Progress in head and neck cancer (HNC) therapies has improved tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. However, treatment intensification also increases early and late toxicities. Dysphagia is an underestimated symptom in HNC patients. Impairment of swallowing process could cause malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and pneumonia. A comprehensive literature review finalized in May 2012 included searches of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CAB abstracts) and scientific societies meetings materials (American Society of Clinical Oncology, Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica, Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Cervico-Cefalica, American Head and Neck Society, and European Society for Medical Oncology). Hand-searches of HNC journals and reference lists were carried out. Approximately one-third of dysphagia patients developed pneumonia requiring treatment. Aspiration pneumonia associated mortality ranged from 20% to 65%. Unidentified dysphagia caused significant morbidity, increased mortality, and decreased the quality of life. In this review we underline definition, causes, predictive factors of dysphagia and report on pretreatment and on-treatment evaluation, suggesting some key points to avoid underestimation. A multi-parameter assessment of swallowing problems may allow an earlier diagnosis. An appropriate evaluation might lead to a better treatment of both symptoms and cancer.
Dysphagia; Malnutrition; Weight loss; Head and neck cancer; Chemoradiotherapy; Acute toxicity; Late toxicity
Mastoid obliteration is used to obliterate the mastoid cavity following a mastoidectomy or to prevent the formation of a retraction pocket. This study evaluated the effectiveness of β-tricalcium phosphate and polyphosphate (β-TPP) for mastoid obliteration in middle ear surgeries in prospective human and animal studies.
Twenty patients with chronic otitis media underwent mastoid obliteration using β-TPP after a intact canal wall mastoidectomy or simple mastoidectomy. The clinical data were prospectively evaluated including: the diagnosis, temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), otoscopic findings, pure tone audiogram, and complications. In the animal experiment, β-TPP was applied into the right bulla in five rats, and the opposite bulla was used as the control in the non-obliterated state. The skulls of five other rats were drilled out and the holes were obliterated with β-TPP. TBCT were obtained at 3, 6, and 9 months after the obliteration and histologic analysis was done at 3 and 9 months after surgery.
In the human study, fourteen TBCTs were obtained at 12 months after the surgery. All demonstrated no bone resorption in the obliterated mastoids. Among the 15 cases displaying retracted tympanic membranes preoperatively, 11 showed no retraction, 2 showed retraction postoperatively, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 was a case of postoperative wound infection. Among 20 cases, one case developed a postoperative infection that necessitated a second operation. Sixteen underwent ossiculoplasty; hearing improvements were obtained in 15 cases and 1 case showed decreased hearing. In the animal study, new bone formation without significant bone resorption in the radiologic and histologic findings were noted in both the skull and bulla groups.
Although β-TPP is a foreign material having the possibility of infection, mastoid obliteration with it can be a treatment option in middle ear surgeries to prevent retraction pockets or the recurrence of diseases.
Chronic otitis media; Cholesteatoma; Mastoidectomy; Treatment; Recurrence; Prevention
We have analyzed the correlation between the House-Brackmann (HB) scale and Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0 (FNGS 2.0) in patients with Bell palsy, and evaluated the usefulness of the new grading system.
Sixty patients diagnosed with Bell palsy from May 2009 to December 2010 were evaluated using the HB scale and FNGS 2.0 scale during their initial visit, and after 3 and 6 weeks and 3 months.
The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.908 (P=0.000) and the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) was 0.912 (P<0.05). ICC and SCC displayed differences over time, being 0.604 and 0.626, respectively, at first visit; 0.834 and 0.843, respectively, after 3 weeks; 0.844 and 0.848, respectively, after 6 weeks; and 0.808 and 0.793, respectively, after 3 months. There was a significant difference in full recovery, depending on the scale used (HB, P=0.000; FNGS 2.0, P<0.05). The exact agreements between regional assessment and FNGS 2.0 for the mouth, eyes, and brow were 72%, 63%, and 52%, respectively.
FNGS 2.0 shows moderate agreement with HB grading. Regional assessment, rather than HB grading, yields stricter evaluation, resulting in better prognosis and determination of grade.
