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2.  Correlation of intracystic pressure with cyst volume, length of common channel, biochemical changes in bile and histopathological changes in liver in choledochal cyst 
This study was undertaken to establish correlation between intracholedochal cystic pressure (ICCP) with biochemical changes in bile, liver histology, cyst wall histology, length of common channel, and cyst volume.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, ICCP was measured after surgical access before any mobilization by direct cyst cannulation. Bile was then aspirated for biochemical estimation (bilirubin, amylase, lipase, pH, and electrolytes). Common channel length and cyst volume were determined by preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Liver histology was assessed under parenchymal, bile duct, and portal parameters. Cyst wall was examined for ulceration, inflammation, fibrosis, and metaplasia.
ICCP was recorded in 31 patients; mean and median ICCP were 15.64 and 14 mmHg, respectively (range = 6-30 mmHg). Cases with median ICCP < 14 had median cyst volume of 48 cc (range = 36-115) and amylase 2052 IU/L (range = 190-5052) whereas those with ICCP ≥ 15 had volume of 20 cc (range = 10-100) (P = 0.004) and amylase 36 IU/L (range = 0-2806) (P = 0.0004) suggesting inverse correlation. No significant correlation was found with bilirubin and electrolytes. ICCP directly correlated with parenchymal changes like hepatocellular damage (P = 0.002) and cholestasis (P = 0.001). It also correlated with bile duct changes. ICCP inversely correlated with cyst wall changes (P = 0.003, 0.0001, 0.023, 0.0013, respectively). High pressure cysts had normal pancreaticobiliary junction.
High-pressure cysts tend to be smaller but have more severe backpressure changes in liver parenchyma. Low-pressure cysts have high volume and higher levels of amylase and lipase and therefore have more severe cyst wall changes.
PMCID: PMC3935293  PMID: 24604978
Choledochal cyst; cyst wall histology; intra choledochal cystic pressure; liver histology; long common channel
3.  Creation of effective antireflux mechanism without creation of submucosal tunnel in surgical correction of vesicoureteric reflux: Myth or reality?-An experimental study 
To evaluate the possibility of creating an effective antireflux mechanism without the need to create submucosal tunnel in surgical correction of vesicoureteric reflux.
Materials and Methods:
Ethical clearance was obtained from the institute ethical committee. The prospective experimental study was conducted on fresh postmortem specimens comprising of intact ureter-bladder-urethra of slaughtered lamb. Through perurethral tube, bladder distension revealed intact antireflux mechanism which disappeared following a cephalad slit of ureteric orifice. After intravesical advancement, mobilized ureters were anchored to the hiatus and the exposed detrusor along the proposed submucosal tunnel after stripping the bladder mucosa. Limited nonobstructed narrowing of the advanced ureteric ends was fashioned. After closure, bladder was distended and reflux was observed through proximal transected ureteric orifices with check cystogram. In second part of experiment, in a rectal reservoir, two intestinal segments as dilated ureters were implanted without creating submucosal tunnel, but anchoring the intrarectal segment to exposed submucosa. Intraluminal end of one segment was narrowed, while other left as such. Reservoir distension test was done to notice the status of reflux. In 24 months, 12 experiments were conducted.
In first part of experiment, successful antireflux mechanism was created in 11 ureters. In second part of experiment, reflux persisted in the ureteral segment implanted with obliquity but without distal nonobstructed narrowing, while there was no reflux in the ureteral segment with both obliquity and narrowing.
Advancement and anchoring of the ureteral segment to the exposed detrusor with creation of nonobstructive and limited narrowing can create effective antireflux mechanism without the need to create submucosal tunnel.
PMCID: PMC3935294  PMID: 24604979
Antireflux mechanism; submucosal tunnel; vesicoureteric reflux
4.  Laparoscopic nephrectomy in children for benign conditions: indications and outcome 
To analyze the indications and outcome of laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign non-functioning kidneys in children.
Materials and Methods:
The data of all patients operated over a 10 year period was retrospectively analyzed.
There were 56 children, aged 4 months to 12 years with a male: female ratio of 2.3:1. The most common presentation in boys and girls was urinary tract infection (UTI) (61.5% and 47.05% respectively). Incontinence due to ectopic ureter was a close second in girls (41.17%). The most common underlying conditions were vesico-ureteric reflux (42.85%) and multicystic dysplastic kidney (23.2%). There were 6 nephrectomies, 4 heminephroureterectomies and the remaining nephroureterectomies. All children tolerated the surgery well. One patient underwent a concomitant cholecystectomy. The post-operative problems encountered were UTI (1), urine retention (1), pyonephrosis in the opposite kidney and development of contra-lateral reflux (1). All others had resolution of pre-operative symptoms with good cosmesis.
