The incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with age and cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. These risk factors are thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, thus contributing to the pathophysiology of ED. The role of the endothelium in regulating erectile physiology is well established. However, the role of androgens in modulating endothelial function and endothelial repair mechanisms subsequent to vascular injury in erectile tissue remains a subject of intensive research. The clinical and preclinical evidence discussed in this review suggests that androgens regulate endothelial function and also play an important role in the development and maturation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are thought to play a critical role in repair of endothelial injury in vascular beds. In this review, we discuss the data available on the effects of androgens on endothelial function and EPCs in the repair of vascular injury. Indeed, more research is needed to fully understand the molecular and cellular basis of androgen action in regulating the development, differentiation, maturation, migration, and homing of EPCs to the site of injury. A better understanding of these processes will be critical to the development of new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of vascular ED.
Endothelium; Erectile dysfunction; Nitric oxide; Testosterone; Vascular endothelial cells
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), a common congenital urinary tract anomaly, refers to retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. The main goal in the treatment of pediatric VUR is to preserve renal function by preventing pyelonephritis. Many surgical management options are available for pediatric VUR. Open ureteral reimplantation has a high success rate but is invasive and is associated with postoperative pain and morbidity. Endoscopic therapy is minimally invasive but has the disadvantages of decreased short-term success and recurrence of reflux over the long term. Laparoscopic or robotic ureteral reimplantation has become increasingly popular owing to its effectiveness and minimal invasiveness, but long-term outcomes have yet to be documented. Urologists should make an effort to select the appropriate surgical strategy by taking into consideration the individual characteristics of the patient such as age, gender, grade of reflux at presentation, status of renal parenchyma, combined bladder and ureteral circumstances, functional status of the bladder and bowel, and preferences of the patients' family.
Pediatrics; Surgery; Therapy; Urinary tract infections; Vesico-ureteral reflux
We evaluated the differences between radiologically measured size and pathologic size of renal tumors.
Materials and Methods
The data from 171 patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for a renal tumor at Ajou University Hospital were reviewed. Radiologic tumor size, which was defined as the largest diameter on a computed tomographic scan, was compared with pathologic tumor size, which was defined as the largest diameter on gross pathologic examination.
Mean radiologic size was significantly larger than mean pathologic size for all tumors (p=0.019). When stratified according to radiologic size range, mean radiologic size was significantly larger than mean pathologic size for tumors <4 cm (p=0.003), but there was no significant difference between the sizes for tumors 4-7 cm and >7 cm. When classified according to histologic subtype, mean radiologic size was significantly larger than mean pathologic size only in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (p=0.002). When classified according to tumor location, mean radiologic size was significantly larger than mean pathologic size in endophytic tumors (p=0.043) but not in exophytic tumors. When endophytic tumors were stratified according to radiologic size range, there was a significant difference between the mean radiologic and pathologic sizes for tumors <4 cm (p=0.001) but not for tumors 4-7 cm (p=0.073) and >7 cm (p=0.603).
Our results suggest that in planning a nephron-sparing surgery for renal tumors, especially for endophytic tumors of less than 4 cm, the tumor size measured on a computed tomography scan should be readjusted to get a more precise estimate of the tumor size.
Kidney; Neoplasms; Pathology; Radiology
The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the time to recurrence after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 321 patients who received radical nephrectomies for localized renal cell carcinoma (pT1a-pT2b N0M0). Of 29 patients with disease recurrence, 9 had recurrence more than 5 years after radical nephrectomy. We evaluated the clinicopathological factors, with the use of a retrospective study design.
Tumor necrosis was statistically different between the late recurrence group and the recurrence free group (Fisher exact test, p=0.046). Hematuria at diagnosis (chi-square test, p=0.045) was statistically significant in early recurrence. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, tumor necrosis (odds ratio [OR], 4.629; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.106 to 19.379; p=0.036) and pT stage>1 (OR, 7.232; 95% CI, 1.727 to 30.280; p=0.007) were risk factors of late recurrence. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, pT stage>1 (OR, 7.143; 5% CI 1.706 to 29.912, p=0.007) was associated with late recurrence. Regarding early recurrence, initial symptoms at diagnosis and pathologic T stage>1 were statistically significant in both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. In terms of recurrence site, patients with late recurrence tended to have unusual metastasis sites other than lung, liver or bone (chi-square test, p=0.012).
