In cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), p16INK4a immunohistochemistry has been reported to be a useful diagnostic biomarker. However, limited information is available about the association between the p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and the outcomes of CIN. Here, we report p16INK4a immunohistochemistry as an effective biomarker to predict the outcomes of CIN.
p16INK4a immunohistochemistry was performed in patients with CIN from January 2000 to August 2009. Among these patients, we have performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records to evaluate the outcome of CIN 1-2 and performed statistical analysis to determine the correlation between p16INK4a expression and the outcomes. We also performed HPV genotyping and analyzed the relation between the infecting human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and the outcomes.
A total of 244 patients, including 82 with CIN 1, 60 with CIN 2, and 102 with CIN 3, were examined. The rate of p16INK4a overexpression increased with increasing CIN grade, 20.7% for CIN 1, 80.0% for CIN 2, and 89.2% for CIN 3, with significant differences between CIN 1 and CIN 2-3 group. In the 131 CIN 1-2 patients, the progression rate was significantly higher for the patients showing p16INK4a overexpression than for those not showing p16INK4a overexpression (p=0.005); the regression rate was also found to be significantly lower for the patients showing p16INK4a overexpression (p=0.003). High-risk HPV genotypes were detected in 73 patients (73.7%). Both progression and regression rates were not significantly different between the high-risk HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups (p=0.401 and p=0.381, respectively).
p16INK4a overexpression was correlated with the outcome of CIN 1-2, and p16INK4a is considered to be a superior biomarker for predicting the outcome of CIN 1-2 compared with HPV genotyping.
Biomarker; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Human papillomavirus; Immunohistochemistry; p16INK4a
The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment outcome of patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix who underwent radical hysterectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy.
A total of 130 patients with stage IB to IIB cervical adenocarcinoma treated with hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy from 1982 to 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological data including age, stage, tumor size, the number of positive node sites, lymphovascular space invasion, parametrial invasion, deep stromal invasion (>2/3 thickness), corpus invasion, vaginal infiltration, and ovarian metastasis, adjuvant therapy, and survival were collected and Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent prognostic factors.
An estimated five-year survival rate of stage IB1 was 96.6%, 75.0% in stage IB2, 100% in stage IIA, and 52.8% in stage IIB. Prognosis of patients with one positive-node site is similar to that of those with negative-node. Prognosis of patients with multiple positive-node sites was significantly poorer than that of negative and one positive-node site. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion, and parametrial invasion were independent prognostic factors for cervical adenocarcinoma. Survival of patients with cervical adenocarcinoma was stratified into three groups by the combination of three independent prognostic factors.
Lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion, and parametrial invasion were shown to be independent prognostic factors for cervical adenocarcinoma treated with hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy.
Adenocarcinoma; Cervical cancer; Multivariate analysis; Prognosis; Radical hysterectomy
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate treatment outcomes and prognostic factors in cervical cancer patients with isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastases. We especially tried to evaluate PALN factors such as size, site and number.
From August 1994 to December 2009, 40 cervical cancer patients with isolated PALN node metastases at initial diagnosis were selected for analysis. Patients underwent both extended field external beam and intracavitary brachytherapy. Fourteen patients received 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (FP) and 16 patients received weekly concurrent cisplatin. Information of PALN, such as size, site, and number, was founded before PALN radiotherapy.
The median follow-up time after primary treatment was 28.5 months (range, 2 to 213 months). The 3-year overall and progression-free survival rate after primary treatment was 44.3% and 31.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis including tumor stage, performance status, and chemotherapy, FP regimen concurrent chemoradiotherapy was more effective than radiotherapy alone (p=0.030). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 41.9% and 11.1% in patients with PALN numbers of ≤1 and ≥2, respectively (p=0.008). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 42.1% and 19.2% in patients with PALN size of <1.5 cm and ≥1.5 cm, respectively (p=0.031).
The radiologic features of PALN, such as number or size, can be used to determine prognosis in PALN metastatic cervical cancer patients. Furthermore, FP regimen concurrent chemoradiotherapy was associated with better patient survival than radiotherapy alone. However, more studies are required to confirm possible different treatment outcomes between FP and weekly cisplatin regimens.
Cervical cancer; Para-aortic lymph node; Radiotherapy
The malignant potential of intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva and vagina after treatment is not well defined. Our objective was to examine risk factors for recurrence and invasive disease.
