PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (55)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  The Effectiveness of Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF) and Combination of TMOF with Bacillus thuringiensis Against Aedes aegypti Larvae in the Laboratory 
Background:
Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF) terminates trypsin biosynthesis in adult and larval mosquito gut. It will inhibit the growth and development of mosquito larvae feeding on it resulting in death by starvation. The objective of this study is to determine the effective dose of Pichia-TMOF and the combination of Pichia-TMOF with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as larvicide on Ae. aegypti larvae.
Methods:
Aedes aegypti first-instar larvae were exposed to various doses of Pichia-TMOF, Bt and combination of Pichia-TMOF and Bt. The development of the larvae were observed and recorded daily during the bioassay larval test until the adult emergence.
Results:
The results showed that 400 ppm Pichia-TMOF and 300 ppm Pichia-TMOF were able to cause 100% and 67% cumulative mortality on Ae. aegypti larvae on 8th day respectively. At 200 ppm, 100 ppm and 50 ppm concentration Pichia-TMOF showed obvious stunted effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. Moreover, the combination of 400 ppm Pichia-TMOF with 0.1 ppm Bt showed synergistic effect on Ae. aegypti.
Conclusion:
Pichia-TMOF inhibited trypsin biosynthesis is potential to act in larval gut causing stunted growth and larval development and causing mortality. The combination of Pichia-TMOF and Bt increased the effectiveness in causing larval mortality.
PMCID: PMC3385564  PMID: 22808406
Pichia-TMOF; Bt combination; Aedes aegypti larvae
2.  The Occurrence of Red-Back Spider Latrodectus hasselti (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Bandar Abbas, Southern Part of Iran 
Background:
Due to importance and fatal affect of Red-back spiders, Latrodectus hasselti, a faunistic survey for presence of this spider in Bandar Abbas has been conducted. This animal is considerably the most medically importance spiders all over the world.
Methods:
Live adult spider specimens were collected from Bandar Abbas town using hand catch conventional method and transferred to the laboratory throughout the summer of 2008. They were identified based on morphological characteristics and taxonomic keys and confirmed by some external experts.
Results:
Results showed the occurrence of the red-back spider, L. hasselti from Bandar Abbas, southern port of Iran. Two female specimens were found. The spider had specific morphological characters including black color with an obvious orange to red longitudinal strip on its upper parts of abdomen.
Conclusion:
Although the specimens were collected from south of the country, however since the region is an important harbor and port and goods come form different parts of world we assume the possibility of arrival from its origin and native breeding sites of the world. Therefore further investigation is needed to clarify the presence of this species in different parts of Iran.
PMCID: PMC3385565  PMID: 22808411
Latrodectus hasselti; Spider; Iran
3.  Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca domestica 
Background:
Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spinosad against housefly.
Methods:
In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg (A.I.) per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combination of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 μg (AI) per gram medium.
Results:
Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treatments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interaction was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treatments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spinosad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae.
Conclusion:
The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time.
PMCID: PMC3385566  PMID: 22808408
Metarhizium anisopliae; Musca domestica; spinosad; Iran
4.  Molecular Detection of Leishmania infantum in Naturally Infected Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus in Bilesavar District, Northwestern Iran 
Background:
Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted to humans by bites of phlebotomine sand flies and is one of the most important public health problems in Iran. To identify the vector(s), an investigation was carried out in Bilesavar District, one of the important foci of the disease in Ardebil Province in northwestern Iran, during July–September 2008.
Methods:
Using sticky papers, 2,110 sand flies were collected from indoors (bedroom, guestroom, toilet and stable) and outdoors (wall cracks, crevices and animal burrows) and identified morphologically. Species-specific amplification of promastigotes revealed specific PCR products of L. infantum DNA.
Results:
Six sand fly species were found in the district, including: Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus, P. papatasi, P. tobbi, P. sergenti, Sergentomyia dentata and S. sintoni. Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus was the dominant species of the genus Phlebotomus (62.8%). Of 270 female dissected P. perfiliewi transcuacasicus, 4 (1.5%) were found naturally infected with promastigotes.
Conclusion:
Based on natural infections of P. perfiliewi transcaucasicus with L. infantum and the fact that it was the only species found infected with L. infantum, it seems, this sand fly could be the principal vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the region.
