Both systemic inflammatory reaction and regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury may elicit hypercoagulability after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We investigated the influence of ulinastatin, which suppresses the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, on coagulation in patients with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) undergoing OPCAB.
Fifty patients whose preoperative hsCRP > 3.0 mg/L were randomly allocated into the ulinastatin (600,000 U) or control group. Serum concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) were measured preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at 24 h after surgery, respectively. Secondary endpoints included platelet factor (PF)-4, amount of blood loss, and transfusion requirement.
All baseline values of TAT, F1+2, and PF-4 were higher than the normal range in both groups. F1+2 was elevated in both groups at immediate, and at 24 h after surgery as compared to baseline value, without any significant intergroup differences. Remaining coagulation parameters, transfusion requirement and blood loss during operation and postoperative 24 h were not different between the two groups.
Intraoperative administration of ulinastatin did not convey beneficial influence in terms of coagulation and blood loss in high-risk patients with elevated hsCRP undergoing multivessel OPCAB, who already exhibited hypercoagulability before surgery.
Coagulability; hsCRP; OPCAB; Ulinastatin
Inhalation anesthetics are an important factor for postoperative hepatic and renal dysfunction. In this regard, TIVA can reduce the risk of hepatic and renal dysfunction inherited to inhalation anesthetics. The present study was conducted to determine whether hepatic and renal functions differ after anesthesia with sevoflurane and propofol.
Two hundred patients, ASA physical status class I, II, scheduled for an elective thyroidectomy were randomly divided into two groups. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1-2% and remifentanil in the sevoflurane group (Group S) and propofol 2-5 ug/ml and remifentanil 2-5 ng/ml at the effect site, using a target controlled infusion (TCI) pump in the TIVA group (Group T) to maintain BIS of 40-60. To evaluate the hepatic and renal function, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were tested at preoperation (baseline), postoperative 1 day and 3 days.
AST was increased at postoperative 1 day and 3 days, compared with that of the preoperation in Group S, and postoperative 1 day in Group T, but the values were within its normal limit. ALT was not changed after anesthesia in both groups. BUN was increased at postoperative 1 day, compared with that of the preoperation in Group S, but the value was within its normal limit. Creatinine was not changed after anesthesia in both groups.
The changes of hepatic and renal function after inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane and TIVA with propofol and remifentanil for thyroidectomy were clinically insignificant, and there was no difference between the two methods.
Alanine aminotransferase; Aspartate aminotransferase; Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN); Creatinine; Inhalation anesthesia; Total intravenous anesthesia
For ophthalmic surgery anesthesia, it is vital that intraocular pressure (IOP) is controlled. Most anesthetic drugs affect IOP dose-dependently, and inhalational anesthetics dose-dependently decrease IOP. In this study, we compared the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on IOP and hemodynamics in pediatric ophthalmic surgery.
Thirty eight pediatric patients from the age of 6 to 15 years, who were scheduled for strabismus surgery and entropion surgery, were randomized to be administered desflurane (group D, n = 19) or sevoflurane (group S, n = 19). IOPs and hemodynamic parameters were measured before induction of anesthesia (B), after induction but immediately before intubation (AI), 1 min after intubation (T1), 3 min after intubation (T3), and 5 min after intubation (T5).
The mean arterial pressure (MAP) at T1 and heart rates (HRs) at T1 and T3 were significantly higher in group D than those in group S. There was no significant difference between the groups in IOP, cardiac index (CI) and stroke index (SI). There was a significant difference within the group in IOP, SI, MAP and HR. There was no significant difference within the group in CI.
There was no significant difference between the groups in IOP and hemodynamic parameters. The two anesthetic agents maintained IOP and hemodynamic parameters in the normal range during anesthetic induction.
Desflurane; Intraocular pressure; Sevoflurane
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications after anesthesia and surgery. This study was designed to compare the effects of palonosetron and ondansetron in preventing PONV in high-risk patients receiving intravenous opioid-based patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.
