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1.  What do we take consideration in the patient who has an unpredicted severe portopulmonary hypertension in liver transplantation?: a case report 
Severe portopulmonary hypertension (PPHT) is considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT) because of the associated high mortality and poor prognosis. We report the case of a 57-year-old cirrhotic woman with severe PPHT (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] > 65 mmHg), who underwent a successful living donor LT. Intra-operative use of inhaled iloprost, milrinone, dobutamine, and postoperative use of inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil failed to lower the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). The patient responded only to nitroglycerin and drainage of massive ascites. Meticulous intra-operative volume control, which included minimizing blood loss and subsequent transfusion, was carried out. The use of vasopressors, which may have elevated the PAP, was strictly restricted. Intra-operative PAP did not show an increase, and the hemodynamics was maintained within relatively normal range, compared to the preoperative state. The patient was discharged without any complications or related symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4318871  PMID: 25664161
Ascites; Liver transplantation; Nitroglycerin; Portopulmonary hypertension
2.  Benefits and risks of sugammadex 
PMCID: PMC4318857  PMID: 25664147
3.  Effect of muscle relaxation on the oxygenation of human skeletal muscle: a prospective in-vivo experiment using an isolated forearm technique 
Total oxygen consumption has been found to be reduced under deep neuromuscular blockade due to a lower rate of metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, the magnitude of this effect in individual muscles has not been investigated. Thus the aim of this study was to compare the oxygenation of paralyzed versus non-paralyzed forearm muscle under tourniquet-provoked ischemia.
After ethics approval and written informed consent, 30 patients scheduled for elective hand and wrist surgery were included. Ischemia was provoked by inflation of bilateral upper arm tourniquets and muscle relaxation was achieved via intravenous administration of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg. Bilateral tourniquets were applied to both upper arms before induction of anesthesia and near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) electrodes applied on both forearms. Muscular ischemia in an isolated (= non-paralyzed, NP) as well as a paralyzed forearm (P) was created by sequential inflation of both tourniquets before and after intravenous administration of rocuronium. Muscle oxygen saturations (SmO2) of NIRS in both forearms and their changes were determined and compared.
Data of 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; 41.8 ± 14.7 years) were analyzed. The speed of SmO2 decrease (50% decrease of SmO2 from baseline (median [percentiles]: NP 210 s [180/480s] vs. P 180 [180/300]) as well as the maximum decrease in SmO2 (minimum SmO2 in % (median [percentiles]: NP 20 [19/24] vs. P 21 [19/28]) were not significantly affected by neuromuscular paralysis.
No significant effect of muscle relaxation on NIRS-assessed muscle oxygenation under tourniquet-induced ischemia was found in human forearm muscles.
PMCID: PMC4318858  PMID: 25664149
Neuromuscular blockade; Near-infrared spectrometry; Skeletal muscles; Tourniquets
4.  Biological evaluation of the effect of sugammadex on hemostasis and bleeding 
Notification of sugammadex has been supplemented with a section on hemostasis, including a longer clotting time in the first minutes following injection, without any documented clinical consequences. The objective of this observational study was to analyze the effects of sugammadex administration on routine coagulation tests and bleeding in the clinical setting.
After Institutional Review Board approval, a prospective observational study was conducted between January and December 2011. Adult patients scheduled for laparotomies were analyzed in groups according to the type of reversal (without sugammadex versus 2 or 4 mg/kg sugammadex). There were no changes in our current clinical practice. Blood samples drawn from these patients were standardized at the same time and tested using the same daily calibrated machine. The endpoint was a comparison of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), hemoglobin (Hb) level and hematocrit (Ht), immediately before sugammadex administration (H0) and 1 h after neuromuscular block reversal (H1).
One hundred and forty-two patients in three groups were included as follows: 11 in the "without sugammadex" group, 64 in the "2 mg/kg sugammadex" group and 67 in the "4 mg/kg sugammadex" group. Results did not differ significantly among the groups.
In this prospective observational study, the use of 2 and 4 mg/kg sugammadex was not associated with a longer clotting time or decreased hemoglobin concentrations. Future prospective investigations should study patients receiving 16 mg/kg sugammadex and/or with abnormal coagulation tests.