PMCID: PMC3385567  PMID: 22808407
Leishmania infantum; Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcuacasicus; nested PCR; Iran
5.  PCR-Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Collected from Sheep and Goats in Southeast Iran 
Background:
There is a little data on Coxiella burnetii (Q fever agent) in Iran. Ticks may play a significant role in the transmission of C. burnetii among animals. The aim of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction for the detection of C. burnetii in ticks collected in Southeast Iran.
Methods:
One hundred and sixty ticks were collected from domestic animals in three localities of Kerman Province, Southeast Iran from November to June 2009. The collected ticks were divided into 35 pools and examined by Trans-PCR for C. burnetii.
Results:
Three pools, each consisting of five female of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and one pool (6 ticks) of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from goats and sheep were found to be positive by Trans-PCR.
Conclusion:
This paper documents the first molecular detection of C. burnetii in ticks, which shows their role as putative vectors and reservoirs for this pathogenic agent.
PMCID: PMC3385568  PMID: 22808404
Coxiella burnetii; Ticks; Trans-PCR; Iran
6.  Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera) under Laboratory Conditions 
Background:
The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp.
Methods:
Rate of development (ROD) and accumulated degree day (ADD) of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C) was calculated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion.
Results:
Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata) in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K) were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD) for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively.
Conclusion:
This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.
PMCID: PMC3385569  PMID: 22808410
Degree Day; Forensic Entomology; Larval development; Myiasis; PMI
7.  Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia persica in Animal Blood Samples 
Background:
The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF) is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by microscopy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spirochetemia.
Methods:
Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR targeting flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were performed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia.
Results:
The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spirochete was seen in 5–10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL) was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentration as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ≥ 25000 bacteria/ml.
Conclusion:
Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.
PMCID: PMC3385570  PMID: 22808405
Borrelia persica; Relapsing fever; Diagnosis; PCR; Enrichment method
8.  Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran 
Background:
Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.
Methods:
This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid), vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant), habitat type (natural or artificial), and water temperature.
Results:
In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologically identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. superpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6°C (n=14) (16–25°C), 22.6°C (n=53) (12–33°C), 23.8°C (n=52) (10–33°C), 11.5°C (n=12) (9–21°C), and 20.4°C (n=7) (12–26°C), respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5°C) of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000). Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9%) such as river bed pools (46.4%) and rain pools (33.1%) with transient (98.3%), stagnant (99.5%) and clear (95.3%) water, with vegetation (69.9%), mud (42.0%) or gravel (39.7%) substrate in full sunlight (69.6%) or shaded (22.7%) area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.
Conclusion:
The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An. maculipennis s.l., in Guilan Province are: river bed pools, rain pools, and rice fields.
PMCID: PMC3385571  PMID: 22808409
Anophelinae; Ecology; Iran; larvae
9.  Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) in West of Iran 
Background:
Hyalomma anatolicum is the well-known hard tick, which is one of the most important livestock and human pathogens vector, wide range in host and distributed in all over the Hyalomma geographic fauna as well as in Iran. Taxonomy of the Hyalomma ssp. is debatable whereas their identification is a problematic work. The reasons for this claim is time consuming Delpy’s researches in Iran also Schulze School, Feldman-Muhsam and the Russian tick workers. We would like to understand morphometric variation in the field collected H. anatolicum in Iran also validating some morphologic quantitative and qualitative characters.
Methods:
A total 247 field-collected tick specimens from different geographical regions in west of Iran includes Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces were studied. The morphologic characters of the ticks were measured by the calibrated stereomicroscope armed scaled lens. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS for windows, version 16 on an IBM PC, so varied shapes of species in different geographic regions were drawn by the aid of a drawing tube connected to a light stereomicroscope.
Results:
One way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the quantitative parameters in five zones (P < 0.001) also each zone to other zone by Post Hoc Tests e.g. LSD. No significant differences in the lateral grooves length/conscutum length ratio parameter were found.
Conclusion:
Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the morphometric parameters of H.anatolicum underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma species dependes on a complement morphometric study on the other species.
