Sugammadex is belonging to a new class of drugs: the selective relaxant binding agents. Sugammadex can reverse residual paralysis by encapsulating free circulating non depolarizing muscle relaxants. The mains advantages of sugammadex when compared with conventional anticholinesterase agents are a much faster recovery time and the unique ability, for the first time, to reverse rapidly and efficiently deep levels of neuromuscular blockade. However it only works for reversal of rocuronium or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. When administered 3 min after rocuronium the use of a large dose (16 mg/kg) can even reverse rocuronium significantly faster than the spontaneous recovery after succinylcholine.
Cyclodextrins; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular block; Residual neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Sugammadex
Rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is desirable at the end of surgery. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced NMB by encapsulation. It is well tolerated in Caucasian patients, providing rapid reversal of moderate (reappearance of T2) rocuronium-induced NMB. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in Korean patients.
This randomized, safety assessor-blinded trial (NCT01050543) included Korean patients undergoing general anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given prior to intubation with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Patients received sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg to reverse the NMB at the reappearance of T2, after the last rocuronium dose. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time from sugammadex or neostigmine administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. The safety of these medications was also assessed.
Of 128 randomized patients, 118 had evaluable data (n = 59 in each group). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6, 2.0) minutes in the sugammadex group and 14.8 (12.4, 17.6) minutes in the neostigmine group (P < 0.0001). Sugammadex was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB; four patients in the neostigmine group reported adverse events possibly indicative of inadequate NMB reversal.
Sugammadex was well tolerated and provided rapid reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced NMB in Korean patients, with a recovery time 8.1 times faster than neostigmine. These results are consistent with those reported for Caucasian patients.
Caucasian; Korean; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Sugammadex
Children and parents experience significant anxiety and distress during the preoperative period. This is important because preoperative anxiety in children is associated with adverse postoperative outcome. So we suggest behaviorally oriented preoperative anxiety intervention program based on the anesthesia and psychology with smartphone application, world-widely used.
A total 120 patients (aged 1-10 years old) who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia was included in this randomized controlled trial. We randomized the patients into three groups, with using intravenous (IV) midazolam sedation (M group), with using smartphone application program (S group), and with using low dose IV midazolam plus smartphone application program (SM group). And the child anxiety was assessed using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) at holding area, 5 min after intervention, entrance to operating room.
In all three groups, mYPAS after intervention were lower than the preoperative holding area (M group 52.8 ± 11.8 vs 41.0 ± 7.0, S group 59.2 ± 17.6 vs 36.4 ± 7.3, SM group 58.3 ± 17.5 vs 26.0 ± 3.4). A comparison of mYPAS scores between each group showed that the S group reduced anxiety lower than M group (P < 0.01), and the SM group exhibited significantly lower anxiety than the two other groups (P < 0.01).
The preoperative preparation program using smartphone application is simple and customized by individual development that effective in the reduction of preoperative anxiety.
Anxiety; Child; Preoperative care
Many disinfectants have been used clinically in both single and combination applications, but there have been few studies on disinfective power according to sterilization sequence when using a combination of disinfectants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfective power of a combination of 70% isopropyl alcohol and 10% povidone-iodine (PVP-I) according to sterilization sequence.
Two hundred healthy volunteers were recruited. Subjects were disinfected with a combination of 70% isopropyl alcohol and 10% PVP-I on both forearms, in varying sequence. The AP group included disinfections on the left forearm with isopropyl alcohol first followed by 10% PVP-I, while the PA group included disinfections on the right forearm with same disinfectants in reverse order. Skin cultures were obtained using cotton swabs 3 min after application of each disinfectant, and then were inoculated on blood agar plates for bacterial culture. Cultures were incubated at 37℃ under aerobic conditions for 48 hours.
There was no significant difference in the number of positive cultures after the 1st disinfection (AP, 45; PA, 36, P = 0.262) or the 2nd disinfection (AP, 6; PA, 13, P = 0.157), suggesting that there is no relationship between disinfective power and the sequence of the disinfectants used. The number of positive cultures significantly decreased after the 2nd disinfection (P < 0.01), however.
There was no significant difference in disinfective power according to sterilization sequence with 70% isopropyl alcohol and 10% PVP-I in healthy volunteers. The combination of 70% isopropyl alcohol and 10% PVP-I was more effective than disinfection with a single agent regardless of sterilization sequence.
Colonization; Disinfectants; Isopropyl alcohol; Povidone-iodine
Intrathecal labor analgesia using new local anesthetics such as ropivacaine or levobupivacaine becomes more popular by virtues of their safety and decreased motor weakness. However, the analgesic efficacy of the clinically effective intrathecal doses of these new local anesthetics combined with fentanyl has yet to be determined.
Sixty parturients who requested neuraxial analgesia in early active labor were randomly assigned to either ropivacaine (group R, n = 30) or levobupivacaine (group L, n = 30) group. Group R received 3 mg of intrathecal ropivacaine and the group L received 3 mg of intrathecal levobupivacaine mixed with 20 µg of fentanyl as part of a combined spinal-epidural (CSE) technique. The associated block parameters, such as pain scores, duration of analgesia, the highest levels of the sensory block and motor block scores 30 mins after the injection were compared between two groups.