Four hundred sixty-four women with biopsy proven high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva and vagina were identified in the electronic databases of four colposcopy clinics. Inclusion criteria were a follow-up of more than one year, no history of invasive cancer and no invasive cancer within the first year after initial treatment. We investigated the potential factors associated with recurrence and progression using a logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Of the 411 eligible patients, 123 patients (29.9%) recurred later than one year after initial treatment and 24 patients (5.8%) progressed to invasive disease. According to multivariate analyses, the risk factors associated with recurrence were multifocality (OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.02 to 5.51), immunosuppression (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.09 to 5.81), excision as initial treatment (vs. laser evaporation; OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.91) and smoking (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.55). Risk factors for progression to invasive disease were immunosuppression (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.30 to 12.25), multifocality (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.25 to 7.43) and smoking (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.16 to 7.60), but not treatment modality.
Laser evaporation combined with extensive biopsy is at least as efficacious as initial treatment of intraepithelial neoplasia with excision. Smoking is a risk factor for both recurrence and progression to invasive disease. Hence, smoking cessation should be advised and maintaining a long follow-up period due to late relapses is necessary.
Cancer; Intraepithelial neoplasia; Laser evaporation; Vagina; Vulva
To analyze the prognostic factors related to the recurrence rate of vulvar cancer.
Retrospective study of 87 patients diagnosed of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed at a tertiary hospital in Madrid between January 2000 and December 2010.
The pathological mean tumor size was 35.1±22.8 mm, with stromal invasion of 7.7±6.6 mm. The mean free margin after surgery was 16.8±10.5 mm. Among all patients, 31 (35.6%) presented local recurrence (mean time 10 months; range, 1 to 114 months) and 7 (8%) had distant metastases (mean time, 5 months; range, 1 to 114 months). We found significant differences in the mean tumor size between patients who presented a relapse and those who did not (37.6±21.3 mm vs. 28.9±12.1 mm; p=0.05). Patients with free margins equal or less than 8 mm presented a relapse rate of 52.6% vs. 43.5% of those with free margin greater than 8 mm (p=0.50). However, with a cut-off of 15 mm, we observed a local recurrence rate of 55.6% vs. 34.5%, respectively (p=0.09). When the stromal invasion cut-off was >4 mm, local recurrence rate increased up to 52.9% compared to 37.5% when the stromal invasion was ≤4 mm (p=0.20).
Tumor size, pathologic margin distance and stromal invasion seem to be the most important predictors of local vulvar recurrence. We consider the cut-off of 35 mm of tumor size, 15 mm tumor-free surgical margin and stromal invasion >4 mm, high risk predictors of local recurrence rate.
Margin distance; Prognostic factors; Recurrence rate; Vulvar carcinoma
This study mainly aimed to investigate the association of ovarian cancer mortality with reproductive factors and body mass index among Japanese women aged 40-79 years.
The source of the data was the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study which covered the period of 1988 to 2009. A representative sample of 64,185 women was used. Cox model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
The total number of ovarian cancer deaths was 98, with a mortality rate of 9.30 per 100,000 person-years. Women with single marital status revealed significantly higher age-adjusted RR (RR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.66 to 10.23; p=0.005) as compared to married women. The effect of single marital status was stronger among older women aged 50+ years (RR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.65 to 12.72; p=0.003) than younger women. An elevated risk was found for both nulliparous and nullipregnant women. Similarly, an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality was estimated among overweight among aged 50 years or less.
Out of many factors only single marital status indicated a higher risk for ovarian cancer mortality. All other factors provided inconclusive results, which imply further epidemiological investigations.
Japan; Marital status; Ovarian cancer; Prospective cohort study; Reproductive history
To determine the efficacy, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the combination of intravenous bevacizumab and oral cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma.
A retrospective review was performed for all patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma treated with intravenous bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 14 days and oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg daily between January 2006 and December 2010. Response to treatment was determined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and/or CA-125 levels.