PMCID: PMC3385572  PMID: 22808415
Hyalomma anatolicum; Morphologic characters; Morphometric study; Variation; Iran
10.  Production and Purification of Anti-Rhombomys opimus Immunoglobulins 
Background:
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an increasing public health problem in some endemic regions. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated rabbit anti-Rhombomys opimus (R. opimus) Ig is needed for immunoblotting and ELISA tests used to explore the immune response of the rodents against the sand fly saliva. In this study, the production of HRP conjugated rabbit anti-R. opimus Ig was conducted for the first time.
Methods:
Rhombomys opimus Ig was purified from serum by protein G affinity chromatography column and injected into rabbit to produce anti-R. opimus Ig antibody. The titration of antibody against R. opimus Ig in rabbit serum was checked using indirect ELISA. Rabbit anti-R. opimus Ig was purified by Sepharose-4B-R. opimus Ig column. Reactivity of this antibody was assessed by indirect ELISA and was conjugated to HRP by periodate method.
Results:
Approximately 3.5 mg Ig was purified from 1 ml R. opimus serum using protein G affinity chromatography column. The molecular weight of purified R. opimus Ig was estimated about 150 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Nearly 2.3 mg rabbit anti-R. opimus Ig was purified from 1 ml immunized rabbit serum. The purified antibody was conjugated to HRP and the optimum titer of HRP conjugated rabbit anti-R. opimus Ig was determined as 1:8000 using direct ELISA.
Conclusion:
HRP conjugated rabbit anti-Gerbil IgG has been produced by a few companies, but to our knowledge HRP conjugated rabbit anti-R. opimus Ig is not commercially available. Production of HRP conjugated rabbit anti-R. opimus Ig is considerably helpful for immunological studies of R. opimus, the main reservoir host of ZCL in Iran as well as some other countries.
PMCID: PMC3385573  PMID: 22808420
Rhombomys opimus; Polyclonal antibody; Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis; Immunoglobulin; Iran
11.  Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi 
Background:
Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran.
Methods:
Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program.
Results:
Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively.
Conclusion:
All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties.
PMCID: PMC3385574  PMID: 22808418
Malaria; Apiaceae; Vector; Anopheles stephensi
12.  Neospora caninum and Leishmania infantum Co-Infection in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwestern Iran 
Background:
Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (MVL) is an infectious disease that affects both human and animals. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are principal reservoir hosts of MVL caused by Leishmania infantum. Dogs are definitive hosts for Neospora caninum and a risk factor for infecting intermediate hosts. The immunosuppression caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can promote the occurrence of co-infections with other agents such as neosporosis. This study aimed to determine the frequency of co-infection of the both protozoan parasites in the endemic areas of VL from Meshkin-Shahr District, north-west of Iran.
Methods:
Altogether, 171 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs of Meshkin-Shahr District by multistage cluster sampling from October 2008 to August 2009. The collected serum samples were tested for the detection of simultaneous infection of L. infantum and N. caninum using direct agglutination test (DAT) and indirect ELISA, respectively.
Results:
Of the 171 domestic dogs, 27 (15.8%) and 52 (30.4%) were showed antibodies against L. infantum and N. caninum, respectively. Simultaneous infections of N. caninum and L. infantum was found in 16 (9.4%) of the dogs. In VL-positive and VL-negative dogs, N. caninum infection was found in 59.3% and 25.0%, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between VL-positive and VL-negative dogs with N. caninum infection (P= 0.001).
Conclusion:
These findings indicate that Meshkin-Shahr District in northwestern Iran is an active focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Neospora caninum and L. infantum co-infection is prevalent in the area and infection by L. infantum seems to enhance susceptibility to N. caninum infection in domestic dogs.
PMCID: PMC3385575  PMID: 22808419
Neospora caninum; Leishmania infantum; Co-infection; Seroepidemiology; dog; Iran
13.  Adulticidal Activity of Olea vera, Linum usitatissimum and Piper nigera against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti under Laboratory Conditions 
Background:
There are several plant extractions which are being used for mosquito control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Olea vera, Linum usitatissimum and Piper nigera against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions.
Methods:
These tests were carried out using WHO recommended bioassay method for adult mosquitoes.
