Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually combined with cervical spine (C-spine) injury. The possibility of C-spine injury is always considered when performing endotracheal intubation in these patients. Rapid sequence intubation is recommended with adequate sedative or analgesics and a muscle relaxant to prevent an increase in intracranial pressure during intubation in TBI patients. Normocapnia and mild hyperoxemia should be maintained to prevent secondary brain injury. The manual-in-line-stabilization (MILS) technique effectively lessens C-spine movement during intubation. However, the MILS technique can reduce mouth opening and lead to a poor laryngoscopic view. The newly introduced video laryngoscope can manage these problems. The AirWay Scope® (AWS) and AirTraq laryngoscope decreased the extension movement of C-spines at the occiput-C1 and C2-C4 levels, improving intubation conditions and shortening the time to complete tracheal intubation compared with a direct laryngoscope. The Glidescope® also decreased cervical movement in the C2-C5 levels during intubation and improved vocal cord visualization, but a longer duration was required to complete intubation compared with other devices. A lightwand also reduced cervical motion across all segments. A fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided nasal intubation is the best method to reduce cervical movement, but a skilled operator is required. In conclusion, a video laryngoscope assists airway management in TBI patients with C-spine injury.
Airway management; Cervical cord; Intubation; Traumatic brain injury
In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results.
Standard deviation; Standard error of the mean
This prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken to compare stress hormone response to open thoracotomy for lung resection at different anesthetic depths, as determined by bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, in patients under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.
Forty-eight adult patients scheduled for lung resection surgery using one-lung ventilation were randomly assigned to either a deep anesthesia group (BIS score of 40 ± 5, n = 24) or a light anesthesia group (BIS score of 60 ± 5, n = 24) by adjusting propofol infusion rates. Blood norepinephrine, epinephrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol levels were measured before the induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and at 2 hours postoperatively. Blood glucose, hemodynamic, and oxygenation-ventilation variables, and postoperative outcomes were also measured.
Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels remained unchanged over time in the deep group, but norepinephrine levels significantly increased in the light group at 2 h after surgery than at baseline (P = 0.007 and 0.004, respectively). Temporal changes in norepinephrine, but not in epinephrine, were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.036). Plasma glucose levels in the light group increased with time and were significantly higher than in the deep group at the end of surgery (P = 0.002).
A deep level of anesthesia achieved using high propofol infusion rates during lung surgery provided lower perioperative norepinephrine and glucose responses than light level of anesthesia during the early postoperative period but failed to affect immediate postoperative outcomes.
Bispectral index monitor; Catecholamines; Propofol; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Stress
The beach chair position (BCP) is associated with hypotension that may lead to cerebral ischemia. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a potent vasoconstrictor, has been shown to prevent hypotension in BCP. It also improves cerebral oxygenation in different animal models. The present study examined the effect of escalating doses of AVP on systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation during surgery in BCP under general anesthesia.
Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery in BCP under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control, n = 15) or three different doses of AVP (0.025, 0.05, or 0.075 U/kg; n = 15 each) 2 minutes before BCP. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), regional cerebral oxygen saturation (SctO2), and jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) were measured after induction of anesthesia and before (presitting in supine position) and after BCP.
AVP per se given before BCP increased MAP, and decreased SjvO2, SctO2, and HR in all patients (P < 0.05 for all). BCP decreased MAP, the magnitude of which and hence the incidence of hypotension was decreased by AVP in a dose-dependent manner. While in BCP, every dose of AVP reduced the HR and SctO2. Accordingly, it increased the incidence of cerebral desaturation (> 20% SctO2 decrease from the baseline value) with no differences in SjvO2 and the incidence of SjvO2 < 50% or SjvO2 < 40% among the groups.
AVP ameliorates hypotension associated with BCP in a dose-dependent manner in patients undergoing shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. However, AVP may have negative effects on SctO2 before and after BCP and on SjvO2 before BCP.
Arginine vasopressin; Beach chair position; Jugular venous oxygen saturation; Regional cerebral oxygen saturation
The early detection of coagulopathy helps guide decisions regarding optimal transfusion management during cardiac surgery. This study aimed to determine whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) analysis during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) could predict thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after CPB.
