid surgery, those on antithyroid medication, patients with other causes of leukoderma, and cases who do not provide informed consent were excluded from the study. Serum TSH and anti-TPO antibodies were measured in all the patients. Results. The prevalence of anti-TPO antibody positivity was found to be 28%. Conclusion. According to our study, none of our vitiligo patients had symptoms or signs of thyroid disease at the time of presentation but, on biochemical evaluation, anti-TPO antibodies were found in a considerable number of patients. Hence, we recommend screening of these patients with thyroid antibodies.
PMCID: PMC4306217  PMID: 25653881
2.  Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:913672.
Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG). Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n = 17), hypothyroidism (n = 14), or control (n = 31), provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60 ng/mL) were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P < 0.05). Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65 ± 30 μg/d) than in controls (115 ± 60 μg/d) (P < 0.05) with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73 ± 38 μg/d). Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings.
PMCID: PMC4279788  PMID: 25610705
3.  Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:580569.
Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls) was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups). t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P = 0.005). Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks.
PMCID: PMC4247980  PMID: 25478285
4.  Parathyroid Gland Involvement by Thyroid Cancer: Results from a Large Series of Thyroidectomies Performed in Two Italian University Hospitals and Review of the Literature 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:685425.
Objectives.Parathyroid involvement by thyroid cancer (TC) has not been frequently investigated in thyroidectomy-based studies. We aimed to detect cases of parathyroid invasion by TC in a large series of thyroidectomies and to review the literature on this topic. Study Design. A 10-yr period database research was made from the files of the Section of Pathology of two Italian University Hospitals. Out of 22,310 thyroidectomies, 10 patients with parathyroid involvement by TC were found. Results. The 10 patients, 7 females and 3 males, aged 55 ± 14 years (range 34–76, median 56) had papillary thyroid carcinoma and accounted for 0.4% of subjects affected by all TCs and submitted to thyroidectomy. The tumor invaded perithyroid soft tissues in 6 patients and central neck (level VI) lymph nodes in 3. Parathyroid involvement by TC occurred by infiltration in 6 cases, extension through an intervening pseudocapsule in 1, and both patterns in 3. All patients are alive and disease free at 5.6 ± 3-yr follow-up. Conclusion. Limited to thyroidectomy series, our results and literature data suggest that parathyroid involvement by TC has a 0.4–3.9% incidence rate; mainly affects women in their sixth-seventh decade of life; is associated to a good prognosis, unless massive extrathyroid extension of TC occurs.
PMCID: PMC4243597  PMID: 25436171
5.  What Happens in a 5-Year Follow-Up of Benign Thyroid Nodules 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:459791.
To determine an optimal time for follow-up of benign thyroid nodules, we retrospectively evaluated 249 euthyroid patients with uni-multinodular goiter, who underwent annual visit, and significant events that occurred in 5 years' time were registered. A significant event (appearance of new nodule, increase of nodule diameter >50%, appearance of compressive symptoms, thyroidectomy, repetition of FNA on the same nodule, and execution of FNA on new nodule) occurred in 26.1% of patients, with more than one event occurring in the same patient in 27.7% of cases. The majority of events (71.9%) were observed at 24- and 36-month follow-up visit. These results suggest that a patient diagnosed with benign nodular goiter may be safely followed-up at a 2-3-year interval time.
PMCID: PMC4236885  PMID: 25538855
6.  Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:531969.
Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4227325  PMID: 25405057
7.  Short Course High Dose Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:764281.
Purpose. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare but aggressive tumor with limited survival. To date, the ideal radiation treatment schedule, one that balances limited survival with treatment efficacy, remains undefined. In this retrospective series we investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of hypofractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of ATC. Methods. 17 patients with biopsy proven ATC treated between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed for outcomes and toxicity. All patients received short course radiation. Results. The most commonly prescribed dose was 54 Gy in 18 fractions. Median survival was 9.3 months. 47% of patients were metastatic at diagnosis and the majority of patients (88%) went on to develop metastasis. Death from local progression was seen in 3 patients (18%), 41% experienced grade 3 toxicity, and there were no grade 4 toxicities. Conclusions. Here we demonstrated the safety and feasibility of hypofractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of ATC. This approach offers shorter treatment courses (3-4 weeks) compared to traditional fractionation schedules (6-7 weeks), comparable toxicity, local control, and the ability to transition to palliative care sooner. Local control was dependent on the degree of surgical debulking, even in the metastatic setting.