House-Brackmann scale; Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0; Bell palsy
Until recently, most patch-clamp recordings in inner hair cells (IHCs) have been performed at room temperature. The results acquired at room temperature should be corrected if they are to be related to in vivo findings. However, the temperature dependency to ion channels in IHCs is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the potassium currents in IHCs.
IHCs were isolated from a mature guinea-pig cochlea and potassium currents were recorded at room temperature (around 25℃) and physiological temperatures (35℃-37℃).
IHCs showed outwardly rectifying currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses, with only a slight inward current when hyperpolarized. The amplitude of both outward and inward currents demonstrated no temperature dependency, however, activation and inactivation rates were faster at 36℃ than at room temperature. Half-time for activation was shorter at 36℃ than at room temperature at membrane potentials of -10, +10, +20, +30, and +40 mV. Q10 for the activation rate was 1.83. The inactivation time constant in outward tetraethylammonium-sensitive potassium currents was much smaller at 36℃ than at room temperature between the membrane potentials of -20 and +60 mV. Q10 for the inactivation time constant was 3.19.
The results of this study suggest that the amplitude of potassium currents in IHCs showed no temperature dependence either in outward or inward-going currents, however, activation and inactivation accelerated at physiological temperatures.
Cochlea; Inner hair cell; Potassium currents; Temperature; Activation; Inactivation; Patch-clamp
Postoperative wound healing status has not been considered in earlier studies on olfactory changes after surgery. This may be a factor accounting for the equivocal postoperative olfactory results. The aim of this study was to investigate postoperative olfactory results according to wound healing status.
Fifty patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with smelling disturbance were examined preoperatively, and at 6 months after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative Lund-Kennedy score: favorable and unfavorable wound healing. Preoperative ostiomeatal unit computed tomography (CT), such as Lund-Mackay score and olfactory cleft opacification score, clinical characteristics and olfactory function tests such as the butanol threshold test and cross-cultural smell identification test, and questionnaire responses were compared between the two groups.
There were no differences in preoperative clinical characteristics between the favorable and unfavorable wound healing groups. The favorable wound healing group displayed greater improvement of olfactory results after surgery than the unfavorable wound healing group. Postoperative olfactory improvement patterns showed a hierarchy from subjective to objective improvement and from threshold to identification improvement. Patients who had postoperative favorable wound healing but showed no success of olfaction were characterized by more severe preoperative subjective symptoms and higher olfactory cleft opacification, especially in the upper part of olfactory cleft on preoperative CT scan.
Wound healing status is an apparent risk factor for postoperative olfactory improvement. Moreover, preoperative opacification in the olfactory cleft may predict bad olfactory results after surgery, even in patients with favorable wound healing.
Chronic rhinosinusitis; Endoscopic sinus surgery; Nasal polyps; Olfaction; Wound healing
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the pathogenesis of sinonasal polyps.
Study group (groups 1-3) consisted of nasal polyp samples of patients with sinonasal polyps and the control group consisted of inferior turbinate samples of patients without nasal polyp. In group 1, 14 specimens from ethmoid sinus; in group 2, 10 specimens from nasal cavity; in group 3, 10 specimens from maxillary sinus; and in group 4 (control), 9 specimens from inferior turbinate were included. By immunohistochemical staining technique, the PDGF positivity index (PI) in mucosal layers and in the inflammatory cells were assessed at the epithelium (EP), subepithelial layer of lamina propria (SE), and deep paraglandular layer of the mucosa (D).
Polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC)-percentage (%) values of ethmoid and maxillary sinus, and the PDGF PI from all cells of ethmoid sinus and nasal cavity were significantly higher than those of the control group. As mononuclear cell-% (MNC-%) increased, the PDGF_EP_basal PI, PDGF_SE_endothelial PI, and PDGF_D_endothelial PI decreased. As PMNC-PDGF PI increased, the PDGF_D_perivascular PI decreased and PDGF_D_endothelial PI increased. As PDGF-MNC PI increased, the PDGF_EP_apical PI, PDGF_SE_endothelial PI, and PDGF_D_endothelial PI decreased. As PDGF-all cells (PMNCs, MNCs, and fibroblasts) PI increased, the PDGF_EP_basal PI and PDGF_D_endothelial PI decreased, and the PDGF_D_perivascular PI increased.