Sixty-six eligible patients were identified. Median age was 53 years. Fifty-five patients (83%) had undergone optimal cytoreduction. All patients were primarily or secondarily platinum resistant at the time of administration of bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide. The median number of prior chemotherapy treatments was 6.5 (range, 3 to 16). Eight patients (12.1%) had side effects which required discontinuation of bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide. There was one bowel perforation (1.5%). Overall response rate was 42.4%, including, complete response in 7 patients (10.6%), and partial response in 21 patients (31.8%), while 15 patients (22.7%) had stable disease and 23 patients (34.8%) had disease progression. Median PFS for responders was 5 months (range, 2 to 14 months). Median OS from initiation of bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide was 20 months (range, 2 to 56 months) for responders and 9 months (range, 2 to 51 months) for non-responders (p=0.004).
Bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide is an effective, well-tolerated chemotherapy regimen in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma. This combination significantly improved PFS and OS in responders. Response rates were similar and favorable to the rates reported for similar patients receiving other commonly used second-line chemotherapeutic agents.
Anti-angiogenic therapy; Bevacizumab; Cyclophosphamide; Platinum resistant ovarian carcinoma; Recurrent ovarian carcinoma
Over-expression of thrombin in ovarian cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the role of thrombin in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SKOV3 epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
After thrombin treatment SKOV3 cells were subjected to western blots, reverse-transcription PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify EMT-related proteins, mRNA expression of SMAD2, DKK1, and sFRP1, and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. Meanwhile, invasion ability was evaluated using transwell assays.
The results indicated a dose- and time-dependent down-regulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin in thrombin-treated SKOV3 cells, compared with the thrombin-free control group (p<0.05). There was a dose- and time-dependent increase in the levels of SMAD2 and DKK1 mRNAs and a decrease in the levels of sFRP1 mRNA in thrombin-treated SKOV3 cells compared to control cells (p<0.05). Thrombin-treated SKOV3 cells exhibited increased secretion of MMP-9, MMP-2, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-6 and increased invasion compared to untreated cells (p<0.05). Thrombin altered the morphology of SKOV3 cells to a spindle-like phenotype. Addition of hirudin to thrombin-treated cells reversed the effects of thrombin.
Thrombin induced EMT and promoted the invasion of SKOV3 cells, possibly via distinct signaling pathways. Hirudin inhibited the effects of thrombin, suggesting that anticoagulant therapy could be a novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian carcinoma.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Epithelial ovarian cancer; Invasion; Thrombin
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors promote paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells by suppressing MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression.
Taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells were cultured with paclitaxel alone or combined with a selective COX inhibitors. The expression patterns of MDR1/P-gp and the ability of COX inhibitors to inhibit growth of taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells were measured. The efficacy of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) supplementation was measured to evaluate the mechanisms involved in suppressing MDR1 gene expression.
P-gp was upregulated in taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells compared to paired paclitaxel-sensitive ovarian cancer cells. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that selective COX inhibitors significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel in taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells via a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. These increased apoptotic effects were further verified by measuring an increased percentage of cells in sub-G1 stage using flow cytometry. Selective COX inhibitors suppressed MDR1 and P-gp expression. Moreover, combined treatment with paclitaxel and selective COX inhibitors increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells.
Selective COX inhibitors significantly promote paclitaxel-induced cell death in taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells in a prostaglandin-independent manner. COX inhibitors could be potent therapeutic tools to promote paclitaxel sensitization of taxane-resistant ovarian cancers by suppressing MDR1/P-gp, which is responsible for the efflux of chemotherapeutic agents.
Chemosensitizer; Cyclooxygenase inhibitor; Ovarian cancer; Paclitaxel; P-glycoprotein
The objective of this study is to examine the course of fatigue in female cancer patients during the first months after treatment.
We examined a sample of 110 patients suffering from gynecological or breast cancer. Fatigue was assessed with two questionnaires, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and the fatigue scale of the quality of life questionnaire European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30). Participants were tested during their stay in the hospital (t1), two weeks after discharge (t2), and three months after discharge (t3).
Fatigue in the patients' sample was markedly higher than the general population reference values. At t1, the effect sizes are d=0.81 (MFI) and d=1.21 (EORTC QLQ-C30 fatigue scale). Age and tumor stage had no significant influence on fatigue, but patients with a long time since diagnosis had higher fatigue levels than patients with a shorter time since diagnosis. From t1 to t3, fatigue mean scores decreased. The correlations between the t1 and the t3 fatigue scores were weak, with correlation coefficients of only about 0.30.