PMCID: PMC4213987  PMID: 25379320
8.  Papillary Thyroid Cancer, Macrofollicular Variant: The Follow-Up and Analysis of Prognosis of 5 Patients 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:818134.
Objective. The main aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the recurrence and prognosis of this rare variant with the literature by analyzing the follow-up data of 5 patients diagnosed with papillary cancer macrofollicular variant. Methods. The demographic data, radiological and pathological data, and prognostic data of 5 patients who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer and were diagnosed with papillary cancer macrofollicular variant pathologically were retrospectively analyzed. Results. The mean age of patients whose mean follow-up period was determined as 7.2 years was 41, and the male/female ratio was 4/1. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy. The pathology report of 2 patients (40%) revealed macrofollicular variant of papillary microcancer, and 3 patients papillary cancer macrofollicular variant. Central dissection was performed in one patient (20%) due to macroscopic pathologic lymph node and 4 metastatic lymph nodes were reported. Also, locoregional recurrence was present in 3 out of 5 patients (60%). Conclusions. Although an impression of earlier and increased risk of recurrence in papillary carcinoma with macrofollicular variant has been documented, more studies with extensive follow-up times and large populations are required.
PMCID: PMC4175788  PMID: 25295215
9.  Antitumor Activity of Lenvatinib (E7080): An Angiogenesis Inhibitor That Targets Multiple Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Preclinical Human Thyroid Cancer Models 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:638747.
Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by blockading the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer. Lenvatinib mesilate (lenvatinib) is a potent inhibitor of VEGF receptors (VEGFR1–3) and other prooncogenic and prooncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1–4), platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), KIT, and RET. We examined the antitumor activity of lenvatinib against human thyroid cancer xenograft models in nude mice. Orally administered lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in 5 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), 5 anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and 1 medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) xenograft models. Lenvatinib also showed antiangiogenesis activity against 5 DTC and 5 ATC xenografts, while lenvatinib showed in vitro antiproliferative activity against only 2 of 11 thyroid cancer cell lines: that is, RO82-W-1 and TT cells. Western blot analysis showed that cultured RO82-W-1 cells overexpressed FGFR1 and that lenvatinib inhibited the phosphorylation of FGFR1 and its downstream effector FRS2. Lenvatinib also inhibited the phosphorylation of RET with the activated mutation C634W in TT cells. These data demonstrate that lenvatinib provides antitumor activity mainly via angiogenesis inhibition but also inhibits FGFR and RET signaling pathway in preclinical human thyroid cancer models.
PMCID: PMC4177084  PMID: 25295214
10.  Differential Profile of Ultrasound Findings Associated with Malignancy in Mixed and Solid Thyroid Nodules in an Elderly Female Population 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:761653.
Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25–6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules.
PMCID: PMC4094854  PMID: 25050189
11.  The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Infants and Children: Protection from Radioiodines 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:710178.
Potassium iodide (KI) is recommended as an emergency treatment for exposure to radioiodines, most commonly associated with nuclear detonation or mishaps at nuclear power plants. Protecting the thyroid gland of infants and children remains a priority because of increased incidence of thyroid cancer in the young exposed to radioiodines (such as 131I and 133I). There is a lack of clinical studies for KI and radioiodines in children or infants to draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of KI administration in the young. In this paper, we compare functional aspects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the young and adults and review the limited studies of KI in children. The HPT axis in the infant and child is hyperactive and therefore will respond less effectively to KI treatment compared to adults. Research on the safety and efficacy of KI in infants and children is needed.
PMCID: PMC4058186  PMID: 24971190
12.  The Beneficial Effects of Valproic Acid in Thyroid Cancer Are Mediated through Promoting Redifferentiation and Reducing Stemness Level: An In Vitro Study 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:218763.