As per available literature, this appears to be the largest Indian series of pediatric laparoscopic nephrectomies for benign non-functioning kidneys. Laparoscopic approach gives excellent results provided pre-operative investigations rule out other causes for the symptoms with which the patient presents. Often it is not the kidney but the dilated dysplastic ureter which is the seat of stasis and infection or pain and therefore should be completely removed.
PMCID: PMC3935295  PMID: 24604980
Benign non functioning kidney; laparoscopy; nephrectomy; nephroureterectomy; pediatric; urinary tract infection
5.  Technique of ‘suture less’ appendicectomy by laparoscopy in children: Preliminary communication 
Objective of this study is to present our experience by harmonic scalpel enabled, single external port appendicectomy using extracorporeally inserted ‘pick and fix’ stitch in three cases.
Materials and Methods:
Of the eighteen appendicectomies performed with only the use of harmonic scalpel in the last 11 months, the last three were performed using a single external port with the second port accessed under the subcutaneous tissues. The procedure consists of anchoring the mesoappendix to anterior abdominal wall by an extracorporeally inserted ‘pick and fix’ stitch followed by dissection and division of mesoappendix and appendix only with harmonic scalpel.
There were three patients, one female and two males aged 5, 7, and 11 years, respectively. Two were elective and one was emergency appendicectomy. Mean operating time was 30 min without any surgical complications. All patients are in follow-up with no complications.
This study demonstrates the combined virtue of single external port, use of harmonic scalpel, and ‘pick and fix’ suture in laparoscopic appendicectomy in children. This approach avoids the use of an additional port as well as endosuture; and is safe, efficient, cost-effective, and is associated with reduced surgical time.
PMCID: PMC3935296  PMID: 24604981
Appendicectomy; harmonic scalpel; pick and fix suture; single port
7.  Nonurological malignancies in children 
Nonurological malignancies in children include a wide variety of tumors. These tumors include primary tumors of the liver, thyroid, lung, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and adrenals; soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) like rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and non-RMS; and finally extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT).
This article aims at describing the current thinking in the management of these childhood solid tumors. This is critical in view of the recent advances in the elucidation of the molecular, genetic, and biologic behavior of these tumors and how these factors are getting integrated not only in the staging but also in developing a risk-based approach towards the management of these tumors.
Materials and Methods:
Reference was made to recently published literature from the leading pediatric cancer centers of the world to make a sense of things of the most current thinking in this rapidly expanding field. This will provide surgeons and physicians taking care of these children with a working knowledge in this somewhat challenging field.
Treatment results vary from center to center depending on access to resources and following different management protocols. Results have improved for these tumors with the advent of newer chemotherapeutic agents, novel delivery methods of radiation therapy (RT), and improvement in surgical technique. Due to the limited number of patients presenting with these tumors, national and international collaboration of data is critical for all and beneficial to individual treatment centers. This has resulted in better results in the past and will definitely result in still better results in the future.
PMCID: PMC3935298  PMID: 24604982
Childhood; nonurological malignancies; hepatoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; extragonadal germ cell tumor; pediatric solid tumor
8.  Malignant rhabdoid tumor of liver 
Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare, but aggressive tumor commonly arising from the kidney in young children. Extrarenal MRT has been reported in the literature in various other sites including the liver, pelvis, CNS, abdomen, heart and other soft-tissues. Reported herein are the presentation, radiology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, treatment and outcome of a 6 month infant with primary MRT of liver.
PMCID: PMC3935299  PMID: 24604983
Children; liver; malignant rhabdoid tumor
9.  Segmental dilatation of ureter: Report of two cases 
Segmental dilatation of ureter is a giant, focal segmental ureteral dilatation producing an elongated and distorted ureter. Two children presented with this condition, one had ipsilateral megacalycosis and contralateral vesicoureteric reflux. The other had duplication of the kidney. The non-functioning lower moiety showed structure of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
PMCID: PMC3935300  PMID: 24604984
Segmental dilatation of ureter; segmental giant ureter; xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
10.  Benign papillomatosis of common bile duct in children: A rare case report 
In children benign neoplasms are rare events in the extrahepatic biliary ducts and scanty literary references on the subject are available. We are reporting a rare case of a 3-year-old female child having biliary papillomatosis in lower common bile duct.
PMCID: PMC3935301  PMID: 24604985
Extrahepatic biliary papillomatosis; lower common bile duct; polyp
11.  Esophageal exclusion and bypass for corrosive injury: The lessons learnt 
While it is always preferable to excise and replace the diseased esophagus in corrosive injuries, the surgeon may be compelled to exclude and bypass it by a substernal conduit in select situations wherein excision is technically hazardous. This case illustrates the lessons learnt from a potentially life-threatening complication of bipolar esophageal exclusion.
