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1.  Treatment for Osteoporosis among Women in Japan: Associations with Patient Characteristics and Patient-Reported Outcomes in the 2008–2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Surveys 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:909153.
This study was conducted to identify characteristics associated with treatment for osteoporosis among women aged 50 years and older in Japan and to explore differences among patients according to treatment regimen. Data were provided by a large annual survey representative of Japanese aged 18 and older; all measures were by self-report. Women aged 50 and older who reported diagnosed osteoporosis (N = 900) were compared based on current treatment status using bivariate statistics and logistic regression. Approximately 1 in 3 women in this study reporting diagnosed osteoporosis were currently untreated. Factors associated with current treatment for osteoporosis included having ≥1 physician visit in the prior 6 months (OR = 5.4, P < 0.001), self-rated moderate or severe osteoporosis (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001), completion of menopause (OR = 1.6, P < 0.05), and family history of osteoporosis (OR = 1.5, P < 0.05), while longer duration of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR = 0.9, P < 0.05) and arthritis (OR = 0.7, P < 0.05) were associated with lower odds of treatment. These findings suggest that diagnosed patients are not being actively managed in the longer term, and efforts need to be made to ensure that patients stay engaged with their healthcare providers.
PMCID: PMC4284929  PMID: 25587485
2.  Improving Hip Fracture Care in Ireland: A Preliminary Report of the Irish Hip Fracture Database 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:656357.
Introduction. Hip fractures are common injuries in the older persons, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The Irish Hip Fracture Database (IHFD) was implemented to monitor standards of care against international standards. Methods. The IHFD is a clinically led web-based audit. We summarize the data collected on hip fractures from April 2012 to March 2013 from 8 centres. Results. There were 843 patients with the majority being (70%) female. The 80–89-year age group accounted for the majority of fractures (44%). Most (71%) sustained a fall at home. Intertrochanteric fractures (40%) were most common. Only 28% were admitted to an orthopaedic ward within 4 hours. The majority (97%) underwent surgery with 44% having surgery within 36 hours. Medical optimization (35%) and lack of theatre space (26%) accounted for most of the surgical delay. While 29% were discharged home, 33% were discharged to a nursing home or other long-stay facilities. There was a 4% in-hospital mortality rate. Conclusions. Several key areas in both the database and aspects of patient care needing improvement have been highlighted. The implementation of similar databases has led to improved hip fracture care in other countries and we believe this can be replicated in Ireland.
PMCID: PMC4274861  PMID: 25548713
3.  Changes in Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Sclerostin following a Loading Dose of Vitamin D2 (300,000 IU) 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:682763.
Background. Vitamin D is important for bone health, although high loading doses have been associated with an increase in fracture risk. The mechanisms remain uncertain. Aim. We hypothesize that supraphysiological concentrations of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D may inhibit formation by increasing the production of Wnt inhibitors: sclerostin and DKK1. Subjects and Methods. We measured serum sclerostin and DKK1 in 34 patients (21 F, 13 M) aged mean (SD) 61.3 (15.6) years with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency treated with a loading dose of vitamin D2 (300,000 IU) intramuscularly. Blood samples were taken at baseline and serially up to 3 months. Results. Serum 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D increased markedly at 3 months (mean (SD) baseline 116 (63), 3 months : 229 (142) pmol/L, P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between sclerostin and DKK1 at baseline (r = 0.504, P = 0.002) and at 3 months (r = 0.42, P = 0.013). A significant inverse correlation was observed between sclerostin and eGFR at 3 months (r = −0.494, P = 0.007). Sclerostin increased significantly at 3 months (P = 0.033). In a multilinear regression analysis with % change in sclerostin and DKK1 as dependent variable, a positive significant association was observed with % change in 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (P = 0.038), independent of changes in PTH and following correction for confounders such as age, gender, BMI, BMD and eGFR. Conclusions. Supraphysiological concentration in 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D achieved following a loading dose of vitamin D increases sclerostin and may inhibit Wnt signalling. This may have detrimental effects on bone.
PMCID: PMC4274669  PMID: 25548714
4.  Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:897182.
Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years), parity (1–13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years).
PMCID: PMC4258313  PMID: 25506038
5.  Osteoporosis in Healthy South Indian Males and the Influence of Life Style Factors and Vitamin D Status on Bone Mineral Density 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:723238.