We analyzed 138 cardiac surgical patients for whom ROTEM tests and conventional laboratory tests were performed simultaneously both during and after CPB. An extrinsically activated ROTEM test (EXTEM), a fibrin-specific ROTEM test (FIBTEM) and PLTEM calculated by subtracting FIBTEM from EXTEM were evaluated. Correlations between clot amplitude at 10 min (A10), maximal clot firmness, platelet count, and fibrinogen concentrations at each time point were calculated. A receiver operating characteristic analysis with area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the thresholds of EXTEM, PLTEM and FIBTEM parameters during CPB and for predicting thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of CPB.
The A10 on EXTEM, PLTEM, and FIBTEM during CPB showed a good correlation with platelet counts (r = 0.622 on EXTEM and r = 0.637 on PLTEM; P < 0.0001 for each value) and fibrinogen levels (r = 0.780; P < 0.0001) after CPB. A10 on a FIBTEM threshold of 8 mm during the CPB predicted a fibrinogen concentration < 150 mg/dl (AUC = 0.853) after CPB. Additionally, the threshold level of A10 on EXTEM during CPB for predicting platelet counts < 100,000 /µl after CPB was 42 mm (AUC = 0.768).
EXTEM, PLTEM, and FIBTEM parameters during CPB may be useful for predicting thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of CPB.
Cardiac surgery; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Coagulopathy; Thromboelastometry
The increased pain at the latent phase can be associated with dysfunctional labor as well as increases in cesarean delivery frequency. We aimed to research the effect of the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia on the entire labor process including the mode of delivery.
We performed epidural analgesia to 102 nulliparous women on patients' request. We divided the group into three based on NRS (numeric rating scale) at the moment of epidural analgesia; mild pain, NRS 1-4; moderate pain, NRS 5-7; severe pain, NRS 8-10. The primary outcome was the mode of delivery (normal labor or cesarean delivery).
There were significant differences in the mode of delivery among groups. Patients with severe labor pain had a significantly higher cesarean delivery compared to patients with moderate labor pain (P = 0.006). The duration of the first and second stage of labor, fetal heart rate, use of oxytocin and premature rupture of membranes had no differences in the three groups.
Our research showed that the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia request might influence the rate of cesarean delivery. Further research would be necessary for clarifying the mechanism that the augmentation of pain affects the mode of delivery.
Epidural analgesia; Labor pain; Obstetric delivery
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Dexamethasone has been reported to reduce PONV. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effect of dexmedetomidine in decreasing PONV. This study was designed to compare the effects of a single dose of dexmedetomidine to dexamethasone for reducing PONV after LC.
Eighty-six adult patients scheduled for LC were randomized to receive either single dose 1 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine (Dexmed group, N = 43) or 8 mg dexamethasone (Dexa group, N = 43) before skin incision. During the first 24 h postoperatively, the incidence and severity of PONV were assessed. Pain and sedation scores were assessed on arrival in the recovery room and early postoperatively. Analgesic and antiemetic consumption during the 24 h after surgery were calculated. Intra-operative and postoperative hemodynamics were recorded.
Twenty-one percent of the patients in the Dexmed group developed PONV compared to 28% in the Dexa group (P = 0.6). Severity of PONV was similar between the two groups (P = 0.07). Early postoperatively, pain severity was significantly lower in the Dexmed group, but sedation scores were significantly higher. The first analgesic request was significantly delayed in the Dexmed group (P = 0.02). The total amounts of intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative tramadol administered were significantly lower in the Dexmed group. No difference in ondansetron was noted between the two groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in the Dexmed group after administration of dexmedetomidine. No major side effects were reported.
Dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence and severity of PONV, similar to dexamethasone. It is superior to dexamethasone in reducing postoperative pain and total analgesic consumption during the first 24 h after LC.
Cholecystectomy; Dexamethasone; Dexmedetomidine; Laparoscopy; Postoperative nausea and vomiting
We planned to compare the effect of intravenous oxycodone and fentanyl on post-operative pain after laparoscopic hysterectomy.
We examined 60 patients were randomized to postoperative pain treatment with either oxycodone (n = 30, Group O) or fentanyl (n = 30, Group F). The patients received 10 mg oxycodone/100 µg fentanyl with ketorolac 30 mg before the end of anesthesia and then continued with patient-controlled analgesia for 48 h postoperatively.