These data suggest that tumor necrosis may affect late disease recurrence. Patients with initial symptoms and hematuria at diagnosis are vulnerable to recurrence in a shorter period after nephrectomy. Patients with late recurrence showed a tendency to have unusual metastasis site other than lung, liver or bone.
Disease-free survival; Recurrence; Renal cell carcinoma
We investigated the impact on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) of statin medication for 1 year in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively investigated 791 patients in whom BPH was diagnosed. For analysis, the patients were divided into four groups according to their medications: group A, α-blocker; group B, α-blocker+statin; group C, α-blocker+dutasteride; group D, α-blockers+statin+dutasteride. To investigate changes in serum PSA, PV, and total cholesterol, we analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment and after 1 year of medication.
After 1 year, group A showed a 1.3% increase in PSA and a 1.0% increase in PV. Group B showed a 4.3% decrease in PSA and a 1.8% decrease in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups A and B was statistically significant (p<0.001). Group C showed a 49.1% reduction in PSA and a 22.9% reduction in PV. Group D showed a 51.6% reduction in PSA and a 24.5% reduction in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups C and D was not statistically significant (p=0.762). By use of a multivariate logistic regression model, we found that the probability of PV reduction after 1 year was more than 14.8 times in statin users than in statin nonusers (95% confidence interval, 5.8% to 37.6%; p<0.001).
Statin administration reduced PSA and PV in BPH patients. This finding may imply the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and prevention of cardiovascular disease and chemoprevention of prostate cancer with statin treatment.
Chemoprevention; Dutasteride; Prostate; Prostate-specific antigen; Statins
To compare the complications of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) with those of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) performed by a single surgeon for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
The postoperative complications of 341 patients who underwent RRP and 524 patients who underwent RALP for prostate cancer at the Asan Medical Center between July 2007 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Complications were classified according to the modified Clavien classification system.
RALP was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (mean, 7.9 days vs. 10.1 days, p<0.001) and duration of urethral catheterization (6.2 days vs. 7.5 days, p<0.001) than RRP. Major complications (Clavien grade III-IV) were less common in the RALP group than in the RRP group (3.4% vs. 7.6%, p=0.006). There were no significant differences in medical complications between procedures. Considering surgical complications, urinary retention (7.0% vs. 2.7%, p=0.002) and wound repair (4.1% vs. 0.2%, p<0.001) were more common after RRP than after RALP. Extravasation of contrast medium during cystography was more common in the RRP group than in the RALP group (10.0% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001).
RALP is associated with a lower complication rate than RRP.
Complications; Prostate; Prostate neoplasms; Prostatectomy
To evaluate the association of a specific type of lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) and the depression in community-dwelling elderly Korean men.
Materials and Methods
A total of 392 men aged 65 years or older, who completed urological and psychiatric evaluations as a participant of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, were included. From each subject, an interview on the demographic characteristics and medical history, IPSS, and psychiatric questionnaire were taken. Subjects were divided into two groups; depression and euthymic. Subjects with IPSS subscore more than 3 points was considered 'high' subscore. IPSS subscores were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between depression and LUTS severity was assessed.
The mean age of the subjects was 75, and 6.4% of the subjects were diagnosed to have major depressive disorders. The depression group showed higher IPSS scores than the euthymic group (16.1±9.9 vs. 11.6±8.6, p=0.01). IPSS subscores of question 1 (incomplete empty), question 3 (intermittency), question 4 (urgency) and question 6 (straining to void) were higher in the depression group compared with the euthymic group. Chi-square test revealed subjects with high IPSS 1, 3, 4, and 6 score were associated with depression, but multivariate analysis identified only high IPSS question 4 as a significant prognostic factor for depression.
Elderly population with depression is more likely to have more severe LUTS than population without depression. Among the urinary symptoms, urgency was strongly associated with depression. Patients with moderate to severe LUTS and especially urgency may need their mental health status evaluation.
Depression; Longitudinal studies; Lower urinary tract symptoms
To evaluate the outcome of fulguration of Hunner's ulcers (HUs) in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) that is refractory to conservative treatment.