One hundred non-smoking female patients scheduled for gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned into the palonosetron group (n = 50) or the ondansetron group (n = 50). Palonosetron 0.075 mg was injected as a bolus in the palonosetron group. Ondansetron 8 mg was injected as a bolus and 16 mg was added to the IV-PCA in the ondansetron group. The incidences of nausea, vomiting and side effects was recorded at 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, postoperatively.
There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of PONV during 72 h after operation. However, the incidence of vomiting was lower in the palonosetron group than in the ondansetron group (18% vs. 4%, P = 0.025). No differences were observed in use of antiemetics and the side effects between the groups.
The effects of palonosetron and ondansetron in preventing PONV were similar in high-risk patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery and receiving opioid-based IV-PCA.
Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia; Ondansetron; Palonosetron; Postoperative nausea and vomiting
For effective postoperative antiemetic management in pediatric moyamoya disease patients receiving fentanyl based postoperative analgesia, a multimodal approach has been recommended. The uncertain efficacy of ondansetron for pediatric neurosurgical patients or the possible antiemetic effect of small dose of propofol motivated us to evaluate the preventive effect of a subhypnotic dose of propofol combined with dexamethasone on postoperative vomiting (POV), especially during immediate postoperative periods.
In a prospective observer-blind randomized controlled study, we compared dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg alone (Group D) with dexamethasone combined with propofol of 0.5 mg/kg (Group DP) in 60 pediatric patients, aged 4-17 years, who underwent indirect bypass surgery and received fentanyl-based postoperative analgesia. Occurrence of vomiting and pain score (Wong-Baker facial score) and requirement of rescue analgesic and antiemetic were continually measured (0-2, 2-6, 6-12 and 12-24 postoperative hours). For statistical analysis, in addition to the Fisher's exact test, a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and the linear mixed model (LMM) for repeated measures were used for vomiting and pain scores, respectively.
There was no statistical significance of POV incidence, requirement of rescue analgesic and pain score between the two groups at any measured intervals. The incidence of POV was 53.3% during 24 hours in both groups, and was especially 6.7% and 13.3% (P = 0.671) during 0-2 hr and 16.7% and 23.3% (P = 0.748) during 2-6 hr in group D and group DP, respectively.
A small dose of propofol combined with dexamethasone appears ineffective to preventing POV in pediatric moyamoya patients receiving continuous fentanyl infusion.
Dexamethasone; Moyamoya disease; Postoperative vomiting; Propofol
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after anesthesia and surgery; 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been considered as a first-line therapy. Ramosetron and palonosetron are more recently developed drugs and have greater receptor affinity and a longer elimination half-life compared with older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to determine which drug is more effective for preventing PONV between ramosetron and palonosetron.
We enrolled 100 patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery into this study. The subjects were divided into ramosetron group and palonosetron group. The medications were provided immediately before the induction of anesthesia. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting, severity of nausea according to a visual analogue scale, and rescue anti-emetic drug use were monitored immediately after the end of surgery and at 0-6 h, 6-24 h, and 24-48 h post-surgery.
The incidence of vomiting was significantly lower in the palonosetron group than in the ramosetron group during 0-6 h (6% vs 26%, P = 0.012) and 0-48 h (14% vs 34%, P = 0.034). The incidence of nausea and overall PONV, and the use of rescue antiemetic were not significantly different during all time intervals. The severity of nausea was not different between the two groups.
In conclusion, the incidence of PONV between the ramosetron and the palonosetron group have not shown the difference during 0-48 h, although palonosetron results in a lower incidence of vomiting during 0-6 h post-surgery.
Palonosetron; PONV; Ramosetron
Postoperative sore throat (POST) is considered a usual complication after tracheal intubation, especially, thyroid surgery. Gabapentin is a widely studied multimodal perioperative drug, which can be used to treat acute postoperative pain. The primary endpoints of this study was a reduction of the incidence of POST at rest and during the swallowing movements after thyroid surgery. And the second endpoints was a reduction of the intensity of the POST after thyroid surgery.