Valproic acid (VPA) has been identified as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing differentiation in transformed cells. However, no study has shown the effect of VPA in the redifferentiation induction and stemness of anaplastic thyroid. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of VPA as a differentiation therapy agent in human thyroid cancer based on its effect on stemness and differentiation process. Indications for differentiation of 8305C and B-CPAP cell lines following VPA treatment were obtained by analyzing cell proliferation rate, morphological changes, adherent-dependent colony formation, and Hoechst 33342 staining. The expressions of stemness, differentiation, and aggressiveness specific marker genes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. VPA treatment effectively showed growth inhibition in both cell lines. The high nuclear-cytoplasmic (N : C) ratio of 8305C cells markedly decreased and treated cells became more epithelial-like. Treated cells showed stronger Hoechst 33342 fluorescence compared with control cells. The hTERT and OCT-4 reduction was paralleled with adherent-dependent colony formation decrement in both cell lines. VPA effectively induced NIS and TTF-1 in anaplastic cells, it whereas showed no clear pattern in papillary cell line. VPA treatment also resulted in the reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9. These finding suggest that VPA could redifferentiate the anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC4052487  PMID: 24963441
13.  Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:892573.
Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow-up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P < 0.01) and patients had gained weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0.13) and weight (69.3 versus 69.3 kg, P = 0.71). Patients on thyroxin treatment did not gain weight. TSH increase was significantly correlated with weight gain (r = 0.43, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, thyroid function is lowered within the laboratory reference range. Weight gain of patients who are biochemically euthyroid after hemithyroidectomy may be a clinical manifestation of a permanently decreased metabolic rate.
PMCID: PMC4052094  PMID: 24959372
14.  There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:283709.
Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200 kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors.
PMCID: PMC4053298  PMID: 24959371
15.  Preablation Stimulated Thyroglobulin/TSH Ratio as a Predictor of Successful I131Remnant Ablation in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer following Total Thyroidectomy 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:610273.
Background. About 90% of thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid cancers. Standard treatment is total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive I131remnant ablation and TSH suppression with thyroxine. Unsuccessful ablation drastically affects the prognosis of patients with DTC particularly high risk individuals; therefore, identifying the factors that affect the success of ablation is important in the management of patients with DTC. sTg is a good predictor of successful ablation in DTC. Its levels can be influenced by tumor staging and TSH values, as well as other factors. Therefore, we did this study using TSH to correct the predictive value of sTg in success of RRA. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 75 patients with DTC, who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by RRA and TSH suppression. Results. Preablation sTg and sTg/TSH ratio are significantly associated with ablation outcome. Cutoff value for sTg to predict successful and unsuccessful ablation was 18 ng/mL with 76.7% sensitivity and 79.1% specificity, while for sTg/TSH cutoff was 0.35 with 81.4% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity (P < 0.001). Association was stronger for sTg/TSH ratio with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.64 (2.43–55.61) than for sTg with AOR 5.42 (1.18–24.88). Conclusions. Preablation sTg/TSH ratio can be considered as better predictor of ablation outcome than sTg, tumor size, and capsular invasion.
PMCID: PMC4000651  PMID: 24987542
16.  Correlation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Findings with Thyroid Function Test in Cases of Lymphocytic Thyroiditis 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:430510.
Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011–2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter access 2. Results. Lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 55 cases. The commonest age group of lymphocytic thyroiditis was 21–30 years with male : female ratio being 1 : 10. Anti-TPO and TSH were elevated in 96.16% (25/26) of cases with grade 3 lymphoid infiltrate, 94.12% (16/17) of cases with grade 2, and 91.67% (11/12) of cases with 1 grade. Increased anti-TPO with raised TSH without any lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 5 cases and 5 cases showed only raised TSH without raised anti-TPO and without any lymphoid infiltrate. We observed that grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. We also observed that anti-TPO and TSH together are significant even if no lymphocytic infiltration is present. Conclusion. Grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has statistical correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. Anti TPO was adjunct to TSH in grade 3. The presence of Hurthle cell change, giant cells, and granulomas has no statistical correlation with lymphocytic thyroiditis.