The accumulated oxycodone consumption was less than fentanyl during 8, 24 and 48 h postoperatively. Numeric rating score of Group O showed significantly lower than that of Group F during 30 min, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h postoperatively. The incidences of adverse reactions were similar in the two groups, though the incidence of nausea was higher in the Group O during the 24 and 48 h postoperative period.
Oxycodone IV-PCA was more advantageous than fentanyl IV-PCA for laparoscopic hysterectomy in view of accumulated oxycodone consumption, pain control and cost beneficial effect. However, patient satisfaction was not good in the group O compared to group F.
Fentanyl; Oxycodone; Postoperative pain
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women who received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl.
In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 204 healthy female patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia followed by IV-PCA for postoperative pain control were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: the PD group (palonosetron 0.075 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102) and the D group (dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102). The treatments were given after the induction of anesthesia. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, severity of nausea, and the use of rescue anti-emetics during the first 48 hours after surgery were evaluated.
The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the PD group compared with the D group during the 0-24 hours (43 vs. 59%) and 0-48 hours after surgery (45 vs. 63%) (P < 0.05). The severity of nausea during the 6-24 hours after surgery was significantly less in the PD group compared with the D group (P < 0.05). The incidence of rescue antiemetic used was significantly lower in the PD group than in the D group during the 0-6 hours after surgery (13.1 vs. 24.5%) (P < 0.05).
Palonosetron combined with dexamethasone was more effective in preventing PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women receiving IV-PCA using fentanyl.
Dexamethasone; Palonosetron; Postoperative nausea and vomiting
During general anesthesia, a heated breathing circuit (HBC) is used to replace the heat and moisture exchange function of the upper airway. One HBC uses an air dryer filter that employs silica gel (SG) as a desiccant. SG is capable of adsorbing many organic compounds. Therefore, we undertook an in vitro study of the adsorption of desflurane by SG filters.
An HBC was connected to an anesthesia machine, and a test lung was connected to the circuit. The test lung was mechanically ventilated with 2 or 4 L/min of fresh gas flow, with and without the air dryer filter. Desflurane was administered at a 6 vol% on the vaporizer dial setting. The experiment was repeated 15 times in each group. The end-tidal concentrations were measured during the experiments. The air dryer filter weights were measured before and after the experiments, and the times required to achieve the specific end-tidal desflurane concentrations were determined.
Significant differences in the end-tidal concentrations of desflurane were observed between the control and filter groups (P < 0.001). The filter weights increased significantly after the experiments (P < 0.001). The times required to achieve the same end-tidal desflurane concentrations were different with the application of the air dryer filter (P < 0.001).
The adsorption of desflurane with the use of an air dryer filter was verified in this in vitro study. Careful attention is needed when using air dryer gel filters during general anesthesia.
Air filters; Adsorption; Desflurane; Desiccation; Silica gel
Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is recognized as the standard treatment for ischemic stroke. However, its narrow therapeutic window and association with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage have required caution when used. In this context, several approaches are required to deal with the shortcomings of such a double-edged drug. Anesthetics are known to protect against ischemic reperfusion injury, and their protective role in ischemic post-conditioning is crucial for reducing ischemia-related injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of isoflurane post-treatment on intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral infarction after tPA treatment for transient cerebral ischemia.
Cerebral ischemia was modeled in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) by occluding the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h, followed by intravenous tPA administration. Rats were randomly divided into control and isoflurane post-treatment group, and isoflurane post-treatment group was post-treated by administering 1.5% isoflurane for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Twenty-four h after reperfusion, neurobehavioral changes were assessed. The extent of cerebral infarction and intracranial hemorrhage were also assessed by quantification of infarction volume and cerebral hemoglobin concentration from brain tissue, respectively.
Neurobehavioral testing showed better functional outcomes in the isoflurane post-treatment group than the control group. The extent of cerebral infarction and intracranial hemorrhage were both reduced in isoflurane post-treatment group compared to control group.
Isoflurane post-treatment may mitigate infarction volume and intracranial hemorrhage in tPA-exaggerated brain injury. Our findings provide an encouraging novel approach for enhancing clinical outcomes in tPA-exaggerated brain injury.