We concluded that the PDGF systems play important roles in polyp pathogenesis. Fibroblast-derived PDGF may be more important than MNC-derived PDGF in polyp developing process. Increased perivascular-PDGF-PI in deep layers of the mucosa may result in sinonasal polyp formation by causing an increase in vascular permeability and extracellular edema, and thus promoting migration of inflammatory cells to extracellular area. Tissue oxygenization may be important for the initiation of PDGF release system. Because of this reason, nasal obstruction should be medically treated earlier, and, if necessary, by surgical approaches.
Sinonasal polyp; Pathogenesis; Platelet-derived growth factor; Perivascular; Endothelial
The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the effect of isolated uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on subjective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms in adult patients regardless of the response to surgery, and ultimately 2) to investigate the differences in changes in subjective OSA symptoms between successful and unsuccessful surgery groups.
Twenty consecutive adult patients who underwent isolated UPPP were enrolled. Pre- and postoperative subjective OSA symptoms (snoring, witnessed apnea, daytime sleepiness, morning headache, daytime fatigue, restless sleep, difficulty with morning arousal) and polysomnographic data were evaluated in all subjects. Changes in subjective OSA symptoms before and after surgery were investigated in the successful (n=11) and unsuccessful (n=9) groups. Surgical success was defined as a reduction of at least 50% in the preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and a postoperative AHI less than 20 per hour.
After isolated UPPP, all subjective OSA symptoms changed significantly in the patients, especially in the successful group. In the unsuccessful group, snoring, witnessed apnea and daytime fatigue changed significantly, while other symptoms did not change significantly after surgery.
Isolated UPPP may improve subjective OSA symptoms in adult patients whom surgery was successful or unsuccessful. However, after isolated UPPP, the improvements in subjective OSA symptoms in the unsuccessful group may be different from those in the successful group.
Adult; Obstructive sleep apnea; Polysomnography; Surgery; Symptom
Laryngomicrosurgery (LMS) is used to manage most vocal fold lesions. However, the functional voice outcome of the LMS might be diverse due to the influence of various factors. We intend to evaluate the incidence and etiologic factors of persistent dysphonia after LMS for benign vocal fold disease (BVFD).
We performed a retrospective review of 755 patients who underwent LMS for BVFD. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative two onths voice studies. Postsurgical dysphonia was defined as grade 1 or above in GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale. Thirty nine patients (5.2%; 25 males and 14 females; average, 42.9 years; range, 21 to 70 years) were diagnosed with postsurgical dysphonia.
There was no correlation between the diagnosis, coexistence with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, habit of smoking, or occupational voice abuse and voice outcome. The patients with a worse preoperative acoustic parameter had aworse voice outcome. Stroboscopic findings showed excessive scarring or bowing in 21 cases, presence of lesion remnant in eight cases, prolonged laryngeal edema in five and no abnormal findings in three.
Great care should be taken in patients with worse preoperative jitter. With a few exceptions, postoperative dysphonia can be avoided by the use of an ppropriate surgical technique.
Persistent dysphonia; Laryngomicrosurgery; Benign vocal fold disease
Vascular leiomyoma is an uncommon benign tumor of smooth muscle origin that arises from the muscularis layer of blood vessel walls. We report our experiences with the clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, and management of vascular leiomyoma in the head and neck.
The clinical records of 12 patients with vascular leiomyoma of the head and neck in the 11-year period were reviewed retrospectively.