Though the mean scores of fatigue, averaged across all patients, decreased over the first three months, the individual courses could not be predicted from the t1 score.
Change; Fatigue; Psychological wellbeing; Psycho-oncology; Quality of life
Fertility-sparing surgery was optimal to patients with tumor diameter smaller than 2 cm. For patients with larger tumors, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can debulk the tumor and offer the chance of surgery. We report 2 cases of stage IB1 cervical cancer treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and fertility-sparing surgery. Relevant literature was reviewed. Its safety, efficacy, and reproductive outcome need to be validated in the future.
Fertility-sparing surgery; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; Uterine cervical neoplasms
To evaluate the clinical outcome and parameters related to coexisting endometrial carcinoma in women with tissue-diagnosed endometrial hyperplasia.
Between January 1991 and December 2009, three hundred and eighty-six patients with the presumptive diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia were retrieved. Among these, one hundred and twenty-five patients were identified as having coexisting endometrial carcinoma in hysterectomy specimens. The three hundred and eighty-six patients were divided into two groups: the hyperplasia-benign group (261 cases) and the hyperplasia-malignant group (125 cases). Several clinical parameters including age, menopausal status, history of abnormal uterine bleeding, obstetrical history, medical history of diabetes and hypertension, BMI, and preoperative pathologic results were investigated.
Age ≥53 (odds ratio [OR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 4.57), menopausal status (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.76), diabetes history (OR, 7.33; 95% CI, 2.79 to 19.26), abnormal uterine bleeding (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.22 to 13.02), atypical endometrial hyperplasia (OR, 7.38; 95% CI, 4.03 to 13.49), and body mass index ≥27 (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.76 to 5.97) were independent risk factors for prediction of endometrial hyperplasia coexisting with endometrial carcinoma. The diagnostic efficacy of atypical endometrial hyperplasia to predict the endometrial hyperplasia coexisting with endometrial carcinoma was better than or similar to those of other independent factors and combinations of these factors.
Coexisting malignancy should be considered when examining endometrial hyperplasia patients with the related risk factors, especially atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
Coexisting endometrial carcinoma; Endometrial hyperplasia; Hysterectomy; Risk factors
To compare peri- and postoperative outcomes and complications of laparoscopic vs. robotic-assisted surgical staging for women with endometrial cancer at two established academic institutions.
Retrospective chart review of all women that underwent total hysterectomy with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy by robotic-assisted or laparoscopic approach over a four-year period by three surgeons at two academic institutions. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were measured. Secondary outcomes included operative time, blood loss, transfusion rate, number of lymph nodes retrieved, length of hospital stay and need for re-operation or re-admission.
Four hundred and thirty-two cases were identified: 187 patients with robotic-assisted and 245 with laparoscopic staging. Both groups were statistically comparable in baseline characteristics. The overall rate of intraoperative complications was similar in both groups (1.6% vs. 2.9%, p=0.525) but the rate of urinary tract injuries was statistically higher in the laparoscopic group (2.9% vs. 0%, p=0.020). Patients in the robotic group had shorter hospital stay (1.96 days vs. 2.45 days, p=0.016) but an average 57 minutes longer surgery than the laparoscopic group (218 vs. 161 minutes, p=0.0001). There was less conversion rate (0.5% vs. 4.1%; relative risk, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.34; p=0.027) and estimated blood loss in the robotic than in the laparoscopic group (187 mL vs. 110 mL, p=0.0001). There were no significant differences in blood transfusion rate, number of lymph nodes retrieved, re-operation or re-admission between the two groups.
Robotic-assisted surgery is an acceptable alternative to laparoscopy for staging of endometrial cancer and, in selected patients, it appears to have lower risk of urinary tract injury.
Endometrial neoplasms; Laparoscopic surgery; Robotics
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of para-aortic lymphadenectomy up to the renal vessels on the accurate staging in ovarian cancer patients presumed preoperatively to be confined to the ovary.
We retrospectively analyzed data on 124 patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer who were preoperatively thought to have tumor confined to the ovary and underwent primary staging surgery. The distribution of lymph node metastasis and various risk factors for nodal involvement were investigated.