Intrathecal ropivacaine offered shorter analgesia (87 ± 41 min vs. 122 ± 56 min, P < 0.05) with lower sensory height (T8.5 vs. T6, P < 0.05) and led to lower incidence of complete analgesia (73 vs. 97%, P < 0.05) compared with intrathecal levobupivacaine. Although motor weakness was comparable in both groups, significantly weak perineal squeezing was noticed in Group L (7 of 30 parturients vs. 16 of 30, P < 0.05).
Clinically relevant doses of intrathecal levobupivacaine in combination with fentanyl as part of a CSE technique provides more effective analgesia than equivalent doses of intrathecal ropivacaine in early labor, but is accompanied by slight motor weakness.
Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia; Intrathecal injection; Labor analgesia; Levobupivacaine; Ropivacaine
Nitrous oxide (N2O) and remifentanil both have anesthetic-reducing and antinociceptive effects. We aimed to determine the anesthetic requirements and stress hormone responses in spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients undergoing surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia with or without pharmacodynamically equivalent doses of N2O or remifentanil.
Forty-five chronic, complete SCI patients undergoing surgery below the level of injury were randomly allocated to receive sevoflurane alone (control, n = 15), or in combination with 67% N2O (n = 15) or target-controlled infusion of 1.37 ng/ml remifentanil (n = 15). Sevoflurane concentrations were titrated to maintain a Bispectral Index (BIS) value between 40 and 50. Measurements included end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and plasma catecholamine and cortisol concentrations.
During surgery, MAP, HR, and BIS did not differ among the groups. Sevoflurane concentrations were lower in the N2O group (0.94 ± 0.30%) and the remifentanil group (1.06 ± 0.29%) than in the control group (1.55 ± 0.34%) (P < 0.001, both). Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine remained unchanged compared to baseline values in each group, with no significant differences among groups throughout the study. Cortisol levels decreased during surgery as compared to baseline values, and returned to levels higher than baseline at 1 h after surgery (P < 0.05) without inter-group differences.
Remifentanil (1.37 ng/ml) and N2O (67%) reduced the sevoflurane requirements similarly by 31-39%, with no significant differences in hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses. Either remifentanil or N2O can be used as an anesthetic adjuvant during sevoflurane anesthesia in SCI patients undergoing surgery below the level of injury.
Catecholamines; Nitrous oxide; Remifentanil; Sevoflurane; Spinal cord injuries
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2.
One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery.
The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05).
We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery.
Acupuncture; Capsaicin; Nausea and vomiting; Thyroid surgery
Intravenous fentanyl has been used for acute postoperative pain management, but has not always provided reliable adequate analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of time-scheduled decremental infusion of fentanyl for postoperative analgesia.
Ninety-nine patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) were randomly assigned into one of the three groups. Their background infusions of fentanyl diluent (2 ml/hr of diluent was equivalent with 0.5 µg/kg/hr of fentanyl) with PCA were maintained at the fixed-rate of 2 ml/hr until the postoperative 24 hr (FX2-2-2), or at the decremental rates of 6.0, 4.0, 2.0 ml/hr (D6-4-2) and 8.0, 4.0, 2.0 ml/hr (D8-4-2). The visual analogue score (VAS), incidence of inadequate analgesia, frequency of PCA intervention, and side effects were evaluated.
VAS was significantly higher in FX2-2-2 than in D6-4-2 and D8-4-2 until postoperative 3 hr (P < 0.05). After postoperative 4 hr, VAS was significantly higher in FX2-2-2 than D8-4-2 (P < 0.05). The incidence of inadequate analgesia of FX2-2-2 was significantly greater than D6-4-2 (P = 0.038) and D8-4-2 (P < 0.001) until postoperative 1 hr. None of the patients had ventilatory depression, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were not significant among the groups.
The time-scheduled decremental background infusion regimens of fentanyl, based on the pharmacokinetic model, could provide more effective postoperative pain management after TIVA, and the side effects and the risk for morbidity were not different from the fixed-rate infusion regimen.
Fentanyl; Intravenous anesthesia; Patient-controlled analgesia
Muscle relaxants induce vascular smooth muscle relaxation by inducing synthesis of the prostaglandins that influence vasomotor tone. However, the effects of muscle relaxants on endothelial cells and tissues following injury by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unclear. We tested the effects of the muscle relaxants vecuronium and rocuronium on impaired acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation following induction of ROS in rabbit aorta in vitro.
Isolated rabbit abdominal aortic ring segments were pretreated with vecuronium or rocuronium at 10-4, 3 × 10-4, 10-3 or 3 × 10-3 M, with or without inhibitors of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (diethyldithiocarbamate; DETCA, 0.8 mM) or catalase (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole; 3AT, 50 mM). All groups of aortic rings were then exposed to ROS generated by electrolysis in the organ bath medium (Krebs-Henseleit solution). The effects of vecuronium and rocuronium on ROS-induced impairment of relaxation induced by ACh (10-6 M) were assessed.