PMCID: PMC3997907  PMID: 24808970
17.  Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:160780.
Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14). For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85) and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47). The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.
PMCID: PMC3972937  PMID: 24744955
18.  Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: Clinical Challenges 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:649502.
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a disorder most commonly seen in Asian men, is characterized by abrupt onset of hypokalemia and paralysis. The condition primarily affects the lower extremities and is secondary to thyrotoxicosis. The underlying hyperthyroidism is often subtle causing difficulty in early diagnosis. Factors like high-carbohydrate meal exercise, steroid, and stress can precipitate an attack of TPP. Evidence is building up showing role of genetic mutations in Kir2.6 channel in the pathogenesis of TPP. Loss of function of Kir2.6 together with increased activity of Na+/K+ ATPase may trigger a positive feed-forward cycle of hypokalemia. Biochemical hyperthyroidism with normal urinary potassium excretion and ECG changes are characteristic of TPP. Treatment with low-dose potassium supplements and nonselective beta-blockers should be initiated upon diagnosis, and the serum potassium level should be frequently monitored to prevent rebound hyperkalemia.
PMCID: PMC3945080  PMID: 24695373
19.  Association between TSH-Receptor Autoimmunity, Hyperthyroidism, Goitre, and Orbitopathy in 208 Patients Included in the Remission Induction and Sustenance in Graves' Disease Study 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:165487.
Background. Graves' disease may have a number of clinical manifestations with varying degrees of activity that may not always run in parallel. Objectives. To study associations between serum levels of TSH-receptor autoantibodies and the three main manifestations of Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism, goiter, and presence of orbitopathy) at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Methods. We describe a cohort of 208 patients with newly diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism. Patients were enrolled in a multiphase study of antithyroid drug therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism, entitled “Remission Induction and Sustenance in Graves' Disease (RISG).” Patients were systematically tested for degree of biochemical hyperthyroidism, enlarged thyroid volume by ultrasonography, and the presence of orbitopathy. Results. Positive correlations were found between the levels of TSH-receptor autoantibodies in serum and the three manifestations of Graves' disease: severeness of hyperthyroidism, presence of enlarged thyroid, and presence of orbitopathy, as well as between the different types of manifestations. Only around half of patients had enlarged thyroid gland at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, whereas 25–30% had orbitopathy. Conclusions. A positive but rather weak correlation was found between TSH-receptor antibodies in serum and the major clinical manifestation of Graves' disease. Only half of the patients had an enlarged thyroid gland at the time of diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3945164  PMID: 24696787
20.  Impact of Maternal Thyroperoxidase Status on Fetal Body and Brain Size 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:872410.
The obstetric consequences of abnormal thyroid function during pregnancy have been established. Less understood is the influence of maternal thyroid autoantibodies on infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of maternal thyroperoxidase (TPO) status on fetal/infant brain and body growth. Six-hundred thirty-one (631) euthyroid pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in Tampa Bay, Florida, and the surrounding area between November 2007 and December 2010. TPO status was determined during pregnancy and fetal/infant brain and body growth variables were assessed at delivery. Regression analysis revealed maternal that TPO positivity was significantly associated with smaller head circumference, reduced brain weight, and lower brain-to-body ratio among infants born to TPO+ white, non-Hispanic mothers only, distinguishing race/ethnicity as an effect modifier in the relationship. No significant differences were noted in body growth measurements among infants born to TPO positive mothers of any racial/ethnic group. Currently, TPO antibody status is not assessed as part of the standard prenatal care laboratory work-up, but findings from this study suggest that fetal brain growth may be impaired by TPO positivity among certain populations; therefore autoantibody screening among high-risk subgroups may be useful for clinicians to determine whether prenatal thyroid treatment is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3929063  PMID: 24624307
21.  Histopathological Changes of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in HIV-Infected Patients 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:364146.