PMCID: PMC3935302  PMID: 24604986
Corrosive injury esophagus; esophageal bypass; esophageal exclusion; esophageal mucocele
12.  Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis 
Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.
PMCID: PMC3935303  PMID: 24604987
Complete gastrectomy; diaphragmatic eventration; gastric volvulus; gastric necrosis; pediatric
13.  To observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats in order to understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis 
The aim of this experimental study was to observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats to better understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 24 adult Wistar rats were used as experimental models to simulate the effect of exposed bowel in cases of gastroschisis. The peritoneal cavity of the rats was injected with substances which constitute human amniotic fluid to study the effect on the bowel. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans. The rats were divided into four groups according to the material to be injected. In Group I (Control group) 3 mL of distilled water was injected, in Group II (Urine group) 3 mL of neonatal urine was injected, in Group III (Meconium group) 5% meconium suspension was injected, while in Group IV, a combination of 5% meconium suspension and urine was injected. A total of 3mL solution was injected into the right inferior quadrant twice a day for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 6th day by a high dose of thiopentone sodium. A segment of small bowel specimen was excised, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis for determination of the degree of inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall. All pathology specimens were studied by the same pathologist.
The maximum bowel damage was seen in Group II (Urine group) in the form of serositis, severe enteritis, parietal necrosis, and peeling. A lesser degree of damage was observed in Group III (Meconium group) as mild enteritis (mild lymphoid hyperplasia). The least damage was seen in Group IV (Combination of meconium and urine) and Group I (Control group).
The intraabdominal injection of neonatal human urine produces significant inflammatory reactions in the intestinal wall of rats.
PMCID: PMC3935304  PMID: 24604977
Gastroschisis; meconium; urine; Wistar rats
16.  Research in pediatric surgery: Indian scenario 
PMCID: PMC3853852  PMID: 24347864
17.  Endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteral reflux: Experience of 99 ureteric moieties 
To study the outcome of endoscopic hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection in patients with vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR).
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-three children were evaluated with a median follow up of 18 months (12-55 months) before injecting hyaluronic acid/dextranomer in a total of 99 ureteric moieties. Median age at presentation was 24 months (6-72 months). Primary VUR was the main presenting diagnosis in 60%. Patients were monitored for urinary tract infection (UTI), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal scarring, persistence, or appearance of contra-lateral reflux.
Grade III VUR was the most common (38%) followed by Grade IV (24%), Grade V (17%), Grade II (14%), and Grade I (7%). Most common cause for VUR was Primary (60%), followed by posterior urethral valve (PUV) (19%), bladder exstrophy (5%), anorectal malformation (ARM), epispadias, and duplex system. Analysis of patients characteristics at presentation revealed renal scarring (40%), split renal functions <35% (35%), recurrent UTI (15%), GFR <50 ml/min/1.73 m2 (15%), serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dL (10%). Complete resolution (100%) of Grade I and Grade II VUR was achieved after single injection. For Grade III VUR, single injection resolved reflux in 85.5% ureters, 100% resolution was seen after 2nd injection. In Grade IV VUR, 1st injection resolved VUR in 83.3% ureters, 95.8% ureters were reflux free after 2nd injection, and 100% resolution was seen after 3rd injection. In Grade V VUR, 94% ureters showed absent reflux after three injections.
Hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection holds promise even in higher grades of VUR.
PMCID: PMC3853853  PMID: 24347865
Deflux; hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection; outcome; vesico-ureteric reflux
18.  A survey of musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities after thoracotomy in pediatric patients 
To study the incidence and type of musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities after thoracotomy in children.
Materials and Methods:
Children below 12 years of age who had undergone thoracotomy for any condition and have at least 2 years follow up were included in the study. Detailed assessment of the patients included: history and general examination, clinical examination of chest and musculoskeletal system, X-ray chest including bilateral shoulders [antero-posterior (AP), lateral, oblique], X-ray whole spine (AP, lateral, right and left side bending AP view).
Fifty-two pateints were recruited. The incidences of various clinically and radiologically assessed musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities observed were: winging of scapula (5.7%), ipsilateral elevation of shoulder (5.7%), fixation of skin cicatrix to bony thorax (7.7%), maldevelopment of pectoral muscles (11.5%), asymmetry of the level of nipples (1.9%), rib fusion (5.7%), crowding of ribs (9.6%), mediastinal shift (3.8%), decreased space available for lungs (3.8%), Scoliosis with Cobb's angle >100 (1.9%).
The incidences of musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities after posterolateral thoracotomies in children were low. Longer follow up of patients after thoracotomy is needed to pick up these abnormalities as the children grow.