Results:
The extracts from black pepper was more effective as adulticide with lowest LC50 values (2.26% and 8.4%) against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi after 24 h of exposure while after 48h (1.56% and 5.11%) respectively. In terms of LC90 value black pepper was best with (8.66% and 30.1%) against Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi after 24 h of exposure while after 48h (4.59% and 17.3%) respectively. In terms of LT50 black pepper took 15 h to kill 50% tested population of Ae. aegypti while against An. stephensi it took more than 2 days. In terms of percentage mortality black pepper kill 84% of the population of Ae. aegypti and 44.75% of the An. stephensi population.
Conclusion:
Black pepper showed best results in term of LC50, LC90, LT50 and percentage mortality against Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Our study suggested that the plant extracts have potential to kill adult mosquitoes, are environment friendly and can be used for the control of mosquitoes.
PMCID: PMC3385576  PMID: 22808413
Adulticide; Plant extracts; Anopheles stephensi
14.  Utility of Filter Paper for Preserving Insects, Bacteria, and Host Reservoir DNA for Molecular Testing 
Background:
Appropriate methodology for storage biological materials, extraction of DNA, and proper DNA preservation is vital for studies involving genetic analysis of insects, bacteria, and reservoir hosts as well as for molecular diagnostics of pathogens carried by vectors and reservoirs. Here we tried to evaluate the utility of a simple filter paper-based for storage of insects, bacteria, rodent, and human DNAs using PCR assays.
Methods:
Total body or haemolymph of individual mosquitoes, sand flies or cockroaches squashed or placed on the paper respectively. Extracted DNA of five different bacteria species as well as blood specimens of human and great gerbil Rhombomys opimus was pipetted directly onto filter paper. The papers were stored in room temperature up to 12 months during 2009 until 2011. At monthly intervals, PCR was conducted using a 1-mm disk from the DNA impregnated filter paper as target DNA. PCR amplification was performed against different target genes of the organisms including the ITS2-rDNA of mosquitoes, mtDNA-COI of the sand flies and cockroaches, 16SrRNA gene of the bacteria, and the mtDNA-CytB of the vertebrates.
Results:
Successful PCR amplification was observed for all of the specimens regardless of the loci, taxon, or time of storage. The PCR amplification were ranged from 462 to 1500 bp and worked well for the specified target gene/s. Time of storage did not affect the amplification up to one year.
Conclusion:
The filter paper method is a simple and economical way to store, to preserve, and to distribute DNA samples for PCR analysis.
PMCID: PMC3385577  PMID: 22808417
DNA; PCR; Insects; Bacteria; Vertebrate; Preservation; Filter paper
15.  Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers 
Background:
Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition.
Methods:
Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis.
Results:
The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2.
Conclusion:
This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi.
PMCID: PMC3385578  PMID: 22808414
Calendula officinalis; Myrtus communis; DEET; Anopheles stephensi; Repellent; Essential oils; Iran
17.  Susceptibility Status of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) to DDT and Deltamethrin in a Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Earthquake Strike in Bam, Iran 
Background:
The cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been occurred in Dehbakri County, located 46 km of Bam District, Kerman Province since 2004–2005. Phlebotomus papatasi is an important vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmanisis (ZCL) as well as sand fly fever and P. sergenti is considered as main vector of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Iran. There are several measures for vector control with emphasizing on insecticides. The objective of this study was to determine the baseline susceptibility of leishmaniasis vectors to the DDT and deltamethrin in an endemic focus of CL in southern Iran.
Methods:
Baseline susceptibility tests were carried out on field collected strains of P. papatasi and P. sergenti and tested with WHO impregnated papers with DDT 4.0% and deltamethrin 0.05% in the focus of disease in Dehbakri County during summer 2010. The values of LT50 and LT90 were determined using probit analysis and regression lines.
Results:
The LT50 value of DDT 4.0% and deltamethrin 0.05% against P. papatasi was 20.6 and 13.6 minutes respectively. The same data for P. sergenti were ranged between 21.8 and 17.7 minutes.
Conclusion:
The results of tests will provide a guideline for implementation of vector control using pesticides such as impregnated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and fogging.
PMCID: PMC3385580  PMID: 22808416
Phlebotomus papatasi; Phlebotomus sergenti; insecticides; susceptibility; Iran
18.  One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Infestation with Linguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran 
Background:
Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran.