Objective. To study histopathology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in HIV-infected African Americans in the United States. Methods. A retrospective review of 102 autopsy cases done by the Department of Pathology at Howard University Hospital from 1980 through 2007 was conducted. The histopathological findings of the thyroid and parathyroid glands were reviewed, both macroscopically and microscopically. A control group of autopsy patients with chronic non-HIV diseases was examined. Results. There were 71 males (70%) and 31 females (30%) with an average age of 38 years (range: 20–71 y). Thirteen patients with abnormal thyroid findings were identified. Interstitial fibrosis was the most common histological finding (4.9%), followed by thyroid hyperplasia (1.9%). Infectious disease affecting the thyroid gland was limited to 2.9% and consisted of mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and cytomegalovirus. Kaposi sarcoma of the thyroid gland was present in only one case (0.9%). Parathyroid hyperplasia was the most common histological change noted in the parathyroid glands. Comparing the histological findings of cases and controls, we found a similar involvement of the thyroid, with a greater prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia in HIV patients. Conclusion. Thyroid and parathyroid abnormalities are uncommon findings in the HIV-infected African American population.
PMCID: PMC3920837  PMID: 24587936
22.  The Morbidity of Reoperative Surgery for Recurrent Benign Nodular Goitre: Impact of Previous Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy versus Subtotal Thyroidectomy 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:231857.
Background. Subtotal thyroidectomy (STT) was previously considered the gold standard in the surgical management of multinodular goitre despite its propensity for recurrence. Our aim was to assess whether prior STT or unilateral lobectomy was associated with increased reoperative morbidity. Methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted extracting data from our endocrine surgical database for the period from January 1991 to June 2006. Two patient groups were defined: Group 1 consisted of patients with previous unilateral thyroid lobectomy; Group 2 had undergone previous STT. Specific outcomes investigated were transient and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and hypoparathyroidism. Results. 494 reoperative cases were performed which consisted of 259 patients with previous unilateral lobectomy (Group 1) and 235 patients with previous subtotal thyroidectomy (Group 2). A statistically significant increase relating to previous STT was demonstrated in both permanent RLN injury (0.77% versus 3.4%, RR 4.38, P = 0.038) and permanent hypoparathyroidism (1.5% versus 5.1%, RR 3.14, P = 0.041). Transient nerve injury and hypocalcaemia incidence was comparable. Conclusions. Reoperative surgery following subtotal thyroidectomy is associated with a significantly increased risk of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism when compared with previous unilateral thyroidectomy. Subtotal thyroidectomy should therefore no longer be recommended in the management of multinodular goitre.
PMCID: PMC3915859  PMID: 24563802
23.  Frequency of Adverse Events of Antithyroid Drugs Administered during Pregnancy 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2014;2014:952352.
The frequency and types of adverse events after initial antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy during pregnancy have never been reported, nor has whether the frequency of adverse events is the same as among nonpregnant subjects ever been investigated. We investigated retrospectively the frequency of adverse events after initial ATD administration to previously untreated Graves' disease (GD) patients during pregnancy. We reviewed the charts of cases of 91 untreated pregnant women who came to our hospital for the first time and were newly diagnosed with GD during the period between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2011. Thiamazole (MMI) was used to treat 40 patients and 51 patients were treated with propylthiouracil (PTU). Adverse events occurred in 5 patients (5/40; 12.5%) treated with MMI, and they consisted of cutaneous reactions in 5 patients. Adverse events occurred in five patients (5/51; 9.8%) treated with PTU, and they consisted of hepatotoxicity in two patients and cutaneous reactions in three patients. No patients experienced agranulocytosis or ANCA-related vasculitis. Comparison with the expected rate of adverse events in nonpregnant individuals showed that the frequency of adverse events in pregnant individuals was low.
PMCID: PMC3913092  PMID: 24523983
24.  Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2013;2013:592801.
Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.
PMCID: PMC3893807  PMID: 24490101
25.  Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2013;2013:398194.
Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1%) recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86%) continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P = 0.01). After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3884614  PMID: 24455413

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