Materials and Methods
Patients diagnosed with refractory PBS/IC and treated with fulguration between 2011 and 2013 were identified through screening of medical records. To evaluate treatment outcomes, voiding diaries, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and two IC symptom questionnaires (pelvic pain and urgency/frequency scale [PUF] and O'Leary-Sant IC symptom index and IC problem index [OS]) were used. Fulguration was deemed to be successful if the VAS score was <2 or less than half of the preoperative VAS score.
In total, 27 patients with PBS/IC in whom conservative treatments had failed were enrolled. Two months after fulguration, decreases were observed in the mean 24-hour urinary frequency (from 16.0 to 10.2), 24-hour urgency episodes (8.0 to 1.8), and the VAS (5.8 to 1.2), PUF symptom (15.1 to 7.0), PUF bother (8.4 to 2.7), OS symptom (15.1 to 7.2), and OS problem (13.8 to 6.0) scores. At 5 and 10 months, all variables had worsened. At 2, 5, and 10 months, the success rates were 94.1%, 70.0%, and 33.3%, respectively. Four patients underwent one repeat fulguration on average 11.3 months after the first fulguration. Repeat fulguration was not significantly associated with any clinical characteristics.
In PBS/IC that was refractory to medication or other conservative treatments, HU elimination by fulguration effectively improved symptoms. However, this effect decreased gradually over time.
Electrocoagulation; Interstitial cystitis; Urinary bladder
Ureteroscopic stone removal is frequently used to remove ureteral stones. Mucosal edema and bleeding are the two most important obstacles to a successful operation. This study analyzed relationships between unenhanced computed tomography (UECT) findings and ureteroscopic findings to determine whether ureteroscopic results could be predicted preoperatively by using UECT imaging.
Materials and Methods
From January 2009 to July 2011, 675 patients were diagnosed with ureteral stones through UECT. Among them, we retrospectively reviewed 92 cases of patients who underwent ureteroscopy (URS). We identified findings such as hydronephrosis, rim sign, periureteral fat stranding, and perinephric fat stranding on the UECT and then categorized these findings into four categories (none, mild, moderate, and severe) according to their severity. We also divided the URS findings of mucosal edema and bleeding into four categories (none, mild, moderate, and severe) and compared these findings with the UECT images.
A total of 92 study patients were included in this study: 59 were male and 33 were female patients. According to the location of the stone, 31 cases were classified as upper ureteral stones, 15 were midureteral stones, and 46 were lower ureteral stones. Hydronephrosis identified with UECT was correlated with the mucosal edema severity observed during URS (p=0.004). The rim signs identified with UECT were proportional to the grade of mucosal edema (p=0.010).
Hydronephrosis and rim signs observed during UECT can be used as a predictive factor for intraoperative mucosal edema in patients undergoing URS.
Ureteral calculi; Ureteroscopy; X-ray computed tomography
A rapid growth in the socioeconomic status of Koreans has triggered an unprecedented explosion of health information for the general population. Despite its obvious benefits, this increase in information could also result in potentially harmful effects for both consumers and professionals who do not use it appropriately. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the quality and accuracy of health information on erectile dysfunction from 10 nationwide daily newspapers.
Materials and Methods
This study analyzed health information from 10 nationwide daily newspapers in Korea from January 2011 through December 2011. We reviewed the health information for quality by using evidence-based medicine tools and evaluated the accuracy of the information provided. Articles that simply summarized scientific congresses or journal articles and that did not include direct quotations were excluded, as were advertisements.
A total of 47 articles were gathered. Among them, 27 (57.4%) contained inaccurate or misleading statements on the basis of an evidence-based medicine evaluation. These statements included using inappropriate surrogate outcomes as clinical endpoints (three cases, 6.4%), extrapolating nonhuman results to humans (two cases, 4.3%), exaggerating the significance of results (eight cases, 17.0%), and using incorrect words (14 cases, 29.8%). The rate of error was higher in the information from Korean sources than in that from international sources (22 cases vs. 5 cases).
Approximately 57% of all articles on erectile dysfunction from 10 nationwide daily newspapers were found to contain inaccuracies.
Erectile dysfunction; Evidence-based medicine; Newspapers
We evaluated and compared the effectiveness of an enuresis alarm, desmopressin medication, and their combination in the treatment of Saudi children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE).