PMCID: PMC4318859  PMID: 25664150
Activated partial thromboplastin time; Hemostasis; Prothrombin time; Sugammadex
5.  Comparison between Glidescope and Lightwand for tracheal intubation in patients with a simulated difficult airway 
Although Lightwand and Glidescope have both shown high success rates for intubation, there has been no confirmation as to which device is most effective for difficult endotracheal intubation. We compared the Glidescope and Lightwand devices in terms of duration of intubation and success rate at the first attempt in a simulated difficult airway situation.
Fifty-eight patients were randomized to undergo tracheal intubation with either the Glidescope (Glidescope group, n = 29) or the Lightwand (Lightwand group, n = 29). All patients were fitted with a semi-hard cervical collar in order to simulate a difficult airway, and intubation was attempted with the assigned airway device. The data collected included the rate of successful endotracheal intubation, the number of attempts required, the duration of the intubation, as well as the interincisor distance, hemodynamic variables, and adverse effects.
There was no difference between Glidescope group (92.6%) and Lightwand group (96.4%) in terms of success rate for the first attempt at intubation. The duration of successful intubation for the first tracheal intubation attempt was significantly longer in Glidescope group than in Lightwand group (46.9 sec vs 29.5 sec, P = 0.001). All intubations were completed successfully within two intubation attempts. The incidence of hypertension was significantly higher in Glidescope group than in Lightwand group (51.9% vs 17.9%, P = 0.008).
In a simulated difficult airway situation, endotracheal intubation using Lightwand yielded a shorter duration of intubation and lower incidence of hypertension than when using Glidescope.
PMCID: PMC4318860  PMID: 25664151
Airway management; Intubation; Laryngoscopes; Light; Transillumination
6.  The changes of endotracheal tube cuff pressure by the position changes from supine to prone and the flexion and extension of head 
The proper cuff pressure is important to prevent complications related to the endotracheal tube (ETT). We evaluated the change in ETT cuff pressure by changing the position from supine to prone without head movement.
Fifty-five patients were enrolled and scheduled for lumbar spine surgery. Neutral angle, which was the angle on the mandibular angle between the neck midline and mandibular inferior border, was measured. The initial neutral pressure of the ETT cuff was measured, and the cuff pressure was subsequently adjusted to 26 cmH2O. Flexed or extended angles and cuff pressure were measured in both supine and prone positions, when the patient's head was flexed or extended. Initial neutral pressure in prone was compared with adjusted neutral pressure (26 cmH2O) in supine. Flexed and extended pressure were compared with adjusted neutral pressure in supine or prone, respectively.
There were no differences between supine and prone position for neutral, flexed, and extended angles. The initial neutral pressure increased after changing position from supine to prone (26.0 vs. 31.5 ± 5.9 cmH2O, P < 0.001). Flexed and extended pressure in supine were increased to 38.7 ± 6.7 (P < 0.001) and 26.7 ± 4.7 cmH2O (not statistically significant) than the adjusted neutral pressure. Flexed and extended pressure in prone were increased to 40.5 ± 8.8 (P < 0.001) and 29.9 ± 8.7 cmH2O (P = 0.002) than the adjusted neutral pressure.
The position change from supine to prone without head movement can cause a change in ETT cuff pressure.
PMCID: PMC4318861  PMID: 25664152
Cuff pressure; Endotracheal tube; Head and neck position; Prone position
7.  Intravenous non-opioid analgesia for peri- and postoperative pain management: a scientific review of intravenous acetaminophen and ibuprofen 
Pain is a predictable consequence following operations, but the management of postoperative pain is another challenge for anesthesiologists and inappropriately controlled pain may lead to unwanted outcomes in the postoperative period. Opioids are indeed still at the mainstream of postoperative pain control, but solely using only opioids for postoperative pain management may be connected with risks of complications and adverse effects. As a consequence, the concept of multimodal analgesia has been proposed and is recommended whenever possible. Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug for its good tolerance and high safety profiles. The introduction of intravenous form of acetaminophen has led to a wider flexibility of its use during peri- and postoperative periods, allowing the early initiation of multimodal analgesia. Many studies have revealed the efficacy, safety and opioid sparing effects of intravenous acetaminophen. Intravenous ibuprofen has also shown to be well tolerated and demonstrated to have significant opioid sparing effects during the postoperative period. However, the number of randomized controlled trials confirming the efficacy and safety is small and should be used in caution in certain group of patients. Intravenous acetaminophen and ibuprofen are important options for multimodal postoperative analgesia, improving pain and patient satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC4318862  PMID: 25664148
Acetaminophen; Analgesia; Ibuprofen; Intravenous; Postoperative pain
8.  The effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine on the bispectral index for supraclavicular brachial plexus block 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) added to ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB) using the bispectral index (BIS).
Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, aged 20-65 years) undergoing wrist and hand surgery under supraclavicular BPB were randomly allocated to two groups. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB was performed with 40 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% and 1 µg/kg of DEX (Group RD) or 0.01 ml/kg of normal saline (Group R). The primary endpoint was the BIS change during 60 min after block. The secondary endpoint was the change in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and SpO2 and the onset time and duration of the sensory and motor block.
In Group RD, the BIS decreased significantly until 30 min after the block (69.2 ± 13.7), but remained relatively constant to 60 min (63.8 ± 15.3). The MAP, HR and BIS were significantly decreased compared with Group R. The onset time of the sensory and motor block were significantly faster in Group RD than in Group R. The duration of the sensory and motor block were significantly increased in Group RD.
DEX added to ropivacaine for brachial plexus block induced sedation that corresponds to a BIS value of 60 from which patients are easily awakened in a lucid state. In addition, perineural DEX shortened the onset time and prolonged the duration of the sensory and motor blocks.
PMCID: PMC4318863  PMID: 25664153
Bispectral index; Brachial plexus; Dexmedetomidine; Ropivacaine
9.  Comparison of hemodynamic changes between old and very old patients undergoing cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty under spinal anesthesia 
The old age population, including the very old aged (≥ 85 years), is rapidly increasing, and femur neck fracture from accidents is commonly seen in the elderly. Use of bone cement during bipolar hemiarthroplasty can cause bone cement implantation syndrome.
This study was prospectively conducted on the elderly who were scheduled to undergo elective cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the old age (65-84 years) and very old age groups (≥ 85 years). Hemodynamic parameters were recorded at the following time points: the start of the operation, femoral reaming, cement insertion, every 2 minutes after cement insertion for 10 minutes, femoral joint reduction, and the end of operation. When hypotension occurred, ephedrine was given.
Sixty-five patients in the old age group and 32 patients in the very old age group were enrolled. Mean ages were 78.9 and 89.4 years, respectively, in the old age and very old age groups. The very old age group showed constantly decreased levels of cardiac index and stroke volume from cementing until the end of the operation compared to the old age group. To maintain hemodynamic stability after cement insertion, the requirement of ephedrine was higher in the very old age group than in the old age group (13.52 ± 7.76 vs 8.65 ± 6.38 mg, P = 0.001).
Bone cement implantation during bipolar hemiarthroplasty may cause more prominent hemodynamic changes in very elderly patients. Careful hemodynamic monitoring and management are warranted in very elderly patients undergoing cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC4318864  PMID: 25664154
Aged; Bone cements; Hemiarthroplasty; Hemodynamics; Spinal anesthesia
10.  The analgesic effect of nefopam combined with low dose remifentanil in patients undergoing middle ear surgery under desflurane anesthesia: a randomized controlled trial 
We investigated the effects of the combined administration of nefopam, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and low dose remifentanil, on early postoperative pain and analgesic requirement.
Fifty patients scheduled to undergo mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty were randomized to be given either nefopam 40 mg mixed with normal saline 100 ml (Group N) or an equal amount of normal saline (Group C) before anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was maintained with 5-6 vol% desflurane and remifentanil 0.05-0.15 µg/kg/min during the surgery. Postoperative pain was controlled by titration of ketorolac in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and ward. We evaluated the intraoperative remifentanil dose, recovery profiles, ketorolac demand in the PACU and ward, numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain at time intervals of every 10 min for 1 h in the PACU, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h in a ward, as well as the time to first analgesic requirement in the PACU and ward.
Ketorolac demand and NRS in the PACU were significantly lower in Group N than Group C (P = 0.002, P = 0.005, respectively). The time to first analgesic requirement in the PACU in Group N were significantly longer than Group C (P = 0.046). There were no significant differences in intraoperative remifentanil dose, ketorolac demand, NRS, and the time to first analgesic requirement in the ward between the groups.