Objective. To study the prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in healthy men and to explore the influence of various life style factors on bone mineral density (BMD) and also to look at number of subjects warranting treatment. Methods. Ambulatory south Indian men aged above 50 were recruited by cluster random sampling. The physical activity, risk factors in the FRAX tool, BMD, vitamin D, and PTH were assessed. The number of people needing treatment was calculated, which included subjects with osteoporosis and osteopenia with 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture >20 percent and hip fracture >3 percent in FRAX India. Results. A total of 252 men with a mean age of 58 years were studied. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia at any one site was 20% (50/252) and 58%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dL) was seen in 53%. On multiple logistic regression, BMI (OR 0.3; P value = 0.04) and physical activity (OR 0.4; P value < 0.001) had protective effect on BMD. Twenty-five percent warranted treatment. Conclusions. A significantly large proportion of south Indian men had osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency. Further interventional studies are needed to look at reduction in end points like fractures in these subjects.
PMCID: PMC4244976  PMID: 25478284
6.  The Therapeutic Effectiveness of the Coadministration of Weekly Risedronate and Proton Pump Inhibitor in Osteoporosis Treatment 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:607145.
This trial was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) coadministration on the efficacy of weekly risedronate treatment for osteoporosis. Ninety-six women over 50 years old with low bone mineral density (BMD) participated in this trial. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: a 17.5 mg dose of sodium risedronate was administered weekly, with or without a daily 10 mg dose of sodium rabeprazole (n = 49 and 47 in the BP + PPI and BP groups, resp.). The following biomarkers were measured at the baseline and every 3 months: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen corrected for creatinine, parathyroid hormone, BMD of the lumbar spine, and physical parameters evaluated according to the SF-36v2 Health Survey. Statistical comparisons of these parameters were performed after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The Δ values of improvement in physical functioning after 12 months and bodily pain after 6 and 12 months in the BP + PPI group were significantly larger than those in the BP group. These results suggest that PPI does not adversely affect bone metabolism. Alternatively, approved bone formation by concomitant PPI treatment may have had favorable effects on the improvement of bodily pain and physical functions.
PMCID: PMC4241743  PMID: 25436170
7.  Differences in In Vitro Disintegration Time among Canadian Brand and Generic Bisphosphonates 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:420451.
The objective of this study was to compare the disintegration times among Canadian-marketed brand (alendronate 70 mg, alendronate 70 mg plus vitamin D 5600 IU, and risedronate 35 mg) and generic (Novo-alendronate 70 mg and Apo-alendronate 70 mg) once-weekly dosed bisphosphonates. All disintegration tests were performed with a Vanderkamp Disintegration Tester. Disintegration was deemed to have occurred when no residue of the tablet, except fragments of insoluble coating or capsule shell, was visible. Eighteen to 20 samples were tested for each bisphosphonate group. The mean (±standard deviation) disintegration times were significantly (P < 0.05) faster for Apo-alendronate (26 ± 5.6 seconds) and Novo-alendronate (13 ± 1.1 seconds) as compared to brand alendronate (147 ± 50.5 seconds), brand alendronate plus vitamin D (378 ± 60.5 seconds), or brand risedronate (101 ± 20.6 seconds). The significantly faster disintegration of the generic tablets as compared to the brand bisphosphonates may have concerning safety and effectiveness implications for patients administering these therapies.
PMCID: PMC4202245  PMID: 25349772
8.  Comorbidity and Healthcare Expenditure in Women with Osteoporosis Living in the Basque Country (Spain) 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:205954.
Objectives. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of multimorbidity in women diagnosed with osteoporosis and to report it by deprivation index. The characteristics of comorbidity in osteoporotic women are compared to the general female chronic population, and the impact on healthcare expenditure of this population group is estimated. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis that included all Basque Country women aged 45 years and over (N = 579,575) was performed. Sociodemographic, diagnostic, and healthcare cost data were extracted from electronic databases for a one-year period. Chronic conditions were identified from their diagnoses and prescriptions. The existence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 47 was defined as multimorbidity. Results. 9.12% of women presented osteoporosis and 85.04% of them were multimorbid. Although multimorbidity in osteoporosis increased with age and deprivation level, prevalence was higher in the better-off groups. Women with osteoporosis had greater risk of having other musculoskeletal disorders but less risk of having diabetes (RR = 0.65) than chronic patients without osteoporosis. People with poorer socioeconomic status had higher healthcare cost. Conclusions. Most women with osteoporosis have multimorbidity. The variety of conditions emphasises the complexity of clinical management in this group and the importance of maintaining a generalist and multidisciplinary approach to their clinical care.