Materials and Methods
A total of 136 children with PMNE were randomly assigned to receive an enuresis alarm alone (EA group, n=45), desmopressin alone (D group, n=46), or a combination of both (EA/D group, n=45). Patients were followed weekly during treatment and for 12 weeks after treatment withdrawal.
During treatment, wetting frequencies were significantly reduced in all groups and remained significantly lower than pretreatment values until the end of follow-up. In the D and EA/D groups, an immediate reduction in wetting frequencies was observed, whereas a longer time was required to reach a significant reduction in the EA group. The full and partial response rates were 13.3% and 37.8% in the EA group, 26.1% and 43.5% in the D group, and 40.0% and 33.3% in the EA/D group. A significant difference was observed only between the EA and EA/D groups (p=0.025). Relapse rates were higher in the D group (66.6%) than in the EA (16.6%) and EA/D (33.3%) groups. A significant difference was observed between the D and EA groups only (p=0.019).
Desmopressin, an enuresis alarm, and combined therapy are effective in the treatment of Saudi children with PMNE. Desmopressin produced an immediate effect but relapses were common. The enuresis alarm provided gradual effects that persisted posttreatment. The combined therapy was superior to the alarm in achieving an immediate response; however, its effect was not better than that of the alarm long term.
Combined modality therapy; Nocturnal enuresis; Treatment efficacy
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs and microRNA-214 (miR-214) has been associated with the inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell-free miR-214 isolated from urine could be used as a biomarker for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Materials and Methods
A total of 138 patients with primary NMIBC and 144 healthy normal controls were enrolled in this study. By use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were measured and the clinicopathological parameters of patients with NMIBC were compared with those of the controls.
The urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were significantly higher in the NMIBC patients than in the controls (20.08±3.21 vs. 18.96±2.68, p=0.002). However, the urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were neither graded nor staged for the NMIBC patients (p>0.05, each). When we compared the urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 according to clinical outcomes, patients with recurrence had lower levels of miR-214 than did those with no recurrence (19.24±2.67 vs. 20.41±3.41, p=0.023). By contrast, there were no significant differences in the urinary level of cell-free miR-214 between the NMIBC patients showing progression and those showing no progression (p=0.919). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were an independent predictor of NMIBC recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.011; 95% confidence interval, 1.027 to 3.937; p=0.041).
Urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 could be an independent prognostic parameter for NMIBC recurrence. Thus, urinary cell-free microRNA-214 might be a useful prognostic marker for NMI BC.
MicroRNAs; Neoplasms; Recurrence; Urinary bladder
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder is a rare mesenchymal tumor with uncertain malignant potential. It often mimics soft tissue sarcomas both clinically and radiologically. Surgical resection in the form of partial cystectomy or transurethral resection remains the mainstay of treatment. Herein we report the case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a young girl, which was managed by laparoscopic partial cystectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic management of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder.
Cystectomy; Laparoscopy; Plasma cell granuloma; Urinary bladder
A psoas muscle abscess is a relatively uncommon condition that can present with vague clinical features. With the decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis, psoas abscesses of tuberculous origin are currently rare in developed countries, but are typically caused by tuberculosis of the spine. Here, an unusual case of a psoas abscess secondary to renal tuberculosis in a middle-aged woman is presented. The abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage followed by nephrectomy and additional antituberculous medications.
Abdominal pain; Psoas abscess; Renal tuberculosis
Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most common malignancy of urological organs. However, patients with non-muscle-invasive BC are at high risk of recurrence and progression into muscle-invasive BC, and the prognosis of patients with muscle-invasive BC is limited by the high rate of metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized by loss of cell-to-cell adhesion and cell polarity and is closely associated with the invasion and metastasis of several cancers. Given the multifocality and high rates of relapse, progression, and metastasis of BC, the EMT is likely to participate in BC as well. Numerous factors associate with the EMT, and the key regulators of the EMT are E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Twist, Snail, Slug, Zeb-1, Zeb-2, vimentin, and microRNAs. This review focuses on the current concepts regarding the EMT in cancer and the evidence for involvement of the EMT in BC. Several potential EMT targets that may be useful in the treatment of BC are also described.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Prognosis; Urinary bladder neoplasms
Since their introduction in 1996, tension-free midurethral slings (MUS) have been proven to have long-term efficacy and safety. They are considered the gold standard treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, especially in cases that are associated with urethral hypermobility. However, they are not free of complications and, although rare, some of these complications can be challenging for both patients and physicians. Some complications occur intraoperatively, whereas others appear in the early or late postoperative period. There is less controversy in the diagnosis and treatment of complications such as vaginal extrusion or urinary system erosion, whereas de novo voiding problems are at best not completely understood. Voiding dysfunction after MUS placement may vary in a wide range from urinary frequency or urgency to retention and is usually attributed to the obstructive or irritative effect of the sling. However, present urodynamic criteria for the diagnosis of female infravesical obstruction are not satisfactory, and the best management policy for de novo voiding dysfunction remains controversial. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis of obstruction leading to a urethral release surgery depends on a combination of several clinical findings. The timing of urethral release surgery varies depending on the preferences of the surgeon, and the outcome of this surgery is not always predictable. The purpose of this review was to assess the diagnosis and management of the immediate, short-term, and long-term complications of MUS in light of the current literature in an attempt to determine the best management policy.