Nefopam administration combined with low dose remifentanil infusion reduces pain and analgesic consumption during the immediate postoperative period in patients undergoing middle ear surgery under desflurane anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC4318865  PMID: 25664155
Acute opioid tolerance; Nefopam; Opioid induced hyperalgesia; Postoperative pain; Remifentanil
11.  The effect of high concentration of magnesium with ropivacaine, gentamicin, rocuronium, and their combination on neuromuscular blockade 
Magnesium, ropivacaine, gentamicin, and rocuronium block neuromuscular (NM) transmission by different mechanisms. Therefore, concurrent administration of these agents may induce prolonged muscle paralysis via synergistic interaction. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of NM block caused by the administration of high concentrations of magnesium in combination with ropivacaine, gentamicin, and rocuronium.
Eighty-three left phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms from male SD rats (150-250 g) were hung in Krebs solution. Three consecutive single twitch tension (ST, 0.1 Hz) and one tetanic tension (TT, 50 Hz for 1.9 s) were obtained before drug application and at each new drug concentration. The concentration of MgCl2 and MgSO4 in Krebs solution was increased until an 80 to 90% reduction in ST was reached. To test the effects of combinations of NM agents, a Krebs solution was premixed with MgCl2 alone, MgCl2 and ropivacaine, or MgCl2, ropivacaine, and gentamicin. The concentration of ropivacaine, gentamicin, or rocuronium was then progressively increased until an 80 to 90% reduction in ST was reached. The effective concentrations were estimated with a probit model.
The potency of MgCl2 was greater than that of MgSO4, and pretreatment with MgCl2 increased the potency of gentamicin and rocuronium. Unexpectedly, MgCl2 did not potentiate ropivacaine, and the potency of gentamicin and rocuronium failed to show an increase when premixed with 0.5 µM ropivacaine.
The concomitant administration of high concentrations of magnesium and ropivacaine together with clinically relevant concentrations of gentamicin or rocuronium potentiated NM blockade but not with clinically relevant concentrations of ropivacaine.
PMCID: PMC4318866  PMID: 25664156
Gentamicins; Magnesium; Neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Ropivacaine
12.  The volatile anesthetic sevoflurane attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury through inhibition of ERK1/2 and Akt signal transduction 
Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) sustained during mechanical ventilator support is still a cause of a high rate of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units and in operating rooms. VILI is characterized by pulmonary inflammation that appears to be mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. This study investigates whether the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane has an anti-inflammatory effect that attenuates VILI.
Twenty one male rabbits were anesthetized and were mechanically ventilated with 50% oxygen at a peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 10 cmH2O, I : E ratio of 1 : 4, and positive end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. All animals were randomly assigned to one of three groups that were ventilated for 5 h with 10 cmH2O of PIP (Sham group, n = 7); 30 cmH2O of PIP (Control group, n = 7); or 30 cmH2O of PIP and 0.8 vol% sevoflurane (Sevoflurane group, n = 7). The wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and histopathology of the lung; concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt were measured in the lung tissue after completing the protocol.
Histopathology indicated that the sevoflurane group showed fewer inflammatory cells and architectural changes than the control group did. The W/D ratio [(5.36 ± 0.13) versus (6.61 ± 0.20)], expression of IL-8 [(144.08 ± 14.61) versus (228.56 ± 15.13) pg/ml] and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt decreased significantly in the sevoflurane group relative to the control group.
Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in rabbits mainly by inhibiting expression of IL-8, and Sevoflurane-induced inhibition of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt might be a possible pathway for protection.
PMCID: PMC4318867  PMID: 25664157
Akt; ERK1/2; Sevoflurane; Ventilator-induced lung injury
13.  Thrombus entrapped by patent foramen ovale in a patient with pulmonary embolism: a case report 
Thrombus-in-transit appears to increase the risk of mortality compared to pulmonary embolism alone and can require alteration in therapeutic plan. We present the case of a biatrial thromboembolus caught in transit across a patent foramen ovale diagnosed by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram in a 69-year-old female with acute pulmonary embolism and subsequent acute cerebral infarction. We suggest that echocardiography should be performed in a patient with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism to evaluate right heart function and diagnose emboli in transit.