Aortic rings treated with vecuronium or rocuronium at 10-4, 3 × 10-4, 10-3 or 3 × 10-3 M preserved the capacity for ACh-induced endothelial relaxation following ROS exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with DETCA partially inhibited the protective effects of vecuronium and rocuronium on ACh-induced relaxation (P < 0.001), but pretreatment with 3AT had no effect.
Muscle relaxants protected the endothelium in isolated rabbit abdominal aorta from free-radical injury in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that vecuronium and rocuronium may act as superoxide anion scavengers.
Antioxidant effect; Reactive oxygen species; Rocuronium; Vecuronium
Phrenic nerve paralysis is an unusual complication associated with central venous catheterization. Various mechanisms have been proposed. We present a case of transient right hemidiaphragmatic paralysis after subclavian venous catheterization. We hypothesize that anatomical variation of the phrenic nerve was responsible for this complication.
Central venous catheterization; Phrenic nerve
Although compressed gas (CO2) blowers have been used safely to aid accurate grafting during off-pump coronary bypass surgery, hemodynamic collapse due to gas embolism into the right coronary artery may occur. Supportive measures to facilitate gas clearance by increasing the coronary perfusion pressure have been reported to be successful in restoring hemodynamic stability. However, right ventricular dysfunction and atrioventricular nodal ischemia may hinder effective systemic delivery of the vasoactive medications, even when performing resuscitative measures such as direct cardiac massage. We herein report a case of cardiac arrest that was caused by a right coronary gas embolism and that could not be restored by cardiac resuscitation. When supportive measures fail, direct aortic injection of epinephrine to increase the coronary perfusion pressure can be attempted before initiating cardiopulmonary bypass, and this approach may be life-saving in situations that limit systemic drug delivery from the venous side despite the performance of direct cardiac massage.
Ascending aorta; Cardiac arrest; Epinephrine; Gas embolism; Off-pump coronary artery bypass
Cortriatriatum is a rare congenital cardiac disorder with fibromuscular band (diaphragm) dividing the left atrium (LA) into the proximal and distal parts. Surgical correction of cortriatriatum requires full preoperative evaluation of the structural anomalies including the LA diaphragm and their pathophysiology. In the present case, a 44 year-old lady diagnosed as cortriatriatum underwent surgical correction. Intraoperative three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided detailed information regarding the shape and extent of the LA diaphragm, which had been partially evaluated by preoperative two-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, and facilitated the intraoperative patient management and surgical decision making.
Cortriatriatum; Transesophageal echocardiography
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by inflammation and destruction of cartilaginous structures. When tracheobronchial tree is involved, respiratory obstructive symptoms can occur. A 35-year-old man, with a previous diagnosis of RP, was scheduled for rigid bronchoscopy to relieve dyspnea, caused by subglottic stenosis. After laser splitting of the subglottic web, the spontaneous respiration of the patient was insufficient, and hypercarbia developed progressively even with assisted ventilation. After 20 minutes of aggressive hyperventilation to reduce end-tidal CO2 level, sudden extreme tachycardia and hypotension developed. Ventilation rate was reduced and prolonged expiration time was allowed to alleviate a near-tampon status from dynamic hyperinflation. After the hemodynamic status was stabilized, the patient was transferred to the ICU for mechanical ventilation. He received ICU care for 30 days, and now, he was on supportive care on a ward, considering Y stent insertion to prevent luminal collapse from tracheobronchomalacia.
Acquired subglottic stenosis; Bronchoscopy; Relapsing polychondritis; Respiratory insufficiency; Tracheobronchomalacia
Retroperitoneal paragangliomas are uncommon neuroendocrine tumors which are derived from extra-adrenal paraganglioma with various clinical signs and symptoms. Although most extra-adrenal paragangliomas are histologically benign, some tumors can synthesize and secrete excess catecholamine from the tumor. Excessive production of catecholamine causes numerous cardiovascular manifestations such as severe hypertension, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and even multiorgan failure. It can lead to high risks of morbidity and mortality, especially in patients who are unrecognized or not adequately prepared. We present a female patient who was preoperatively undiagnosed of secreting retroperitoneal paraganglioma that caused cardiac tachyarrhythmia and severe intraopertive hypertension not controlled by usual antihypertensive agents. A secreting extra-adrenal paraganglioma should be included in differential diagnosis for patient who have incidentaloma and show wide range of hypertension with hemodynamic instability that is not well controlled by common antihypertensive drugs.
Catecholamine; Hypertensive crisis; Paraganglioma
Pneumothorax during general anesthesia is more difficult to diagnose compared with that of non-anesthetized patient. Furthermore, the early diagnosis of pneumothorax is to some extent difficult due to CO2-pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery. The use of ultrasonography to diagnose pneumothorax has increased in a variety of situations, demonstrating a better diagnostic rate than conventional chest radiography. Here, we report two cases of intraoperative capnothorax that were confirmed using the M-mode "lung point" sign. However, the insertion of a chest tube could have been avoided because the spontaneous resolution of capnothorax was quickly identified using bedside lung ultrasonography.
Laparoscopy; Pneumothorax; Ultrasonography