Surgical staging yielded: 87 (70.2%) patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I disease and 37 (29.8%) patients had stage II-III disease: 4 IIA, 6 IIB, 9 IIC, 1 IIIA, and 17 IIIC. Eighty-six patients had pelvic lymphadenectomy only and 69 had pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Lymph node metastases were found in 17 (24.6%) of 69 patients; 5 (7.2%) patients had lymph node metastasis in the pelvic lymph nodes only, 8 (11.6%) in the para-aortic lymph nodes only, and 4 (5.8%) in both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Six (8.7%) patients had lymph node metastasis in the para-aortic lymph node above the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. On multivariate analysis, grade 3 tumor (p=0.01) and positive cytology (p=0.03) were independent predictors for lymph node metastasis.
A substantial number of patients with apparently early ovarian cancer had upstaged disease. Of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, some patients had lymph node metastasis above the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy up to the renal vessels may detect occult metastasis and be of help in tailoring appropriate adjuvant treatment as well as giving useful information about the prognosis.
Early-stage ovarian cancer; Lymph node metastasis; Para-aortic lymphadenectomy
Compared with serous adenocarcinoma (SAC), clear cell carcinoma (CCC) often shows chemo-resistance, which would potentially lead to a poor prognosis. On the other hand, there have been arguments over prognoses of CCC and SAC disease. In the present study, multivariate analysis to compare prognosis of CCC patients with that of SAC was aimed for the patients selected from central pathologic review.
Between 1984 and 2009, a total of 500 ovarian cancer patients were treated at our university hospital. Among them, 111 patients with CCC and 199 patients with SAC were identified through central pathological review. Overall survival and progression-free survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were investigated by multiple regression analyses.
Median age was 52 years for CCC and 55 years for SAC (p=0.03). The ratio of stage I patients were significantly higher in CCC compared with SAC (55% vs. 13%, p<0.01). Among evaluable cases, response rate was significantly lower in CCC than that in SAC (32% vs. 78%, p<0.01). No significant differences of progression-free survival and overall survival were observed in stage I patients; however, prognoses of CCC were significantly poorer than those of SAC in advanced-stage disease. In stage II-IV patients, not only residual tumors and clinical stages, but also clear cell histology were identified as predictors for poor prognosis.
Clear cell histology was identified as a prognostic factor for advanced-stage ovarian cancers. Histologic subtypes should be considered in further clinical studies, especially for advanced epithelial ovarian cancers.
Clear cell adenocarcinoma; Ovarian neoplasm; Serous cystadenocarcinoma; Survival
The histologic types of borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) exhibit striking differences in clinical behavior and prognosis. Yet, there is no information available on the histologic distribution of BOTs according to geographic region. The purpose of this study was to systematically review this issue worldwide.
A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted using electronic databases. Studies were eligible if BOTs were investigated and the histologic distribution of the data was shown. The studies were grouped by geographic region and totaled by country.
Of 487 potentially relevant studies, 51 met our inclusion criteria, as follows: 8 studies from North America (2 countries); 26 studies from Europe (14 countries); 7 studies from the Middle East (3 countries); and 10 studies from East Asia (5 countries). The histologic distribution of BOTs was considerably different in different parts of the world, but follows specific patterns. In general, serous-type BOTs were the predominantly identified histology in North America, the Middle East, and Europe, while mucinous-type BOTs predominated in East Asia.
Significant geographic variation is evident among BOT histology in different parts of the world. More research is needed to understand this phenomenon.
Borderline ovarian tumor; Histology; Low malignant potential; Systematic review
Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are common in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, resulting in high costs associated with diagnosis and treatment. I aimed to identify subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer that pose greater and lesser venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk.
I assessed the outcomes of 641 patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer over a ten-year period. All inpatient, outpatient, and pathology records were reviewed. The rates at which people were evaluated for and diagnosed with venous thromboembolism were assessed.
Of the 641 cases, 30.0% underwent an imaging test to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and 21.7% underwent testing for pulmonary embolism (PE). A 10.8% of all subjects were diagnosed with DVT and 7.2% were diagnosed with PE. Borderline tumors and mucinous showed a strikingly low rate of both DVT and PE. Clear cell and high-grade undifferentiated adenocarcinomas were the most likely to result in VTE. In a multivariate model, pathologic subtype was not only a significant predictor of VTE, but was the single best predictor of VTE.