PMCID: PMC4318868  PMID: 25664158
Echocardiography; Patent foramen ovale; Pulmonary embolism
14.  Fatal cardiac thromboembolism in a patient with a pacemaker during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureter stone: a case report 
Intracardiac thrombosis is an infrequent and fatal complication in patients with an inserted pacemaker. A patient with an inserted pacemaker scheduled for ureter stone removal experienced cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation under general anesthesia. Echocardiography showed multiple intracardiac thrombi. Preoperative diagnostic workup including echocardiography for the detection of pacemaker lead thrombus, and the need for anticoagulation should be considered in patients with an inserted pacemaker and high-risk factors for thrombosis.
PMCID: PMC4318869  PMID: 25664159
Echocardiography; Pacemaker; Thrombosis
15.  Anesthetic management for percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation of reninoma: a case report 
A reninoma is an uncommon, benign, renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cell tumor that causes secondary hypertension in young patients. This hypertension is treated by tumor resection. Except for increased levels of plasma renin and angiotensin I and II, the other physical and laboratory examinations and electrocardiographs were within normal limits upon admission of a 19-year-old woman with a reninoma. For percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental sodium and rocuronium bromide and maintained with servoflurane (2-4 vol%) and oxygen. The operation ended uneventfully in hemodynamic stability. However, the patient complained of dizziness while sitting 5 hours after the operation, and hypotension was diagnosed. After aggressive normal saline (1 L) infusion over 30 min, the hypotension was corrected and the patient recovered without any other surgical complications. Here, we report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation for reninoma destruction, particularly focusing on postoperative hypotension.
PMCID: PMC4318870  PMID: 25664160
Anesthetic management; Radiofrequency ablation; Reninoma
16.  Anesthesia machine breathing tube holder 
PMCID: PMC4318872  PMID: 25664162
17.  Prevention of rocuronium injection pain 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):371-372.
PMCID: PMC4280472  PMID: 25558335
18.  The efficacy of sevolflurane inhalation alone or its combination with intravenous remifentanil against withdrawal movements on rocuronium injection in children 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):373-377.
The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of sevoflurane inhalation alone, intravenous remifentanil alone, and the combination of sevoflurane inhalation and remifentanil as pretreatment for the prevention of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in pediatric patients.
In this prospective, randomized study, 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II pediatric patients aged 3 to 10 years were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: The Group S comprising the patients receiving sevoflurane inhalation, the Group R comprising those doing intravenous remifentanil 0.5 µg/kg and the Group C comprising those doing sevoflurane inhalation+intravenous remifentanil 0.5 µg/kg. The response of the patients was graded based on a 4-point scale.
The overall incidence of withdrawal movement on rocuronium injection was 54% (16/30) in the Group S, 57% (17/30) in the Group R and 17% (5/30) in the Group C. There was no significant difference in the incidence of withdrawal movements on rocuronium injection between the Group S and Group R. In addition, the incidence of withdrawal movements and generalized movement on rocuronium injection was significantly lower in the Group C as compared with the Group S and R (P < 0.05).
Our results indicate not only that there was no significant difference in the degree of the effect in lowering the incidence of withdrawal movements on rocuronium injection between sevoflurane inhalation and intravenous remifentanil but also that it was significantly higher when combined with intravenous remifentanil as compared with the single use of sevoflurane inhalation or intravenous remifentanil.
PMCID: PMC4280473  PMID: 25558336
Injections; Pain; Pediatrics; Remifentanil; Rocuronium; Sevoflurane
19.  The correlation between the Trendelenburg position and the stroke volume variation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):378-383.
The stroke volume variation (SVV), based on lung-heart interaction during mechanical ventilation, is a useful dynamic parameter for fluid responsiveness. However, it is affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SVV on Trendelenburg (T) and reverse Trendelenburg (RT) position and to further elaborate on the patterns of the SVV with position.