The 12 patients included nine men and three women. The locations of the tumors were variable, including nasal cavity, auricle, hard palate, upper lip, upper eyelid, and supraclavicular space. All but three patients reported an asymptomatic spherical mass; the other three patients complained of intermittent epistaxis or unilateral nasal obstruction resulting from the tumor originating in the nasal cavity. All tumors were painless. Computed tomography consistently revealed a well-defined, intensely enhanced small mass on the mucosa. No case was dignosed corretly as vascular leiomyoma before surgical excision. All patients underwent localized surgical excision of the tumor without recurrence. Five of 12 tumors (42%) were of solid type, four (33%) were of venous type, and three (25%) were of cavernous in histological classification. The histologic type was not related to gender, site of occurrence, and presence of pain.
Vascular leiomyoma presents as a small, painless mass in various locations of the head and neck region. Localized surgical excision is the only way to make the diagnosis and yields excellent results.
Vascular leiomyoma; Diagnosis; Classification
Based on studies of the extensive tropism of neural stem cells (NSCs) toward malignant brain tumor, we hypothesized that NSCs could also target head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and could be used as a cellular therapeutic delivery system.
To apply this strategy to the treatment of HNSCC, we used a human NSC line expressing cytosine deaminase (HB1.F3-CD), an enzyme that converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer agent. HB1. F3-CD in combination with 5-FC were cocultured with the HNSCC (SNU-1041) to examine the cytotoxicity on target tumor cells in vitro. For in vivo studies, an HNSCC mouse model was created by subcutaneous implantation of human HNSCC cells into athymic nude mice. HB1.F3-CD cells were injected into mice using tumoral, peritumoral, or intravenous injections, followed by systemic 5-FC administration.
In vitro, the HB1.F3-CD cells significantly inhibited the growth of an HNSCC cell line in the presence of the 5-FC. Independent of the method of injection, the HB1.F3-CD cells migrated to the HNSCC tumor, causing a significant reduction in tumor volume. In comparison to 5-FU administration, HB1.F3-CD cell injection followed by 5-FC administration reduced systemic toxicity, but achieved the same level of therapeutic efficacy.
Transplantation of human NSCs that express the suicide enzyme cytosine deaminase combined with systemic administration of the prodrug 5-FC may be an effective regimen for the treatment of HNSCC.
Head and neck neoplasms; Neural stem cells; Tropism; Cytosine deaminase; Molecular targeted therapy
Burkitt's lymphoma is a highly aggressive small B-cell lymphoma. The treatment of choice is complex chemotherapy. As a rare tumor in the head and neck area, Burkitt's lymphoma usually involves cervical lymph nodes, and only fewer than 25% of cases involves extranodal regions. Involvement of the paranasal sinuses has been reported in only 14 cases in the past century. We describe here two patients with rare, sporadic, American type Burkitt's lymphoma involving the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses manifesting nasal obstruction. We also review clinical and histological features of Burkitt's lymphoma.
Lymphoma; Burkitt lymphoma; Nasal cavity; Paranasal sinus
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder. It usually results from the structural compromise of the upper airway. In patients with OSA, the obstruction predominantly occurs along the pharyngeal airway, and also a variety of tumors have been reported to cause such a condition. We present here the case of a thyroglossal duct cyst causing OSA in adult. This case demonstrates that thyroglossal duct cyst or some kind of mass lesions in the airway lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSA patients.
Thyroglossal duct cyst; Sleep apnea syndromes; Sleep disorders
Epidermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that are rarely observed in the oral cavity of neonate. If large in size, especially in the developing fetus or newborn infant, they can cause swallowing difficulty and occasionally respiratory difficulty. We report a case of epidermoid cyst in the oral cavity detected prenatal sonography. The sonographic finding was large cystic mass, measuring 30×25 mm. In this case, supplies and equipment for an emergency tracheostomy were made available prior to the delivery. However, the infant did not require intervention to secure the airway. The lesion was surgically excised, and histologic diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. After 6 months of follow up, the cyst had not recurred. This case illustrates the value of accurate prenatal diagnosis and planned perinatal management using a team approach.