PMCID: PMC4202277  PMID: 25349771
9.  Concern and Risk Perception: Effects on Osteoprotective Behaviour 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:142546.
This study aimed to determine the effect that level of concern for osteoporosis, as well as self-perceived risk of osteoporosis and fracture, has on supplementation use, seeking medical advice, bone mineral density (BMD) testing, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) use. Study subjects were 1,095 female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) untreated for osteoporosis at baseline. Study outcomes from self-administered questionnaires included calcium and vitamin D supplementation, self-reported seeking of medical advice regarding osteoporosis, BMD testing, and AOM use in the last 12 months at the late assessment. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Concern significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and, however, had no significant impact on screening or treatment. Heightened self-perceived risks of osteoporosis and fracture both significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and BMD testing while elevated self-perceived risk of fracture increased AOM use. Supplementation use was not significantly associated with concern levels and risk perception. Concern and risk perceptions to osteoporosis and fracture were significantly associated with certain bone-protective behaviours. However, the disconnect between perceived osteoporosis risk and AOM use illustrates the need to emphasize the connection between osteoporosis and fracture in future education programs.
PMCID: PMC4172925  PMID: 25276471
10.  Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury? 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:695014.
Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD) has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI). We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP). Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r = 0.33). HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r = −0.31) which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.
PMCID: PMC4158290  PMID: 25215260
11.  Effect of Simvastatin and Atorvastatin on Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density in Hypercholesterolemic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:468397.
Background. Besides lipid-lowering effect of statins, they have been shown to have nonlipid lowering effects, such as improving bone health. An improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) has been indicated in some studies after the use of statins, in addition to an increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level. The aim of this study is to explore the association between statins and bone health taking into consideration 25OHD level and BMD. Methods. This is a randomized, cross-sectional comparative study. Subjects were divided into two groups, hypercholesterolemic participants taking simvastatin or atorvastatin as the study group and a matched control group not taking statins. All participants were assessed for serum 25OHD and BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Results. A total of 114 participants were included in the study, 57 participants in each group. Results of serum 25OHD showed no significant difference between study and control groups (P = 0.47), while BMD results of lumbar spine and femoral neck showed significant difference (P = 0.05 and 0.03, resp.). Conclusion. Simvastatin and atorvastatin, at any dose for duration of more than one year, have no additive effect on 25OHD level but have a positive effect on the BMD.
PMCID: PMC4147265  PMID: 25197610
12.  Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:702589.
Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36 kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites.
PMCID: PMC4086652  PMID: 25136473
13.  Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:348189.
Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME) on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham) group and six ovariectomised (OVX) subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day); OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day). Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphatase (ACP), serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss.
PMCID: PMC4068096  PMID: 24995144
14.  Incidence of Fractures after Cardiac and Lung Transplantation: A Single Center Experience 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:573041.
Osteoporotic fractures are well-known complications of organ transplantation. Fracture rates up to 35% have been previously reported following heart and lung transplantations. Our institutional pretransplant protocols include DXA scans, vitamin D screening, and appropriate antiresorptive therapy. We aimed to assess the incidence of fragility fractures following cardiac or lung transplantation. In a retrospective study 210 electronic medical records of patients who underwent LT (110 men, 100 women) and 105 HT (88 men, 17 women) between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. Both clinical and radiographic fractures were recorded. DXA scans were obtained immediately after transplant. 17 out of 210 LT patients (8.0%) had fractures after transplantation and 9 out of 105 HT patients (8.6%) had fractures. The median time to the first fracture was 12 months and the mean time was 18 months for both LT and HT. In the HT recipients, the median femoral neck T score was statistically lower in the fracture group versus the nonfracture group. Similar results were seen in the LT patients. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate a much lower incidence of fractures in heart and lung transplant recipients in comparison with earlier reports. Comprehensive bone care and early initiation of antiresorptive therapy are possible contributors to these improved outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4016909  PMID: 24864223
15.  Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:465987.
Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.
PMCID: PMC3997903  PMID: 24808969
16.  The Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Propranolol Improves the Trabecular Microarchitecture and Mechanical Property in an Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:586431.