Methods:
Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs.
Results:
The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (P< 0.05). No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (P> 0.05).
Conclusion:
Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.
PMCID: PMC3385538  PMID: 22808389
Linguatula serrata; Infection; One humped camel; Tabriz; Iran
19.  Molecular Monitoring of Plasmodium vivax Infection after Radical Treatment in Southeastern Iran 
Background:
The aim was to evaluate the relapse risk of vivax malaria in patients who received radical treatment in Hormozgan Province, a malarious area located on southeast of Iran.
Methods:
A total of 95 symptomatic vivax malaria infected patients were enrolled in urban health centers of Bandar-Abbas, Minab, Bandar-Jask and Bashagard districts of Hormozgan Province, southeast of Iran from January 2008 to March 2009 for consideration as a case- series study. DNA was extracted from parasite infected whole blood samples. A polymorphic region of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvMSP1) was selected and a PCR method was employed for all the samples to amplify the specific variable gene fragment. The obtained fragments in primary and secondary samples were sequenced. Both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the samples were investigated for returned patients.
Results:
3.2% of the patients experienced a second attack between 83–199 days after the initial episode of infection. Alignment of nucleotide and their deduced amino acid sequences between pair sequences of primary and secondary isolates revealed 8 and 6 dissimilarities respectively for the first case, and 9 and 7 dissimilarities for the second case. Although microscopical examination of recurrent thick blood smear of the third patient confirmed new P. vivax infection, the venous blood sample was accidentally missed. Sequencing results of primary and returned isolates 1P, 1S, 2P, 2S and 3P in this study showed an identity with BP13, T117, BP13, TC28 and Chesson genotypes respectively.
Conclusion:
The returned (secondary) isolates may account to be for the sake of reinfection.
PMCID: PMC3385539  PMID: 22808385
P. vivax; Relapse; Re-infection; Recrudescence; pvMSP1; Iran
20.  Differential Responses of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Skin Emanations of a Man, a Cow, and a Guinea Pig in the Olfactometer 
Background:
Biting habit of mosquitoes plays an important role in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes use a set of elaborate sensory modalities to find their preferred hosts by exploiting cues emanating from a nearby host. It has been suggested that the chemical profile of skin can provide further support for anthropophilic mosquito species to find their suitable hosts. This study aimed at revealing the value of skin emanation for a zoophilic species like Anopheles stephensi as a model.
Methods:
Skin emanations of a man, a cow and a Guinea pig were collected by ethanol soaked cottons. Upwind responses of mosquitoes to 100 and 200 μl of filtered skin materials were non-competitively explored in a dual-choice olfactometer. L-lactic acid and other chemical content of the skin samples were identified by an enzymatic kit and GC-MS, respectively.
Results:
Unexpectedly, only human skin emanation was resulted in the statistically significant activation and attraction responses of An. stephensi in the wind tunnel. L-lactic acid content of this skin sample was 10 and 29 times more than the cow and the Guinea pig, respectively. The possible role of lactic acid and a few other identified compounds have been discussed here.
Conclusion:
Anopheles stephensi showed higher and more specific upwind responses to human skin emanation in the olfactometer. Undoubtedly, the thorough explanation of this unexpected finding needs further investigation. But, if new data verify this result, then, it may be necessary to reconsider the role of skin emanation and thence the human blood index and vectorial capacity of this zoophilic mosquito.
PMCID: PMC3385540  PMID: 22808383
Mosquito; Host preference; Host-seeking; An. stephensi; Skin emanation; Olfactometer
21.  Effectiveness of Ultrasound and Ultraviolet Irradiation on Degradation of Carbaryl from Aqueous Solutions 
Background:
Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbamate) is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor and is toxic to humans and classified as a likely human carcinogen. In the present study, the degradation of the carbaryl pesticide was investigated in the laboratory synthetic samples of tap water, in the effect of sonolysis and photolysis processes.
Methods:
This study was conducted during 2006–7 in Chemistry and Biochemistry of Pesticides Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. The carbaryl (80%) was used for preparing samples. First concentration of all samples were 4 mg/l. Sonochemical examinations in ultrasound reactor was done in two 35, 130 Hz, and 100 w, and three time. Photolysis examinations has done in the effect of 400 w lamp and moderate pressure and 6 time, then the amount of pesticide in the samples has been measured by the High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method.