Forty-two patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled in this study. Fifteen minutes after standardized induction of anesthesia with propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium with volume controlled ventilation (tidal volume of 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight, inspiration : expiration ratio of 1 : 2, and respiratory rate of 10-13 breaths/min), the patients underwent posture changes as follows: supine, T position at slopes of operating table of -5°, -10°, and -15°, and RT position at slopes of operating table of 5°, 10°, and 15°. At each point, SVV, cardiac output (CO), peak airway pressure (PAP), mean blood pressure, and heart rate (HR) were recorded.
The SVV was significant decreased with decreased slopes of operating table in T position, and increased with increased slopes of operating table in RT position (P = 0.000). Schematically, it was increased by 1% when the slope of operating table was increased by 5°. But, the CO and PAP were significant increased with decreased slopes of operating table in T position, and decreased with increased slopes of operating table in RT position (P = 0.045, 0.027).
SVV is subjected to the posture, and we should take these findings into account on reading SVV for fluid therapy.
PMCID: PMC4280474  PMID: 25558337
Fluid therapy; Reverse Trendelenburg position; Stroke volume variation; Trendelenburg position
20.  The relationship between perioperative nausea and vomiting and serum serotonin concentrations in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):384-390.
Serotonin-also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT-can induce nausea and vomiting (NV) by peripheral mechanisms via the activation of 5-HT3 receptors. In this study, we observed perioperative NV, including intraoperative NV, and changes in serum 5-HT concentrations. We evaluated the relationship between perioperative NV and serum 5-HT levels in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, and carried out a pilot study to determine if further studies on a larger scale were justified.
Twenty-eight patients who were scheduled for cesarean section under epidural anesthesia were included in the study. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to the occurrence of NV after induction, i.e., an NV-positive or an NV-negative group. Serum 5-HT concentrations were measured before induction, at the time that NV occurred (in the case of the NV-positive group) or 5 min after the umbilical cord clamping (in the case of the NV-negative group) during surgery, and at 2 h postoperatively.
NV occurred in 10 of the 28 patients. No significant differences in serum 5-HT concentrations were found within or between the two groups.
This study suggests that there is no correlation between serum 5-HT concentration and the occurrence of perioperative NV in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, and the findings do not seem to support further investigations regarding a possible relationship between serum 5-HT concentration and perioperative NV.
PMCID: PMC4280475  PMID: 25558338
Cesarean section; Epidural anesthesia; Perioperative nausea and vomiting; Serum serotonin
21.  Comparison of the effects of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):391-397.
Central nervous system complications are the most clinically important of those affecting mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. Newly developed sophisticated techniques and surgical interventions obviating the need for cardiopulmonary pumps have facilitated avoidance of these complications. In this study, we compared the impact of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on cerebral oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy.
This study included 40 patients with no comorbidities who were scheduled for on-pump (n = 20) and off-pump (n = 20) cardiac surgery. Preoperative and postoperative Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) scores, perioperative mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), hematocrit (Hct), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), regional cerebral oximetry values (rSO2), body temperature, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) were recorded, for all patients. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were then performed.
The mean operative time was longer in the on-pump group. SMMSE scores were similar and relevant postoperative values were lower in both groups. Perioperative MAP, PCO2, and SpO2 were similar in both groups. SpO2 and PCO2 did not differ from baseline levels in either group, while the postextubation MAP at 2 h postoperatively remained low. Hct levels decreased during the perioperative and postoperative periods, while the body temperature declined perioperatively and to a greater degree in the on-pump group. The intraoperative and postoperative rSO2 decreased in both groups. In the on-pump group, the decrease in rSO2 was more prominent during the interval between the start and closure of the sternotomy.
Physiological alterations that occur during coronary artery surgery affect cerebral oxygenation during and after the operation irrespective of the application of a cardiopulmonary pump. Cerebral oxygenation decreases to a greater extent during on-pump surgery; however, probably because of the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia, the postoperative changes resemble those of off-pump surgery.
PMCID: PMC4280476  PMID: 25558339
Cerebral protection; Coronary artery bypass; Near-infrared spectroscopy
22.  Is transverse abdominis plane block effective following local anesthetic infiltration in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair? 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):398-403.
Transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block can be recommended as a multimodal method to reduce postoperative pain in laparoscopic abdominal surgery. However, it is unclear whether TAP block following local anesthetic infiltration is effective. We planned this study to evaluate the effectiveness of the latter technique in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP).