Seventy-one patients that underwent elective thyroid surgery received either gabapentin (Neurontin™ 600 mg) or placebo, orally, one hour before anesthesia. The VAS scores and incidences of POST and adverse effects were determined at 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr after surgery at rest and during swallowing movement.
The gabapentin group (N = 36) showed a lower incidence of POST than the placebo group (N = 35) (47% vs. 78%, P = 0.038), and had significant lower VAS score at 6 and 24 hours after surgery in the resting state. However, during the movement, no intergroup differences were found in terms of the incidence of POST (83% vs. 91%, P = 0.305) or VAS score. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the two groups, in adverse effects.
Gabapentin (Neurontin™ 600 mg) administered 1 hr before anesthesia reduced the intensity and incidence of POST during the resting state without a significant adverse event, during the 24 hr after thyroid surgery. However, gabapentin did not reduce the intensity and incidence of POST during the swallowing movement.
Gabapentin; Postoperative pharyngitis; Thyroid cancer
Gentamicin reduces acetylcholine release and clindamycin causes end-plate ion channel blockade. Because of these reasons, two drugs show muscular relaxant effect and potentiate the action of nondepolarizing neuromuscular agents. This study was intended to evaluate the effect of gentamicin and clindamycin on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and the interaction between these drugs.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats' phrenic nerves and diaphragms were installed in a bath containing Krebs solution. They were divided into three study groups. The first group was pre-treated with 0.1 (n = 3), 0.2 (n = 4) or 0.5 (n = 3) mM gentamicin and the tension was measured as the concentration of rocuronium was increased. The second group was experimented by increasing gentamicin on 0.25 (n = 5), 0.5 (n = 6) or 1.0 (n = 6) mM clindamycin. The final group was pre-treated with various combinations of gentamicin and clindamycin. The drug concentration was gradually increased until single twitch tension decreased by around 80%. Effective concentration was calculated using a probit model and interaction indices derived the Loewe additivity.
The administration of gentamicin and the combination of gentamicin and clindamycin enhanced rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. At 0.2 and 0.5 mM gentamicin, synergistic interactions with rocuronium were observed. Likewise, at 0.5 and 1.0 mM clindamycin, synergistic interactions with gentamicin appeared. When all three drugs were combined, in the tetanic fade, all the groups except for those administered with 0.01 mM gentamicin and 0.25 mM clindamycin showed synergistic interactions.
This study demonstrate that gentamicin and clindamycin potentiated rocuronium induced neuromuscular blockade. Moreover, it was found that these drugs interacted synergistically.
Clindamycin; Gentamicin; Interaction; Neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Synergy
The authors evaluated the effect of intrathecal mixture of ginsenosides with neostigmine on formalin-induced nociception and made further clear the role of the spinal muscarinic (M) receptors on the activity of ginsenosides.
A catheter was located in the intrathecal space of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pain was evoked by injection of formalin solution (5%, 50 µl) to the hindpaw. Isobolographic analysis was done to characterize drug interaction between ginsenosides and neostigmine. The antagonism of ginsenosides-mediated antinociception was determined with M1 receptor antagonist (pirenzepine), M2 receptor antagonist (methoctramine), M3 receptor antagonist (4-DAMP), M4 receptor antagonist (tropicamide). The expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes was examined with RT-PCR.
Intrathecal ginsenosides and neostigmine produced an antinociceptive effect during phase 1 and phase 2 in the formalin test. Isobolographic analysis revealed an additive interaction between ginsenosides and neostigmine in both phases. Intrathecal pirenzepine, methoctramine, 4-DAMP, and tropicamide reversed the antinociception of ginsenosides in both phases. M1-M4 receptors mRNA detected in spinal cord of naïve rats and the injection of formalin decreased the expression of M1 receptor mRNA, but it had no effect on the expression of other three muscarinic receptors mRNA. Intrathecal ginsenosides little affected the expression of all of muscarinic receptors mRNA in formalin-injected rats.