Intracranial hemorrhages; Ischemic postconditioning; Isoflurane; Tissue plasminogen activator
A bronchial blocker (BB) is preferred for lung separation in patients with difficult airways. However, BBs, unlike double-lumen tubes, must be placed in the bronchus of the lung being operated on, hence can be damaged by surgical manipulation. Intubation was unexpectedly difficult in this male patient, so a Coopdech BB was placed in the right mainstem bronchus through a single-lumen tracheoscopic ventilation tube for a thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy. During the bronchial resection, however, the distal tip of the BB was transected and pinched in the staple line, so the staple line was partially opened, and the BB was withdrawn into the trachea. The opened bronchial stump was sutured manually under apnea without conversion to an open thoracotomy, and there was no significant air leakage through the suture line. This case underlines the importance of frequently evaluating the position of a BB during lung surgery.
Airway management; Bronchi; One-lung ventilation; Thoracoscopy
A 43-year-old woman was admitted due to fever, chills, and headache for several days and was diagnosed as infective endocarditis. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination confirmed severe aortic stenosis and showed relatively fresh 1.5 cm vegetation on the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve (AV) with frequent diastolic prolapse into the aortic root. This mobile vegetation partially occluded left coronary ostium, but it did not cause cardiac failure. TEE showed the vegetation to be in good position across the AV. The AV replacement with removal of vegetation and mitral valvuloplasty were performed. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass without any hemodynamic instability or changes in ST segment on electrocardiography. She was discharged on the 28th postoperative day without any complication.
Coronary artery; Infective endocarditis; Occlusion; TEE
Although thoracopagus twins joined at the upper chest are the most common type of conjoined twins, the separation surgery in these cases has a higher mortality rate. Here, we describe an anesthetic management approach for the separation of thoracopagus conjoined twins sharing parts of a congenitally defective heart and liver. We emphasize the importance of vigilant intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring for early detection of unexpected events. Specifically, real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy allowed us to promptly detect cardiac arrest and hemodynamic deterioration.
Conjoined twins; Thoracopagus twins
Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after general anesthesia, anesthesia mumps is rare and when occurred, it is associated with the patient's position and with long-lasting surgery. The exact mechanism or etiology has not been fully established but stasis of gland secretion, blockage of Stensen's duct by direct compression, or retrograde flow of air by increased the oral cavity pressure are suspicious reasons. We experienced a case of soft tissue swelling in the left preauricular and submandibular regions in a 40-year-old female patient after short-lasting, hysteroscopic myomectomy performed in the lithotomy position with no suspicious predisposing factor. It is required to pay attention on the fact that even with the usual face mask ventilation can lead to the development of anesthesia mumps.
Anesthesia mumps; General anesthesia; Hysteroscopic surgery; Mask ventilation; Parotitis
Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of undetermined etiology. Unicentric Castleman's disease is confined to a single lymph node; it is usually asymptomatic though sometimes has local manifestations related to mass effects. In contrast, multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) typically presents with lymphoid hyperplasia at multiple sites; it is associated with systemic symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings, with a less favorable prognosis. In case of anesthesia in CD, an exhaustive preanesthetic evaluation is essential to identify associated clinical manifestations which may influence the management of the anesthesia. Perioperative careful monitoring and proper anesthetic management are both important. We report a case of general anesthesia with anesthetic management in a patient with MCD that has not been documented in the literature.
General anesthesia; Multicentric Castleman's disease
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI.
Acute lung injury; Diagnosis; Etiology; Prevention and control; Prognosis; Transfusion reaction
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are known to provide the most reliable evidence on intervention. However, RCTs are often conducted and reported incompletely and inadequately, making readers and reviewers unable to judge the validity and reliability of the trials. In this article, we consider the statistical and methodological issues involved in reporting on RCTs, particularly in relation to the objectives, designs, and commencements of trials. This paper deals with the various issues that should be considered in presenting RCTs, and suggests checklists for reporting on them. We expect that these checklists will remind readers and reviewers to evaluate manuscripts systematically and comprehensively, making those manuscripts more transparent and reliable.
