Computed tomography kidneys, ureter and bladder (CTKUB) is the accepted gold standard investigation for suspected renal colic. Dose considerations are particularly pertinent in the context of detecting urolithiasis given the high risk of disease recurrence, which can necessitate multiple radiological examinations over the lifetime of a stone-former. We performed a systematic review of the literature to see whether there was any evidence that reducing the effective radiation dose of a CTKUB compromised the diagnostic accuracy of the scan.
Materials and Methods:
Relevant databases including MedLine, EMBASE, DARE and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to October 2012. All English language articles reporting on prospective studies where non-contrast, low-dose CT (LDCT) was used to investigate adults (males and non-pregnant females) presenting with flank pain or suspected urolithiasis were included. LDCT was defined as an effective radiation dose <3 mSv per examination.
Our initial search identified 497 records. After removing duplicates, 390 abstracts were screened, of which 375 were excluded, principally because outcomes of interest were not presented. Six papers remained for the final analysis, reporting on a total of 903 patients. Individual studies showed a prevalence of urolithiasis ranging between 36% and 88%, with additional pathologies found in 5-16%. The effective radiation dose of the LDCT techniques used ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 mSv. The sensitivity of LDCT for diagnosing stone disease was 90-97% with a specificity of 86-100%.
The sensitivity and specificity of CTKUB for diagnosing urolithiasis remains high, even when the effective radiation dose is lowered. LDCT may miss some small stones (<3 mm), especially in obese patients (>30 kg/m2), but in this group LDCT still identifies most alternative diagnoses. With at least one level 1A and two level 1B studies supporting the use of LDCT, there is Grade A recommendation for its use as the first-line investigation in suspected renal colic in non-obese patients.
Computed tomography of the renal tract; low-dose computed tomography; renal colic; renal stones; urolithiasis
Conventional, transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) involves piecemeal resection of the tumor and has a very high recurrence rate. We evaluated the outcome of en-bloc TURBT (ET) in comparison with conventional TURBT (CT) in non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma in terms of recurrencew and progression.
Materials and Methods:
From September 2007 to June 2011, in a prospective non-randomized interventional setting, ET was compared with CT in patients with solitary tumor of 2-4 cm size in terms of recurrence and progression. Pedunculated tumors, size >4 cm, tumors with associated hydroureteronephrosis and biopsy specimen with absent detrusor muscles were excluded. Fisher's exact test and survival analyses were used to compare the demography and the outcome.
A total of 21 patients of ET were compared with 24 patients of CT. Mean tumor size was 2.8 cm in ET and 3.3 cm in CT group. Location of tumor, stage and grade were comparable in both groups. Recurrence rate was 28.6% versus 62.5% (P = 0.03) and progression rate was 19% versus 33.3% (P = 0.32) in ET versus CT group respectively. Recurrence free survival was 45.1 (95% CI: 19.0-38 months) and 28.5 (95% CI: 35.4-54.7 months) in ET and CT group (P = 0.018). Progression free survival in ET and CT was 48.32 (95% CI: 35.5-53.0 months) and 44.26 (95% CI: 39.0-57.5 months), P = 0.46.
There was a significant reduction in the recurrence rate and time to recurrence with ET. Rate of progression was also relatively less with ET, though not statistically significant.
Bladder cancer; detrusor muscles; non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; progression free survival; recurrence free survival
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computer based stent registry with patient directed automated information system to prevent retained double J stents.
Materials and Methods:
A stent registry system was developed in collaboration with our Computerized Hospital Information Processing Service Department. This computer based stent registry with patient directed automated information system was integrated with the existing clinical work station. We reviewed the records retrospectively and assessed the feasibility of the system in reminding clinicians and patients regarding the stent and its date of removal.
In a short run at our department, this new system appeared feasible, with patients promptly responding to the short message service and letter alerts.
Computer based stent registry with patient directed automated information system is feasible in a clinical setting. A prospective study is needed for evaluation of its efficacy in preventing retained stents.