We conducted the present study to investigate the therapeutic effects of propranolol (PRO), alone and in combination with the antiresorptive agent ZOL, in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were OVX or sham-operated at 3 months of age. Twelve weeks after surgery, rats were randomized into six groups: (1) sham + vehicle, (2) OVX + vehicle, (3) OVX + ZOL (100 μg/kg, i.v. single dose), (4) OVX + ZOL (50 μg/kg, i.v. single dose), (5) OVX + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week), and (6) OVX + ZOL (50 μg/kg, i.v. single dose) + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week) for 12 weeks. At the end of treatment study, various bone parameters were evaluated. With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the lumbar spine and the femoral mid-shaft, the combination treatment of ZOL and PRO was more effective than each drug administered as a monotherapy. Moreover, combination therapy using ZOL and PRO preserved the trabecular microarchitecture better than single-drug therapy using ZOL or PRO in OVX rats. These data suggest that combination therapy with ZOL plus PRO represents a potentially useful therapeutic option for patients with osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3988934  PMID: 24800099
17.  Osteoporosis Health Beliefs of Women with Increased Risk of the Female Athlete Triad 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:676304.
Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided.
PMCID: PMC3964767  PMID: 24734207
18.  A New Predictive Index for Osteoporosis in Men under 70 Years of Age: An Index to Identify Male Candidates for Osteoporosis Screening by Bone Mineral Density 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2014;2014:781897.
Background. Bone mineral density (BMD) screening guidelines for osteoporosis in men seem to have remained unclear. We aimed to set up a predictive index for the osteoporosis(PIO) in men under 70 years of age and present the optimal cutoff value of it, so that clinicians might use it to identify male candidates who benefit from taking the BMD screening. Methods. Adult men under 70 years old who met certain criteria were included. With the determined significant predictors for osteoporosis, we created a new index that presumably best predicts the osteoporosis and compared the predictability of it to other variables. Lastly, the optimal cutoff value of the PIO was calculated. Results. A total of 359 men were included. Age, weight, and current smoking status turned out to be significant predictors for osteoporosis. The PIO was as follows: [age(years) + 10 (for current smoker)]/weight(kg). Compared to other variables, the PIO showed the greatest predictive performance with the optimal cutoff point being 0.87 at which sensitivity and specificity were 71.9% and 70.0%, respectively. Conclusion. A new predictive index appeared to predict the presence of osteoporosis fairly well and thus can be used with its cutoff point to identify men under 70 years of age who need BMD screening.
PMCID: PMC3960559  PMID: 24724035
19.  Adherence and Persistence with Once-Daily Teriparatide in Japan: A Retrospective, Prescription Database, Cohort Study 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:654218.
Adherence and persistence with osteoporosis treatments are essential for reducing fracture risk. Once-daily teriparatide is available in Japan for treating osteoporosis in patients with a high risk of fracture. The study objective was to describe real-world adherence and persistence with once-daily teriparatide 20 μg during the first year of treatment for patients who started treatment during the first eight months of availability in Japan. This prescription database study involved patients with an index date (first claim) between October 2010 and May 2011, a preindex period ≥6 months, and a postindex period ≥12 months and who were aged >45 years. Adherence (medication possession ratio (MPR)) and persistence (time from the start of treatment to discontinuation; a 60-day gap in supply) were calculated. A total of 287 patients started treatment during the specified time period; 123 (42.9%) were eligible for inclusion. Overall mean (standard deviation) adherence was 0.702 (0.366), with 61.0% of patients having high adherence (MPR > 0.8). The percentage of patients remaining on treatment was 65.9% at 180 days and 61.0% at 365 days. Our findings suggest that real-world adherence and persistence with once-daily teriparatide in Japan are similar to that with once-daily teriparatide in other countries and with other osteoporosis medications.
PMCID: PMC3876673  PMID: 24455412
20.  Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth Index and Periodontal Health in Osteoporotic Patients Affected by BRONJ: An Observational Study 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:231289.
The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal disease in 32 osteoporotic patients affected by bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Moreover, an investigation between the obtained data and 20 patients treated with bisphosphonate drugs and with no evidence of ONJ has been performed. Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a rare complication in a subset of patients receiving bisphosphonate drugs. Based on a growing number of case reports and institutional reviews, this kind of therapy can cause exposed and necrotic bone specifically in the jawbones. From April 2009 to June 2012, 32 osteoporotic patients treated with oral or intravenous (I.V.) bisphosphonates have been recorded. The patients' oral health has been compared with 20 bisphosphonates patients with no ONJ. The incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal disease was recorded in all patients and student's t-test was applied for comparing the two investigated groups data. Data demonstrated how the poor dental hygiene and periodontal disease of the BRONJ patients' are connected with the occurrence of jawbone necrosis.