Intrathecal ginsenosides additively interacted with neostigmine in the formalin test. Furthermore, M1-M4 receptors exist in the spinal cord, all of which contribute to the antinocieption of intrathecal ginsenosides.
Antinociception; Drug interaction; Ginsenosides; Muscarinic receptor; Neostigmine; Spinal cord
We report that intraoperative NIM-2 monitoring devices can interfere with bispectral index monitoring. A 45-year-old male with chronic otits media underwent tympanolasty under general anesthesia with NIM-2 monitoring and bispectral index monitoring at our institution. And then, bispectral index monitoring was severely interrupted by facial nerve monitoring.
Bispectral index monitor; Facial nerve; Intraoperative monitoring; Tympanoplasy
We report on an anesthetic experience with a 74-year-old female with Isaacs' syndrome, who underwent elective surgery for open rotator cuff repair. Isaacs' syndrome is a rare peripheral motor neuron disorder with clinical manifestations such as involuntary muscle twitching, cramps, mild weakness and increased sweating. To avoid prolonged neuromuscular blockade, the patient was observed with neuromuscular monitoring during total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil, and atracurium. No adverse events were observed during the anesthetic management, and the patient recovered smoothly from the neuromuscular blockade. We describe the clinical characteristics of Isaacs' syndrome and its specific considerations in anesthesia.
Atracurium; Isaacs' syndrome; TIVA
The case of a 33-day-old boy with Pierre Robin syndrome using a Cook® airway exchange catheter in laryngeal mask airway-guided fiberoptic intubation is presented. After induction with sevoflurane, classical reusable laryngeal mask airway (LMA) #1 was inserted and ultrathin fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) was passed through. A Cook® airway exchange catheter (1.6 mm ID, 2.7 mm OD) was passed through the LMA under the guidance of the FOB but failed to enter the trachea despite many trials. Then, an endotracheal tube (3.0 mm ID) was mounted on the FOB and railroaded over the FOB. After successful intubation, the Cook® airway exchange catheter was placed in the midtrachea through the lumen of the endotracheal tube. Even though the tracheal tube was accidentally displaced out of the trachea during LMA removal, the endotracheal tube could be easily railroaded over the airway exchange catheter.
Airway exchange catheter; Fiberoptic intubation; Laryngeal mask airway; Pierre robin syndrome
Tapia's syndrome is the palsy of the 10th and 12th cranial nerves, resulting in ipsilateral paralysis of the vocal cord and tongue. It is a rare complication which is related to the anesthetic airway management and positioning of the patient's head during the surgery. We describe a patient with a postoperative unilateral Tapia's syndrome, after general anesthesia, with uncomplicated endotracheal intubation. The patient's symptoms improved gradually for three months.
Airway management; Tapia's syndrome
A 26 year old, healthy, 41 week primiparous woman received a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and experienced paraplegia 11 hours later after a vaginal delivery. This was thought to be the result of complications from PCEA but there was no specific abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine. On an electromyography (EMG) study performed 15 days following delivery, signs of tibial neuropathy were present and peripheral nerve injury during vaginal delivery was suspected. Motor weakness and hypoesthesia of both lower extremities improved rapidly, but a decrease in the desire to urinate or defecate, followed by urinary incontinence and constipation persisted, We suspected the sacral plexus had been severely damaged during vaginal delivery. Seven months later, the patient's conditions improved but had not fully recovered.
Analgesia; Epidural; Lumbosacral plexus; Obstetric delivery
Etomidate has a stable hemodynamic profile after induction, but hypertension and tachycardia are frequent after intubation as well as myoclonus. We compared the effects of fentanyl and remifentanil on the hemodynamic response to intubation and myoclonus during etomidate induction in elderly patients.
Ninety ASA I or II patients aged over 65 were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Group C received normal saline 10 ml (n = 30), group F and R were pretreated with fentanyl 1.0 µg/kg (n = 30) or remifentanil 1.0 µg/kg with continuous infusion of 0.1 µg/kg/min (n = 30) 1 min before induction with etomidate 0.2 mg/kg. Endotracheal intubation was performed after administration of rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and the incidence and intensity of myoclonus were recorded.