Prenatal diagnosis; Epidermoid cyst; Oral cavity; Newborn
A 56-year-old male was admitted with an acute headache and sudden ptosis on the right side. No ophthalmological or neurological etiologies were apparent. A mucocele of the right posterior ethmoid sinus was observed with radiology. After the marsupialization of the mucocele via a transnasal endoscopic approach, the patient's symptoms (oculomotor nerve paralysis and headache) resolved in 4 weeks. Oculomotor paralysis is a rare symptom of an ethmoidal mucocele. In this article, we report this rare case along with a literature review.
Blepharoptosis; Mucocele; Oculomotor nerve
Sclerosing polycyctic adenosis (SPA) is a rare lesion of unknown etiology morphologically resembling fibrocystic changes of the breast. To date, approximately 41 cases of SPA have been reported. Most cases of SPA have originated in the parotid and submandibular glands, with a few cases of intra-oral minor salivary gland origin. This is the first reported case of sclerosing polycystic adenosis of nasal minor salivary gland origin. The differential diagnosis of SPA includes polycystic disease, sclerosing sialadenitis, and benign and malignant glandular neoplasias. Although atypia ranging from mild dysplasia to carcinoma in situ can occur in some cases, SPA has a favorable outcome. It is important to be familiar with SPA to avoid aggresive treatment that results from a misdiagnosis. We present a case of a 49-year-old man who had 1-year history of right nasal obstruction.
Minor salivary gland; Nasal septum; Tumor
A 65-year-old man with back pain had plain radiographs that showed multiple osteolytic bone lesions of the pelvis, femur and L-spine; an magnetic resonance imaging scan of the L-spine showed extensive bony resorption with a posterior epidural mass involving the L1 spinous process; these findings suggested multiple myeloma or bony metastasis. However, all serology testing was negative. The parathyroid hormone and serum calcium levels were found to be abnormally elevated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy suggested that the L-spine lesion was consistent with the diagnosis of osteitis fibrosa cystica. A pathological fracture of the spine compressed the spinal cord, and surgical intervention was required. The neck computed tomography and Tc-99m sestamibi scan showed a solitary parathyroid mass. A minimally invasive parathyroidectomy using intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring was performed and two enlarged parathyroid glands identified. This case illustrates the importance of the consideration of a rare brown tumor associated with primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with the bone lesions suggestive of a malignancy.
Hyperparathyroidism; Osteitis fibrosa cystica; Brown tumor
Carcinosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor characterized by dual malignant histologic differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal components. The tumor is extremely rare in the sinonasal tract. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with carcinosarcoma involving the maxillary sinus.
Carcinosarcoma; Maxillary sinus
Our goal was to find the clinical value of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in Ménière's disease (MD) and to evaluate whether the VEMP results can be useful in assessing the stage of MD. Furthermore, we tried to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of VEMP in predicting hearing outcomes.
The amplitude, peak latency and interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio were obtained using cervical VEMP. The VEMP results of MD were compared with those of normal subjects, and the MD stages were compared with the IAD ratio. Finally, the hearing changes were analyzed according to their VEMP results.
In clinically definite unilateral MD (n=41), the prevalence of cervical VEMP abnormality in the IAD ratio was 34.1%. When compared with normal subjects (n=33), the VEMP profile of MD patients showed a low amplitude and a similar latency. The mean IAD ratio in MD was 23%, which was significantly different from that of normal subjects (P=0.01). As the stage increased, the IAD ratio significantly increased (P=0.09). After stratification by initial hearing level, stage I and II subjects (hearing threshold, 0-40 dB) with an abnormal IAD ratio showed a decrease in hearing over time compared to those with a normal IAD ratio (P=0.08).
VEMP parameters have an important clinical role in MD. Especially, the IAD ratio can be used to assess the stage of MD. An abnormal IAD ratio may be used as a predictor of poor hearing outcomes in subjects with early stage MD.
Vestibular evoked myogenic potential; Ménière's disease; Stage; Hearing loss; Vertigo
The short-term effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the patients with catastrophic and intractable tinnitus were investigated.