We randomly divided patients into two groups: the control group (n = 37) and TAP group (n = 37). Following the induction of general anesthesia, as a preemptive method, all of the patients were subjected to local anesthetic infiltration at the trocar sites, and the TAP group was subjected to ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 30 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine in addition before TEP. Pain was assessed in the recovery room and post-surgery at 4, 8, and 24 h. Additionally, during the postoperative 24 h, the total injected dose of analgesics and incidence of nausea were recorded.
On arrival in the recovery room, the pain score of the TAP group (4.33 ± 1.83) was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (5.73 ± 2.04). However, the pain score was not significantly different between the TAP group and control group at 4, 8, and 24 h post-surgery. The total amounts of analgesics used in the TAP group were significantly less than in the control group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of nausea between the two groups.
TAP block following local infiltration had a clinical advantage only in the recovery room.
PMCID: PMC4280477  PMID: 25558340
Hernia; Repair; Ropivacaine; Transverse; Ultrasonography
23.  Mepivacaine-induced intracellular calcium increase appears to be mediated primarily by calcium influx in rat aorta without endothelium 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):404-411.
Mepivacaine induces contraction or decreased blood flow both in vivo and in vitro. Vasoconstriction is associated with an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increase remains to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to examine the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in isolated rat aorta.
Isometric tension was measured in isolated rat aorta without endothelium. In addition, fura-2 loaded aortic muscle strips were illuminated alternately (48 Hz) at two excitation wavelengths (340 and 380 nm). The ratio of F340 to F380 (F340/F380) was regarded as an amount of [Ca2+]i. We investigated the effects of nifedipine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), gadolinium chloride hexahydrate (Gd3+), low calcium level and Krebs solution without calcium on the mepivacaine-evoked contraction in isolated rat aorta and on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in fura-2 loaded aortic strips. We assessed the effect of verapamil on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment.
Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction and increased [Ca2+]i. Nifedipine, 2-APB and low calcium attenuated vasoconstriction and the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by mepivacaine. Verapamil attenuated the mepivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i increment. Calcium-free solution almost abolished mepivacaine-induced contraction and strongly attenuated the mepivacaineinduced [Ca2+]i increase. Gd3+ had no effect on either vasoconstriction or the [Ca2+]i increment evoked by mepivacaine.
The mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment, which contributes to mepivacaine-evoked contraction, appears to be mediated mainly by calcium influx and partially by calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
PMCID: PMC4280478  PMID: 25558341
Aorta; Calcium influx; Fura-2; Intracellular calcium concentration; Isometric tension; Mepivacaine
24.  Sudden cardiovascular collapse caused by severe anaphylaxis after cisatracurium use: a case report 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):412-415.
Kounis syndrome is an acute coronary syndrome concurrently occurs with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions. In patient with this syndrome, inflammatory mediators released due to an allergic reaction implicate to induce coronary artery spasm and atheromatous plaque rupture. We describe a patient with coronary artery disease who developed acute perioperative myocardial infarction leading to cardiac arrest after the anaphylactic reaction to cisatracurium, which led to a suspicion of Kounis syndrome. Anesthesiologists should be aware that anaphylaxis or allergic reactions can progress to acute coronary syndrome, thereby significantly change the course of the disease.
PMCID: PMC4280479  PMID: 25558342
Anaphylaxis; Cisatracurium; Kounis syndrome; Myocardial infarction
25.  Ventricular arrhythmia in patients with prolonged QT interval during liver transplantation: two cases report 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):416-420.
QT interval prolongation is associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia in various conditions. Cardiac electrophysiologic abnormalities including QT interval prolongation are well documented in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. We report two cases of patients with QT interval prolongation on preoperative electrocardiography who exhibited repetitive ventricular arrhythmias with significant hemodynamic deterioration during liver transplantation. For the treatment and prevention of ventricular arrhythmias during the intraoperative period, we performed intravenous administration of lidocaine and isoproterenol, corrected imbalances of electrolytes including potassium and magnesium, and prepared a defibrillator. These cases emphasize that preoperative recognition of QT interval prolongation and adequate management to prevent fatal arrhythmias are important in patients undergoing liver transplantation.
PMCID: PMC4280480  PMID: 25558343
Arrhythmia; Intraoperative complications; Liver transplantation

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