Checklist; Methods; Randomized controlled trial; Statistics
Optimal head and neck positioning and clinical experience are important factors for successful endotracheal intubation in patients with a difficult airway. This study aimed to investigate the rate of successful endotracheal intubation between the sniffing and ramped positions in patients with an expected difficult intubation.
The study included 204 patients with an expected difficult intubation (airway difficulty score ≥ 8) based on the preoperative airway assessment. The patients were randomized into the following groups: group S was placed in the sniffing position, and group R was placed in the ramped position during direct laryngoscopy. The primary outcome was successful endotracheal intubation and the secondary measure was laryngeal view in the ramped or sniffing position when the operating table was placed at two different heights.
Group R showed a higher rate of successful endotracheal intubation and better laryngeal view than group S (P < 0.05). The rate of successful endotracheal intubation was higher in group R than in group S at both heights of the operating table; but, it was not different within each group. Laryngeal view was not different between the two groups and within each group when the two heights of the operating table were used. Fully trained and experienced attending anesthesiologists achieved a higher rate of successful endotracheal intubation than less experienced residents in group R (P < 0.05) but not in group S.
Ramped position and clinical experience can be important factors for laryngeal view and success rate of endotracheal intubation in patients with an expected difficult intubation.
Intubation; Laryngoscopy; Position
Intravenously administered indocyanine green (ICG) may cause misreadings of cerebral oximetry and pulse oximetry in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia. The present study determined the effects of two different doses (12.5 mg vs. 25 mg) of ICG on regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) and percutaneous peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2).
Twenty-six patients receiving ICG for videoangiography were divided into two groups according to the dosage (12.5 mg and 25 mg, n = 13 in each group). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, SctO2, and SpO2 were measured before and after an intravenous bolus administration of ICG.
Following the dye administration, no changes in heart rate or arterial blood pressure were noted in either group. SctO2 was increased in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increase was greater (21.6 ± 5.8% vs. 12.6 ± 4.1%, P < 0.0001) and more prolonged (28.4 ± 9.6 min vs. 13.8 ± 5.2 min, P < 0.0001) in the 25 mg group than in the 12.5 mg group. In contrast, SpO2 was decreased in both groups; the magnitude of the decrease was greater in the 25 mg group than in the 12.5 mg group (4.0 ± 0.8% vs. 1.6 ± 1.0%, P < 0.0001). There were no differences in the time to reach the peak SctO2 or to reach the nadir SpO2 between the two groups.
In patients given ICG for videoangiography, a 25 mg bolus results in a greater and more prolonged increase in SctO2 and a greater reduction in SpO2 than a 12.5 mg bolus, with no differences in the time to reach the peak SctO2 or to reach the nadir SpO2.
Cerebral oximetry; Cerebral oxygenation; Indocyanine green; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Pulse oximetry
In a previous study, fluid kinetic models were applied to describe the volume expansion of the fluid space by administration of crystalloid and colloid solutions. However, validation of the models were not performed, it is necessary to evaluate the predictive performance of these models in another population.
Ninety five consenting patients undergoing elective spinal surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this study. These patients were randomly assigned to three fluid groups i.e. Hartmann's solution (H group, n = 28), Voluven® (V group, n = 34), and Hextend® (X group, n = 33). After completion of their preparation for surgery, the patients received a loading and maintenance volume of each fluid predetermined by nomograms based on fluid pharmacokinetic models during the 60-minute use of an infusion pump. Arterial samples were obtained at preset intervals of 0, 10, 20, and 30 min after fluid administration. The predictive performances of the fluid kinetic modes were evaluated using the fractional change of arterial hemoglobin. The relationship between blood-volume dilution and target dilution of body fluid space was also evaluated using regression analysis.
A total of 194 hemoglobin measurements were used. The bias and inaccuracy of these models were -2.69 and 35.62 for the H group, -1.53 and 43.21 for the V group, and 9.05 and 41.82 for the X group, respectively. The blood-volume dilution and target dilution of body-fluid space showed a significant linear relationship in each group (P < 0.05).
Based on the inaccuracy of predictive performance, the fluid-kinetic model for Hartmann's solution showed better performance than the other models.
Fluid; Nomogram; Pharmacokinetics