Automated message generation; hospital information system; retained stent; stent registry
Increasing numbers of patients are now being incidentally detected with small-sized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The natural history of small renal masses is not completely understood. Currently, there are no specific tumor markers to determine initial risk or progression to metastatic disease. Growth rate and tumor size are factors shown to be predictive of tumor biology. In this study, we attempted to examine the natural history of RCC and calculated the doubling times (DTs) of untreated RCC at the primary site.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with RCC who had at least two measurements of the same tumor mass obtained on computed tomography (CT) imaging on two different dates (at least 6 months apart) during periods of non-treatment. The tumor volume was calculated at two points in time using images yielded by the CT imaging. The tumor DT was calculated using the following equation: DT = (T – T0) × log2/logV – logV0.
Twenty-two (13 male and nine female) patients with ages ranging from 32 to 71 years (mean 52.22 years) were included in the study. The initial maximum tumor diameter ranged from 2.8 to 6.8 cm (mean 3.93 cm) and the last maximum tumor diameter ranged from 3.2 to 7.8 cm (mean 4.39 cm). The DT for the entire population was 460.01 days (range 174-913 days).
RCC is a diverse disease process, with the majority of lesions demonstrating malignant disorder. In our study, the DT for the patient population was 460.01 days (range 174-913 days).
Diagnostic imaging; natural history; renal cell carcinoma; small renal neoplasm
There is no consensus on the optimal management of high grade renal trauma. Delayed surgery increases the likelihood of secondary hemorrhage and persistent urinary extravasation, whereas immediate surgery results in high renal loss. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the predictors of nephrectomy and outcome of high Grade (III-V) renal injury, treated primarily with conservative intent.
Materials and Methods:
The records of 55 patients who were admitted to our institute with varying degrees of blunt renal trauma from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Grade III-V renal injury was defined as high grade blunt renal trauma and was present in 44 patients. The factors analyzed to predict emergency intervention were demographic profile, grade of injury, degree of hemodynamic instability, requirement of blood transfusion, need for intervention, mode of intervention, and duration of intensive care unit stay.
Rest of the 40 patients with high grade injury (grade 3 and 4)did not require emergency intervention and underwent a trail of conservative management. 7 of the 40 patients with high grade renal injury (grade 3 and 4), who were managed conservatively experienced complications requiring procedural intervention and three required a delayed nephrectomy. Presence of grade V injuries with hemodynamic instability and requirement of more than 10 packed cell units for resuscitation were predictors of nephrectomy. Predictors of complications were urinary extravasation and hemodynamic instability at presentation.
Majority of the high grade renal injuries can be successfully managed conservatively. Grade V injuries and the need for more packed cell transfusions during resuscitation predict the need for emergency intervention.
Blunt renal trauma; conservative intent; emergency nephrectomy
The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy in horseshoe kidney with pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO).
Materials and Methods:
Medical records of patients of horseshoe kidney with PUJO operated in our institute between June 1998 and June 2012 were reviewed. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy was performed in all patients. The surgical outcome was evaluated with emphasis on the changes in degree of hydronephrosis by ultrasonography, renal drainage and function assessed by diuretic renal scans.
We studied the records of eight children of horseshoe kidney having unilateral PUJO. Obstruction was caused by a crossing lower-pole vessel in two cases, a high ureteral insertion in three and narrowing of the PUJ in three cases. Post-operative follow-up (median 4.4 years, range 18 months to 10 years) revealed improved renal function and good drainage in all cases. Hydronephrosis disappeared in 3, 4 showed Grade 1 and one showed Grade 2 hydronephrosis. All children are doing well and have no symptoms.
Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy is a highly effective and safe procedure for treating PUJO in horseshoe kidney in children.
Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty; horseshoe kidney; isthmotomy; lateropexy; pelviureteric junction obstruction
The finding of only sperm heads and/or short tails (SHST) during vasectomy reversal (VR) creates a difficult decision for the best method of vasal reconstruction, i.e. vasovasostomy (VV) or epididymovasostomy (EV). Using outcome analyses, we report the impact of SHST alone and combined with qualitative analysis of gross fluid quality in predicting successful VR.
Materials and Methods:
The records of 356 men who underwent VR by a single surgeon from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Intravasal fluid was assessed for gross quality (i.e., clear, opaque, pasty or creamy) as well as microscopic composition (i.e., motile or non-motile whole sperm, SHST or no sperm). The post-operative patency rates and semen analysis parameters were assessed.
Fourteen men (3.9%) demonstrated SHST bilaterally in the vasal fluid. The median duration from vasectomy was 6.0 years (interquartile range 4.0-9.8). Bilateral VVs were performed on 12 men (86%), while two men (14%) had a unilateral VV and a contralateral EV. Of the 26 vasa undergoing VR, the majority of the fluid quality was classified as creamy (n = 20 vasa, 76.9%). The remaining fluid was classified as pasty (n = 3 vasa, 11.5%), opaque (n = 2 vasa, 7.7%) and clear (n = 1 vasa, 3.8%). In cases undergoing bilateral VV with only SHST, patency rates were 90.9%, and both cases of unilateral EV were patent (100%). Conclusions: VV was successful in 90.9% of patients undergoing VR in the setting of SHST alone. Even when creamy or pasty fluid was present, the results surpassed the expected patency rate for an EV. Therefore, the presence of only SHST, regardless of fluid quality, should not dissuade the surgeon from performing a VV.
VV was successful in 90.9% of patients undergoing VR in the setting of SHST alone. Even when creamy or pasty fluid was present, the results surpassed the expected patency rate for an EV. Therefore, the presence of only SHST, regardless of fluid quality, should not dissuade the surgeon from performing a VV.
Infertility; male; spermatozoa; vasectomy reversal; vasovasostomy
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histological diagnosis associated with unregulated proliferation of connective tissue, smooth muscle and glandular epithelium. BPH may compress the urethra and result in anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO); BOO may present as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), infections, retention and other adverse events. BPH and BOO have a significant impact on the health of older men and health-care costs. As the world population ages, the incidence and prevalence of BPH and LUTS have increased rapidly. Although non-modifiable risk factors – including age, genetics and geography – play significant roles in the etiology of BPH and BOO, recent data have revealed modifiable risk factors that present new opportunities for treatment and prevention, including sex steroid hormones, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, diet, physical activity and inflammation. We review the natural history, definitions and key risk factors of BPH and BOO in epidemiological studies.
Etiology; benign prostatic hyperplasia; bladder outflow obstruction; epidemiology; genetics; public health
The assessment of men with bladder outflow obstruction relies on an adequate history and examination. Uroflowmetry and post-void residue estimation are very revealing and may be sufficient in the majority of men. The prostate-specific antigen test may be used to select men who are at a high risk of progression. In specific situations, cystometry may be required. We discuss the use of cystometry and the newer less-invasive methods of assessment that have emerged over the last few years, including ultrasound estimation of intravesical prostatic protrusion, prostatic urethra angle, detrusor wall thickness, ultrasound-estimated bladder weight, near-infrared spectroscopy and the condom catheter and penile cuff tests. Although these techniques show promise, they still require further modifications, standardization and testing in larger populations. In addition, they should be used in men where only specific questions need to be answered.