After intubation, group R showed significant decreases compared with groups C and F for all of the hemodynamic variables measured. The incidences of increases in SBP and HR of more than 30% of the baseline levels, SBP of > 200 mmHg, and HR of > 120 beats/min were significantly lower in group R (0%, 10%, 0%, and 0%, respectively) compared with groups C (83%, 83%, 30%, and 13%, respectively) and F (63%, 77%, 13%, and 7%, respectively). The frequency and intensity of myoclonus were significantly decreased in both groups F and R compared with group C.
Pretreatment with remifentanil suppressed cardiovascular reactions to endotracheal intubation more effectively than that of fentanyl during etomidate induction. Both opioids reduced the incidence of myoclonus.
Endotracheal intubation; Etomidate; Fentanyl; Remifentanil
Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug that is effective for treating postoperative pain, neuropathic pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic instability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin in patients with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH).
Ninety ASA I-II patients undergoing laparoendoscopic single-site urologic surgery were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups that received either pregabalin or placebo 1 h before anesthesia and an intraoperative remifentanil infusion. Group plL received placebo and 0.05 µg/kg/min remifentanil, group plH received placebo and 0.3 µg/kg/min remifentanil, and group prH received 300 mg pregabalin plus 0.3 µg/kg/min remifentanil. The primary endpoint was pain intensity upon movement 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Secondary endpoints were the area of hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia threshold 24 h after surgery, time to first postoperative analgesic requirement, and cumulative postoperative volume of morphine administered via a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump over 24 h.
The time to first postoperative analgesic requirement in group plH was significantly shorter than that in group plL. The injected PCA volume was significantly greater in group plH than that in the other two groups. Postoperative pain intensity in group plH was significantly greater than that in the other two groups at 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. The mechanical hyperalgesia threshold and the area of hyperalgesia around the surgical incision 24 h after surgery in group plH differed significantly from those in the other two groups, which were not significantly different. Adverse effects were comparable among groups.
High-dose remifentanil induced hyperalgesia, including increased pain intensity, increased area of hyperalgesia, and decreased mechanical hyperalgesia threshold. These effects were attenuated by oral administration of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin (300 mg) in patients undergoing laparo-endoscopic single-site urologic surgery.
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia; Pregabalin; Remifentanil
Pain on injection of rocuronium is a common clinical problem. We compared the efficacy of lidocaine, ketorolac, and the 2 in combination as pretreatment for the prevention of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement.
For this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study a total of 140 patients were randomly allocated to one of 4 treatment groups to receive intravenously placebo (saline), lidocaine (20 mg), ketorolac (10 mg), or both (n = 35 for each group), with venous occlusion. The tourniquet was released after 2 min and anesthesia was performed using 5 mg/kg thiopental sodium followed by 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium. The withdrawal response was graded on a 4-point scale in a double-blind manner.
The overall incidence of withdrawal movements after rocuronium was 34.3% with lidocaine (P = 0.001), 40% with ketorolac (P = 0.004), and 8.6% with both (P < 0.001), compared with 74.3% with placebo. There was a significantly lower incidence of withdrawal movements in patients receiving the lidocaine/ketorolac combination than in those receiving lidocaine or ketorolac alone (P = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). The incidence of moderate to severe withdrawal movements was 14.3% with lidocaine, 17.2% with ketorolac, and 2.9% with lidocaine/ketorolac combination, as compared to 45.7% with the placebo. There was no significant difference in withdrawal movement between the lidocaine group and the ketorolac group.
Ketorolac pretreatment had an effect comparable to that of lidocaine in attenuating rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements and the lidocaine/ketorolac combination pretreatment, compared with lidocaine or ketorolac alone, effectively reduced withdrawal movements during rocuronium injection.
Injection; Ketorolac; Lidocaine; Pain; Rocuronium