PMCID: PMC3876686  PMID: 24455411
21.  Nanohydroxyapatite Application to Osteoporosis Management 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:679025.
Hydroxyapatite is chemically related to the inorganic component of bone matrix as a complex structure with the formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Previous studies have reported the application of microsized hydroxyapatite to bone regeneration, but the result is not satisfied. The limitation comes from the size of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the duration of treatment is very long. The advantages of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal are the osteoconduction, bioresorption, and contact in close distance. Crystal in osteoporotic bone is calcium phosphate hydroxide with the chemical formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Crystal of normal bone is sodium calcium hydrogen carbonate phosphate hydrate with the chemical formula of Ca8H2(PO4)6·H2O–NaHCO3–H2O. The recent development is applying nanobiology approach to hydroxyapatite. This is based on the concept that the mineral atoms arranged in a crystal structure of hydroxyapatite can be substituted or incorporated by the other mineral atoms. In conclusion, the basic elements of hydroxyapatite crystals, composed of atomic minerals in a certain geometric pattern, and their relationship to the bone cell biological activity have opened opportunities for hydroxyapatite crystals supplement application on osteoporosis. Understanding of the characteristics of bone hydroxyapatite crystals as well as the behavior of mineral atom in the substitution will have a better impact on the management of osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3830883  PMID: 24288653
22.  HIV and Bone Disease: A Perspective of the Role of microRNAs in Bone Biology upon HIV Infection 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:571418.
Increased life expectancy and the need for long-term antiretroviral therapy have brought new challenges to the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures is increased in HIV-infected patients; thus optimal strategies for risk management and treatment in this group of patients need to be defined. Prevention of bone loss is an important component of HIV care as the HIV population grows older. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV infection affects bone biology leading to osteoporosis is crucial to delineate potential adjuvant treatments. This review focuses on HIV-induced osteoporosis within the context of microRNAs (miRNAs) by reviewing first basic concepts of bone biology as well as current knowledge of the role of miRNAs in bone development. Evidence that HIV-associated osteoporosis is in part independent of therapies employed to treat HIV (HAART) is supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and is the focus of this review.
PMCID: PMC3826318  PMID: 24286015
23.  Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:791397.
Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity > 4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age < 6 months. After treatment, patients were followed through hospital discharge and returned for visits after 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Back pain severity improved 66% (P < 0.001), from 7.9 (95% CI: 7.1 to 8.6) at pretreatment to 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0) at 3 months. Back function improved 46% (P < 0.001), from 74 (95% CI: 69% to 79%) at pretreatment to 40 (95% CI: 33% to 47%) at 3 months. The percentage of patients regularly consuming pain medication was 70% at pretreatment and only 21% at 3 months. No adverse events related to the device or procedure were reported. RF-TVA reduces back pain severity, improves back function, and reduces pain medication requirements with no observed complications in patients with osteoporotic VCF.
PMCID: PMC3817678  PMID: 24228187
24.  Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:205963.
Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93) and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87) for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.
PMCID: PMC3814102  PMID: 24222888
25.  Knowledge, Health Beliefs, and Self-Efficacy regarding Osteoporosis in Perimenopausal Women 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:853531.
The aims of this pilot study were to (1) determine if having a family history of osteoporosis impacts knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding osteoporosis among perimenopausal women aged 42–52 and to (2) describe the impact of an osteoporosis-specific educational intervention had on the knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy of this population. Participants completed three surveys measuring knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis before and two months after the educational program. At baseline, no differences were noted in knowledge of osteoporosis among women with and without a family history of osteoporosis, although women with a family history perceived a greater susceptibility for developing osteoporosis than women without the family history. Findings indicate that both groups increased in knowledge of osteoporosis (P < .001). Benefits of calcium increased in the women without a family history of osteoporosis (P < .001) and benefits of exercise increase in women with a family history of osteoporosis (P = .007). There were no significant statistical findings regarding self-efficacy between the two groups of women. Findings indicate that an osteoporosis-specific educational program improves perimenopausal women's knowledge and some health beliefs.
PMCID: PMC3786500  PMID: 24102035

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