Fifteen participants were recruited among patients with catastrophic intractable tinnitus to receive 1 Hz rTMS treatment. Tinnitus severity was assessed before rTMS and directly after sham or real rTMS using the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and visual analog scale (VAS).
There was no statistical difference in the THI score before and after sham stimulation. However, after 5 replications of real rTMS there was statistically significant reduction in THI score. Eight patients showed a decrease of more than 10 in THI score. Patients who showed a vast change in THI score after rTMS also showed a large decrease in their VAS score (r=0.879, P<0.001). Duration of tinnitus and change of THI score showed statistically significant moderate negative correlation (r=-0.637, P=0.011). But in case of VAS, there was no significant difference between VAS and duration of tinnitus.
Among total 15 patients with catastrophic intractable chronic tinnitus, eight patients showed some improvement in symptoms after 1 Hz rTMS. rTMS can be considered management modality for intractable tinnitus even with distress as severe as catastrophic stage.
Tinnitus; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with repeated hypoxia and re-oxygenation. This characteristic of OSAS may cause oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the link of OSAS with oxidative stress and DNA damage is still controversial. In the current study, we investigated whether OSAS causes DNA damage using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and measuring oxidative stress by monitoring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels.
From March 2009 to August 2010, 51 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) during the night were enrolled in this study. We obtained serum from the patients at 6 AM. DNA damage and oxidative stress were evaluated using a comet assay and measuring serum MDA, respectively. We divided the patients into two groups according to the existence of comets appearing in the comet assay. Group 1 included 44 patients with negative assay results and group 2 consisted of seven patients with positive comet assay findings. We compared the age, gender proportion, PSG data (respiratory disturbance index [RDI], lowest O2 saturation level, and arousal index [AI]), time of disease onset, smoking habits, and serum MDA levels between the two groups.
The average age and gender proportion of the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05). The average of RDI for group 1 was 30.4±18.4 and 8.0±7.7 (P<0.01) for group 2. The average of lowest O2 saturation level for group 1 was 81.2±7.2 and 87.4±6.5 (P<0.05) for group 2. The average AI for group 1 was 32.8±15.1 and 20.8±7.7 (P<0.05) for group 2. Similarly, serum MDA levels of the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05). No relationship between positive comet assay results and OSAS severity was identified.
Results of the current study showed that OSAS was not associated with DNA damage as measured by comet assays or oxidative stress according to serum MDA levels.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Oxidative stress; Malondialdehyde; DNA damage
To investigate the effect of rhinophototherapy with medical therapy on quality of life in persistent allergic rhinitis.
A prospective, randomized study was being performed between December 2009 and March 2010. The study included 65 patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive skin tests. All of the patients had house dust mite allergies. We divided the patients into two groups. First group (n=33) was given topical mometasone furoate 200 mcg/day and levocetirizine 5 mg/day for a month. Rhinophototherapy was applied with the same medical therapy to the second group (n=32), twice a week for three weeks continuously. Rhinophototherapy included visible light, ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B. We evaluated patients before the treatment, at the first month and at the third month after treatment with rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire, nasal symptom scores and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores.
Improvements of all variables of the quality of life questionnaire, nasal symptom scores and VAS were statistically significant in the second group both on the first and the third months when compared with the first group.
Allergic rhinitis is a social problem and impairs quality of life. Rhinophototherapy with medical therapy improves the quality of life in allergic rhinitis.
Allergic rhinitis; Rhinophototherapy; Quality of life; Symptoms scores; Visual analogue scale
The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy.
One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed.
Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed.
Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.
Leprosy; Deformity; Septal perforation; Facial nerve palsy
Cartilage reshaping by laser irradiation is used to correct septal and auricular cartilage deformities. Chondrocyte viability following laser irradiation and reshaping has been well established. However, the regeneration process of chondrocyte after laser irradiation has not been revealed yet. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of cartilaginous thermal injury and the regenerative process of damaged cartilage following laser irradiation.