Results:
The highest degradation in photolysis process after 1 hour in the 35 KHz was 35%, and in the 130 KHz was 63%. Degradation of carbaryl at 130 KHz is higher than 35 KHz at the same time. Carbaryl elimination was increased by arise frequency and exposure time. After 8 min in photolysis, 100% omitting has been showed.
Conclusion:
Degradation of carbaryl in high frequency ultrasound wavelength was more than low frequency. Degradation of carbaryl in water, combination of high frequency ultrasound wave length and UV irradiation was considerably more effective than ultrasound or ultraviolet irradiation alone.
PMCID: PMC3385541  PMID: 22808388
Ultrasound; Ultraviolet; Degradation; Pesticide; Carbaryl
22.  Sand fly Surveillance within an Emerging Epidemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran 
Background:
Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major has become a hot topic in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the study area.
Methods:
Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors and outdoors fixed places in the selected villages, using 30 sticky paper traps from the beginning to the end of the active season of 2006 in Kerman Province, south of Iran. The flies were mounted and identified. Some blood fed and gravid female sand flies of rodent burrows and indoors were dissected and examined microscopically for natural promastigote infection of Leishmania parasite during August to September.
Results:
In total, 2439 specimens comprising 8 species (3 Phlebotomus and 5 Sergentomyia) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi and represented 87.1% of sand flies from indoors and 57.2% from outdoors. The activity of the species extended from April to end October. There are two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in August. Natural promastigote infection was found in P. papatasi (12.7%).
Conclusion:
Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a probable vector among gerbils and to humans with a high percentage of promastigote infection in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Bahraman area which until recently was unknown as an endemic area seems now to represent a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3385542  PMID: 22808384
Sand fly; Phlebotomus papatasi; Ecology; Leishmania major; Iran
23.  First Report of Human Nasal Myiasis Caused by Eristalis tenax in Iran (Diptera: Syrphidae) 
We report a case of human nasal myiasis caused by flower fly larva in a 14-year-old rural girl in Central Province of Iran. Entomological studies on larva showed the larva as Eristalis tenax which is a rarely cause of nasal myiasis. This is the first reported case of E. tenax larva causing human nasal myiasis in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3385543  PMID: 22808393
Eristalis tenax; Nasal Myiasis; Iran
24.  Residual Effects of Deltamethrin WG 25% as a New Formulation on Different Surfaces against Anopheles stephensi, in Southeastern Iran 
Background:
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is functioned as national interventions against malaria in southeastern foci of Iran and deltamethrin WP one of the insecticides have been used since past decade. In this study, the residual activity of the wettable granule (WG) was studied on different surfaces in hut scale trial against Anopheles stephensi in Iranshahr District, southeastern Iran.
Methods:
Three dosages of 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 of deltamethrin WG 25% formulation were applied on plaster, cement, mud, and wooden surfaces using Hudson® X-pert compression sprayer having 10 litters capacity.
Results:
The residual effects of deltamethrin WG 25% on different surfaces was assessed based on reduction of mortality An. stepehnsi from 100% to about 70%. At 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 the WG formulation of deltamethrin had a bioefficacy for about 2, 3 and 4 months respectively.
Conclusion:
There was an expectable fluctuation in mortality of An. stephensi at different sprayed surfaces as well as dosages. The proposed 50 mg/m2 WG is the longest activity for up to 4 months which needs to be applied for two spraying cycles per year at the climatically condition of southwestern Iran.
PMCID: PMC3385544  PMID: 22808390
Deltamethrin; Wettable granule (WG); Anopheles stephensi; Malaria; Iran
25.  Human Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Markazi Province of Iran 
We report a case of human urogenital myiasis in an 86-year-old rural man with a penil ulcer and numerous alive and motile larvae from urethra and glans penis. Entomological studies on adult flies showed the larvae were Lucilia sericata and Wohlfahrtia magnifica. The clinical presentation and treatment strategies are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3385545  PMID: 22808392
Lucilia; Wohlfahrtia; Urogenital; Myiasis; Iran

Results 1-25 (55)