Clear cell and undifferentiated pathology in epithelial ovarian carcinomas is associated with a higher VTE risk. The underlying reason for this may related to differences in tumor biology. By identifying low and high risk groups, I may both better conserve medical resources and design more effective thromboprophylaxis for my patients.
Histology; Ovarian neoplasms; Venous thromboembolism
We have designed a five-year multicentre prospective cohort study in women who are both human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of cervix. This study aimed to analyze the risk of developing a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) from either ASCUS or LSIL in HPV-positive women, so called 'progression' rate, to investigate differences in the progression rates according to HPV type-specific infection, and to evaluate the various factors associated with the persistence or clearance of HPV infection in the Korean population. At present, the study protocol composed of cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing, and questionnaire have been conducted actively since the first participant was enrolled in 2010. This study is the first nationwide Korea HPV cohort study. Our data will provide valuable information about not only the ambiguous cytology results of ASCUS and LSIL but also the effect of the specific HPV type and other various factors on the progression to HSIL. Finally, the results of our study will be helpful and applicable to determine the primary cervical cancer prevention strategies.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasms; Cohort studies; Human papillomavirus; Uterine cervical neoplasms
Ten topics were chosen among major clinical research achievements in gynecologic oncology in 2012. For ovarian cancer, comprehensive review of the history of bevacizumab studies was followed by poly adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other molecular targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AMG 386. For the development of genomic study in gynecologic cancers, BRCA and DICER1 mutations were covered in epithelial and nonepithelial ovarian cancer, respectively. For endometrial cancer, targeted agents including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and bevacizumab were discussed. Radiation therapy "sandwiched" between combination chemotherapy schedules for the treatment of uterine papillary serous carcinoma was also reviewed. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, definition of low-risk group, and recurrence and survival outcomes of laparoscopic approaches were addressed. For cervical cancer, we reviewed long-term benefit of human papillomavirus test and efficacy of paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/cisplatin in stage IVB, persistent or recurrent disease. In addition, the effect of three dimensional image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy was also reviewed. For vulvar cancer, the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was discussed. For breast cancer, positive results of three outstanding phase III randomized clinical trials, CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and BOLERO-2 were introduced. Lastly, updates of major practice guidelines were summarized.
Bevacizumab; PARP inhibitor; Low-risk endometrial cancer; Image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy; Practice guidelines
The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the women living in the eastern region of Turkey about human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervix cancer and their approaches to HPV vaccine.
The questionnaire forms were distributed to 1,052 patients who applied to the Gynecology Department of Elazig Training and Research Hospital. The subjects were recruited from the general gynecology outpatient clinic of the hospital. The patients from sexually transmitted disease and oncology outpatient clinics were not included in the study. The information about 945 women who completely filled in the questionnaire form was included into the study. The questions set forth in the questionnaire form consisting of 20 questions were prepared by taking the studies previously performed as model.
Ninety-five percent of the women were married and 83.5% were housewives (unemployed). Thirteen percent of the women were illiterate, only 12% were graduated from university. Seventy-four percent of the women did not hear about HPV, 78.4% did not know about HPV vaccine, 63% did not know about the fact that some viruses cause cancer, and 83% did not know about the relation between HPV and cervix cancer. According to the multivariate analysis, free-of-charge vaccination, vaccinated relatives or friends, graduation from university and being under the age of 25 predict to accept the vaccine for themselves.
The young population and the women who graduated from university seem to be more well-informed about HPV and more sensitive about being vaccinated. In addition, free vaccination will ensure the expansion of the vaccine.
Human papillomavirus; Papillomavirus vaccine; Uterine cervical neoplasms
The standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is rapidly changing. As we begin to understand that epithelial ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease, our treatment strategies are evolving to include novel biologic drugs that specifically exploit altered pathways. Surgery remains an essential component in the treatment of ovarian cancer; however, the importance of surgical specialization and defining "optimal cytoreduction" as no visible residual disease has been further validated. Ongoing studies are defining the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the upfront treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. In addition, clinical trials are evaluating intraperitoneal, dose dense, antiangiogenic drugs as well as targeted maintenance therapies which will establish new standards of care in the near future.
Antiangiogenesis; Chemotherapy; Clinical trials; Dose dense chemotherapy; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy; Ovarian cancer; Surgery