Complication; Midurethral sling; Stress urinary incontinence
We evaluated the safety and accuracy of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous core biopsy collection in patients with renal masses.
Materials and Methods
From June 2008 to August 2012, 30 percutaneous core biopsies of renal masses were performed. The biopsies obtained were small tumors (<4 cm) with ambiguous radiologic findings or that met classic renal biopsy indications. The biopsy results were compared with the final pathological results after definitive surgical treatment. Ultrasonography was performed on the day after biopsy collection to rule out any complications.
The mean age of the patients was 57.7 years, and the mean tumor size was 3.39 cm. Twelve of the lesions were in the left kidney, and 18 were in the right kidney. All but one core biopsy contained sufficient material for histopathological analysis. The biopsy results showed 17 renal cell carcinomas (56.7%), 3 angiomyolipomas (10.0%), 2 oncocytomas (6.7%), 1 adenocarcinoma (3.3%), and 7 benign lesions (23.3%). A total of 18 cases underwent surgery, and the pathological results confirmed the initial biopsy diagnosis for 17 of 18 cases (94.4%). The one (5.9%) inaccurate biopsy result was found to be a urothelial carcinoma of the kidney. No needle tract seeding was found in the pathological specimens or on follow-up imaging. A small perinephric hematoma (1-2 cm) was seen in 5 cases (16.7%), but all patients remained hemodynamically stable.
Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe, effective, and accurate method for evaluating small renal masses. This procedure may help in selecting treatment modalities for small renal masses.
Fine-needle biopsy; Kidney
To investigate the relationship of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings with the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer (PCa).
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted retrospectively by analyzing the data for 970 patients who underwent prostate biopsies. Gleason scores and other clinical variables were compared between PCa patients with and without hypoechoic lesions on TRUS.
Of the 970 patients, PCa was diagnosed in 291 (30%). Of these, high-grade PCa (Gleason score of 7 or more) was diagnosed in 190 (65%). The cancer detection rate was higher in patients with hypoechoic lesions (43.9%) than in those without hypoechoic lesions (21.4%, p<0.001). High-grade PCa was detected more often in patients with hypoechoic lesions than in those without hypoechoic lesions (p<0.001). Independent predictors for high-grade PCa by logistic regression analysis included hypoechoic lesions on TRUS and abnormal digital rectal examination findings.
Patients with PCa who had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS had more aggressive pathological disease than did those without lesions. Therefore, hypoechoic lesions on TRUS could be a marker for clinically significant PCa.
Clinical marker; Prostate neoplasms; Ultrasonography
The utility of the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the evaluation of prognosis depends on the type of tumor. Hence, we aimed to examine the impact of expression of GRP78 and Bcl-2, which are used in the existing prognostic evaluation of ureter tumors, in the evaluation of recurrence and survival rates of ureter tumors.
Materials and Methods
In 53 patients who had undergone radical nephroureterectomy for a ureter tumor from March 2002 to March 2012, age, sex, T stage, nuclear grade, bladder recurrence, and survival rate were analyzed at the time of the patient's surgery depending on the extent of immunohistochemical expression of GRP78 and Bcl-2.