PMCID: PMC3853854  PMID: 24347866
Aesthetic abnormalities; long term follow-up; musculoskeletal abnormalities; thoracotomy in children
19.  Plasma renin activity: An early marker of progressive renal disease in posterior urethral valves 
A significant number of children with posterior urethral valves (PUV) develop chronic renal failure (CRF) due to activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the role of plasma renin activity (PRA) in these cases and sought to establish a relationship between the accepted criteria of renal damage and PRA.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the relationship between PRA and CRF.
Materials and Methods:
The records of 250 patients with PUV were reviewed. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess correlations between PRA, grade of reflux, presence of scars and raised creatinine and decrease in glomerular filtration rates (GFR). A P < 0.5 was considered as significant.
A total of 58 patients were included. Their mean age was 16 years, range 5.3-24.2 years, mean follow-up period was 12.6 ± 3.6 years. At diagnosis, 22/58 (38%) patients were in CRF and 36/58 (62%) patients had normal renal function (RF). The mean PRA after treatment was higher in those who developed CRF than in those with normal RF (12.6 ± 10.2 vs. 34.6 ± 14.2 ng/ml/24 h, P = 0.02). Mean GFR at 1 year of age were 48 ± 9.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 86 ± 12.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 respectively (P = 0.005). PRA correlated negatively with GFR, t = –2.816,
Confidence Interval:
P = 0. 007. In the temporal plot over a period of 14 years, a rise in PRA preceded the fall in GFR in patients who developed CRF.
This study shows that RAS is activated earlier in kidneys susceptible to damage. PRA could be investigated as a marker for the early detection and prevention of ongoing renal damage.
PMCID: PMC3853855  PMID: 24347867
Plasma renin activity; posterior urethral valves; renal failure; renin angiotensin system; valve fulguration
20.  Congenital double duodenal diaphragms in an infant 
Duodenal stenosis usually occurs in isolation and has a variable presentation in infancy due to partial obstruction. An unusual case of congenital double duodenal diaphragms in an infant presenting as failure to thrive has been described and pertinent literature has been reviewed herein. Excision of webs with double Heineke-Mikulicz closure was performed.
PMCID: PMC3853856  PMID: 24347868
Duodenal web; duodenal obstruction; double diaphragms
21.  Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow's milk allergy 
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung's disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow's milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3853857  PMID: 24347869
Cow's milk allergy; peritonitis; recurrent enteritis
22.  Single piece artificial urinary sphincter for secondary incontinence following successful repair of post traumatic urethral injury 
Post traumatic urethral injury is uncommon in children. The management of this condition is dependent on the severity of injury. Initial suprapubic cystostomy with delayed repair is the conventional treatment. Successful reconstruction of urethral injury may be followed by urethral stricture, incontinence, impotence, and retrograde ejaculation. Successful repair of post traumatic urethral injury followed by secondary incontinence in children has not been well addressed in literature. We report the management of one such child, with satisfactory outcome with implantation of a new model of single piece artificial urinary sphincter in the bulbar urethra by perineal approach.
PMCID: PMC3853858  PMID: 24347870
Artificial urinary sphincter; children; incontinence; urethral disruption
23.  Malrotation with midgut volvulus associated with perforated ileal duplication 
Duplication of the alimentary tract is an important surgical condition. It may occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. An important complication of this entity is perforation of the normal or abnormal gut. Malrotation with midgut volvulus can be a surgical emergency. We present a patient, who presented as malrotation with midgut volvulus associated with perforated ileal duplication. The patient was successfully managed.
PMCID: PMC3853859  PMID: 24347871
Alimentary tract duplication; malrotation; midgut volvulus; malrotation and duplication
24.  Hydatid cyst within a choledochal cyst 
A 5 year 4 months old male child presenting with pain abdomen and jaundice was diagnosed to have type 1 choledochal cyst on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography. On exploration, the cystic dilatation of common bile duct was found to have a hydatid cyst (HC) inside it. The per-operative findings were confirmed by histopathology. Association of HC within a choledochal cyst is extremely rare and has been reported only twice before in the available English literature.
PMCID: PMC3853860  PMID: 24347872
Choledochal cyst; hepaticodochoduodenostomy; hydatid cyst
25.  Multiple magnet ingestion: An uncommon cause of peritonitis 
Foreign body ingestion is common in infants and young children and they pass spontaneously in most of the cases. Magnetic foreign bodies, though not very common, require early intervention to avoid severe gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of multiple magnet ingestion who presented with peritonitis.
PMCID: PMC3853861  PMID: 24347873
Gastrointestinal; magnetic foreign body; pediatric

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