Laser irradiation was performed on human septal cartilage and rabbit auricular cartilage using a 1,460-nm diode laser. We observed change in the shape of cartilage and evaluated the extent of cartilage injury using live/dead cell assay via confocal microscopy. Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to evaluate the mechanism of chondrocyte injury after laser irradiation. To evaluate the regeneration of cartilage, laser irradiated cartilages were reimplanted into a subperichondrial pocket and were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after reimplantation for viability assessment and histologic examination.
Laser irradiation using a 1,460-nm diode laser produced a marked shape change in both human septal and rabbit auricular cartilages. Thermal damage on cartilage was correlated with the exposure time and the laser power. Hoechst and PI staining showed that chondrocyte death by laser irradiation was due to mainly necrosis, rather than apoptosis. In lower power treatment group (0.3 W and 0.5 W), all the chondrocytes regenerated within 4 weeks, however, in 1 W treatment group, chondrocytes could not regenerate until 4 weeks.
Reshaping of cartilage using 1,460 nm diode laser was attained concurrently with the thermal injury to the chondrocytes. The extent of thermal damage on chondrocytes was dependent on the exposure time and the laser power and the damaged chondrocytes irradiated with lower level of laser power could be regenerated after reimplantation into subperichondrial pocket.
Laser; Reshaping; Diode laser; Chondrocyte; Cartilage; Septoplasty
Coblation is operated in low temperature, so it is proposed that tonsillectomy with coblation involves less postoperative pain and allows accelerated healing of the tonsillar fossae compared with other methods involving heat driven processes. However, the results of the previous studies showed that the effect of coblation tonsillectomy has been equivocal in terms of postoperative pain and hemorrhage. Though, most of the previous studies which evaluated coblation tonsillectomy were performed in children. Recently, electrocautery tonsillectomy has been used most widely because of the reduced intraoperative blood loss and shorter operative time compared to other techniques. This prospective study compared intraoperative records and postoperative clinical outcomes in adolescents and adults following coblation and electrocautery tonsillectomies.
Eighty patients over 16 years of age with histories of recurrent tonsillitis were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into coblation (n=40) and electrocautery tonsillectomy groups (n=40). All operations were performed by one surgeon who was skilled in both surgical techniques. Intraoperative parameters and postoperative outcomes were checked.
Postoperative pain and otalgia were not significantly different between the two groups; however, there was a tendency towards reduced pain and otalgia in the coblation group. More cotton balls for swabbing the operative field were used introoperatively in the electrocautery group (P=0.00). There was no significant difference in postoperative hemorrhage, wound healing, commencement of a regular diet, and foreign body sensation between the groups.
Only cotton use, which represented the amount of blood loss, was less in the coblation tonsillectomy group. Coblation tonsillectomy warrants further study with respect to the decreased postoperative pain and otalgia.
Coblation; Electrocautery; Tonsillectomy
To compare the therapeutic results between selective neck dissection (SND) and conversion modified radical neck dissection (MRND) for the occult nodal metastasis cases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Forty-four cases with occult nodal metastasis were enrolled in this observational cohort study. For twenty-nine cases, SNDs were done and for fifteen cases, as metastatic nodes were found in the operative field, conversion from selective to MRNDs type II were done. Baseline data on primary site, T and N stage, extent of SND, extracapsular spread of occult metastatic node and type of postoperative adjuvant therapy were obtained. We compared locoregional control rate, overall survival rate and disease specific survival rate between two groups.
Among the 29 patients who underwent SND, only one patient had a nodal recurrence which occurred in the contralateral undissected neck. On the other hand, among the 15 patients who underwent conversion MRND, two patients had nodal recurrences which occurred in previously undissected neck. According to the Kaplan Meier survival curve, there was no statistically significant difference for locoregional control rate, overall survival rate and disease specific survival rate between two groups (P=0.2719, P=0.7596, and P=0.2405, respectively).
SND is enough to treat occult nodal metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and it is not necessary to convert from SND to comprehensive neck dissection.
Selective neck dissection; Conversion modified radical neck dissection; Occult nodal metastasis