GRP78 was overexpressed in 25 patients (47.2%). When GRP78 was overexpressed, there was a high T stage (p=0.001) and nuclear grade (p=0.007) and a lot of bladder recurrence (40.0%, p=0.034). Bcl-2 was overexpressed in 16 patients (30.1%), and there were no significant associations with any risk factors (p>0.05, respectively). In the multivariate analysis regarding bladder recurrence, the recurrence rate was higher with higher pT stage (p=0.048) and when GRP78 (p=0.033) was overexpressed. In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, although the survival rate was significantly lower in the group in which GRP78 was overexpressed (p=0.03), there was no correlation between Bcl-2 overexpression and survival rate (p=0.07).
Patients with ureter tumors who had overexpression of GRP78 had a high T stage and nuclear grade, a lot of bladder recurrence, and a low survival rate. Therefore, if GRP78 is overexpressed in ureter tumor patients, active postoperative follow-up should be carried out.
Bcl-2; GRP78; Urothelial cell carcinoma
This study was conducted with the use of 12 months of follow-up data to evaluate the efficacy of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with the 980-nm diode laser for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
The clinical data of 84 men with symptomatic BPH who underwent PVP with the 980-nm K2 diode laser between March 2010 and October 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative parameters, including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) score, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual volume (PVR), were assessed and compared with preoperative baseline values.
Mean patient age was 72.4±6.5 years, and mean preoperative prostate volume was 47.2±16.3 g. Mean operative time was 23.3±19.1 minutes, and total amount of energy was 128±85 kJ. Mean catheterization time was 23.7±5.9 hours. At 1 month, significant improvements were noted in IPSS (11.5±6.8), QoL score (2.2±1.3), Qmax (12.9±6.5 mL/s), and PVR (41.2±31.3 mL). Three months after surgery, all postoperative follow-up parameters showed significant improvements, and the 6- and 12-month data showed sustained improvement of postoperative follow-up parameters. Bladder neck strictures were observed in 10.7% of the patients and urge incontinence in 16.6%.
PVP using a K2 diode laser is an effective procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH. PVP leads to an immediate and sustained improvement of subjective and objective voiding parameters. Surgeons should be vigilant for postoperative bladder neck stricture and urge incontinence.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Complications; K2 diode; Laser
Many treatment options to help relieve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) are available, but none are effective. Because no reports of transurethral ulcer resection with hydrodistention are available, we assessed the effects of such combined surgery for ulcerative IC.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2006 and June 2011, 87 female patients with IC who underwent transurethral resection with hydrodistention and were followed up for at least 12 months were included. Improvements in patients' voiding symptoms and pain were analyzed retrospectively by using a 3-day micturition chart and a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the operation. The global response assessment (GRA) was used to assess treatment satisfaction.
The mean age of the 87 female patients was 59.1±10.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 26.7±14.4 months. Mean maximum functional bladder capacity increased from 168.4±92.4 mL to 276.3±105.4 mL (1 month) and to 227.3±91.7 mL (12 months). The mean frequency of voiding decreased from 17.2±8.5 before to 10.6±5.3 after (1 month) surgery; however, it increased again to 13.3±4.8 at 12 months. The 10-point VAS score decreased from 9.1±0.8 to 1.2±0.3 (1 month); however, it increased again to 2.5±0.4 (3 months), 3.2±0.4 (6 months), and 5.3±0.5 (12 months) (p<0.001). Symptom improvement based on the GRA was observed in 83 of the 87 patients (95.4%) at 1 month and in 55 of 87 patients (63.2%) at 12 months.
Transurethral resection with hydrodistention is an effective treatment option for ulcerative IC because it provides improvements in voiding symptoms and pain.
Interstitial cystitis; Treatment outcome
Preoperative percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) can be applied to urinary stone patients with pyelonephritis as well as obstructive uropathy; thus, some patients undergo flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) in the presence of a PCN tube. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCN during fURS for the management of renal stones.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 130 consecutive patients who underwent fURS for renal stones between January 2009 and December 2011. All fURS procedures were performed by a single experienced surgeon. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence of PCN during the surgery: patients with PCN (group 1, n=41) and patients without PCN (group 2, n=89). To evaluate operative outcomes, we compared success rates, operative times, and complication rates. We defined success as the absence of any residual stones in the kidney or stone fragments less than 2 mm that were too small to be extracted during follow-up.
There were no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, stone laterality, burden, or location between the two groups. The mean operative times of groups 1 and 2 were 50.1 and 58.3 minutes, respectively (p=0.102). The success rates of groups 1 and 2 were 95.1% and 82.0%, respectively (p=0.044). There was no statistically significant difference in the complication rate between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.888).
Flexible ureteroscopy in the presence of PCN produced a superior outcome in terms of the success rate without increasing the operative time or complication rate. PCN may be helpful to induce better outcomes of fURS.
Kidney calculi; Percutaneous nephrostomy; Ureteroscopy
Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) remains a challenging technique for the surgical treatment of staghorn renal calculi. Our study was designed to compare surgical outcomes between conventional and tubeless PNL.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients who underwent conventional or tubeless PNL under general anesthesia performed by a single surgeon (H.J.) for the treatment of staghorn calculi between 2003 and 2012. All patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who underwent conventional PNL and group 2 included patients who were managed by tubeless PNL for the treatment of staghorn calculi. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were analyzed between the two groups, including age, stone burden, complications, any interventions, and duration of hospital stay.
A total of 165 patients (group 1, 106; group 2, 59) were enrolled in the study. No significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, or stone laterality were observed between the two groups. The mean stone burdens (±standard deviation) of group 1 and group 2 were 633.6 (±667.4) and 529.9 (±362.8), respectively (p=0.271). The postoperative stone-free clearance rate was higher in group 2 (78.0%) than in group 1 (69.8%); however, the difference was not clinically significant (p=0.127). In addition, no significant differences in postoperative complications, including fever, bleeding, infection, or additional interventions, were observed between the two groups.
Our results demonstrated that tubeless PNL has the same effectiveness and safety as conventional PNL in the treatment of staghorn calculi. Tubeless PNL may be feasible for managing renal staghorn calculi.
Kidney calculi; Nephrolithotomy; Percutaneous nephrostomy
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose tamsulosin on sexual function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Materials and Methods
A total of 138 male LUTS patients aged more than 50 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 were enrolled in this open-label, multicenter, prospective, noncomparative observational study. Clinical assessments included IPSS, quality of life (QoL) index, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS), and an early morning erection questionnaire. The data were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after treatment with tamsulosin 0.2 mg/d. Adverse events were analyzed in all patients.
During the study period of 3 months, the IPSS and QoL index significantly improved from baseline by -11.40±9.40 and -1.11±1.36, respectively (p<0.001). However, there were no clinically relevant changes in total IIEF score (mean difference, 1.63±15.50; p=0.406) or the 5 subdomains (p>0.05). Furthermore, DAN-PSS weighted scores (A×B) showed no clinically relevant changes (mean difference on Q1, Q2, and Q3: -0.45±2.94, 0.27±2.50, and -1.27±2.27, p>0.05). In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in responses on the early morning erection questionnaire.
Tamsulosin at the dose of 0.2 mg significantly improved the IPSS and the QoL index compared with baseline. However, tamsulosin did not exhibit any significant impact on sexual function or any negative impact on ejaculatory function.
Ejaculation; Erectile dysfunction; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostatic hyperplasia; Tamsulosin
To elucidate the impact of surgical varicocele repair on the pregnancy rate through new meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials that compared surgical varicocele repair and observation.
Materials and Methods
The PubMed and Embase online databases were searched for studies released before December 2012. References were manually reviewed, and two researchers independently extracted the data. To assess the quality of the studies, the Cochrane risk of bias as a quality assessment tool for randomized controlled trials was applied.
Seven randomized clinical trials were included in our meta-analyses, all of which compared pregnancy outcomes between surgical varicocele repair and control. There were differences in enrollment criteria among the studies. Four studies included patients with clinical varicocele, but three studies enrolled patients with subclinical varicocele. Meanwhile, four trials enrolled patients with impaired semen quality only, but the other three trials did not. In a meta-analysis of all seven trials, a forest plot using the random-effects model showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 4.66; p=0.1621). However, for subanalysis of three studies that included patients with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, the fixed-effects pooled OR was significant (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.31 to 7.45; p<0.001), favoring varicocelectomy.
Varicocelectomy for male subfertility is proven effective in men with clinical varicocele and impaired semen quality. Therefore, surgical repair should be offered as the first-line treatment of clinical varicocele in subfertile men.
Infertility; Meta-analysis; Treatment outcome; Varicocele