Cystometry; detrusor wall thickness; intravesical prostatic protrusion; non-invasive cystometry; near-infrared spectroscopy; penile cuff test; uroflowmetry
Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract provides the basis for medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Therapy of LUTS addresses obstructive symptoms (frequently explained by increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate enlargement) in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and storage symptoms in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Targets for medical treatment include G protein-coupled receptors (α1-adrenoceptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, β3-adrenoceptors) or intracellular enzymes (5α-reductase; phosphodiesterase-5, PDE5). Established therapies of obstructive symptoms aim to induce prostate smooth muscle relaxation by α1-blockers or PDE5 inhibitors, or to reduce prostate growth and volume with 5α-reductase inhibitors. Available options for treatment of OAB comprise anitmuscarinics, β3-adrenoceptor agonists, and botulinum toxin A, which improve storage symptoms by inhibition of bladder smooth muscle contraction. With the recent approval of β3-antagonists, PDE inhibitors, and silodosin for therapy of LUTS, progress from basic research of lower urinary tract pharmacology was translated into new clinical applications. Further targets are in preclinical stages of examination, including modulators of the endocannabinoid system and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.
Alpha1 adrenoreceptor; arginine vasopressors; endocannabinoids; 5 alpha reductase; muscarinic receptors; phosphodiesterase; vitamin D
Although the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is often multifactorial, a significant proportion of men over the age of 50 suffer from benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate, being an androgen responsive organ is dependent on the male sex hormone, testosterone, for growth. Thus, treatment strategies that manipulate the levels of circulating hormones that influence the level of testosterone and/or prostatic growth represent an important potential option for patients suffering with troublesome LUTS due to BPO. Despite this, the only hormonal treatment that is currently used in daily clinical practice is the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. In this article, we review the current evidence on the use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride. We also discuss new emerging hormonal manipulation strategies for patients with LUTS secondary to BPO.
5-alpha reductase inhibitors; benign prostatic hypertrophy; benign prostatic obstruction; gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone; growth hormone releasing hormone; lower urinary tract symptoms; luteinizing hormone releasing hormone
To review the use of non-hormonal pharmacotherapies in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to presumed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods:
A search of the PUBMED database was conducted for the terms BPH, LUTS, bladder outlet obstruction, alpha-adrenoceptor blockers, anti-muscarinics, and phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors.
Medical therapy has long been established as the accepted standard of care in the treatment of male LUTS. The aim of treatment is improvement in symptoms and quality of life whilst minimizing adverse effects. The agents most widely used as 1st line therapy are alpha-blockers (AB), as a standalone or in combination with 2 other classes of drug; 5-α reductase inhibitors and anti-muscarinics. AB have rapid efficacy, improving symptoms and flow rate in a matter of days, these effects are then maintained over time. AB do not impact on prostate size and do not prevent acute urinary retention or the need for surgery. Anti-mucarinics, alone or in combination with an AB are safe and efficacious in the treatment of bothersome storage symptoms associated with LUTS/BPH. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are an emerging treatment option that improve LUTS without improving flow rates.
AB are the most well-established pharmacotherapy in the management of men with LUTS/BPH. The emergence of different classes of agent offers the opportunity to target underlying pathophysiologies driving symptoms and better individualize treatment.
Alpha antagonists; antimuscarinics; efficacy; phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors; side effects; uroselectivity
Monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with endoscopic electrocautery remains the gold standard surgical technique for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) by which all new procedures are compared. We reviewed the current literature, and international urological guidelines and consensus opinion on various surgical options for BPH and present a brief overview of alternative techniques including bipolar TURP, transurethral incision of the prostate, transurethral vaporization of the prostate, laser prostatectomy (with holmium, thulium and potassium titanyl phosphate greenlight lasers) and open prostatectomy (with mention of new techniques including laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy). Emerging, experimental and less established techniques are also described including endoscopic heat generation (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, radiofrequency transurethral needle ablation of the prostate, high intensity focused ultrasound, hot water induced thermotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic radiofrequency), injection therapy (transurethral ethanol ablation and botulinum toxin) and mechanical devices (intraprostatic stents and urethral lift devices). Despite a plethora of surgical options, none have realistically improved outcomes in the long-term compared with TURP. Improvements have been made on improving surgical morbidity and time in hospital. Questions remain in this area, including what specific elements of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) result in damage to the urinary tract, how does BPH contribute to BOO and how much prostate volume reduction is necessary to relieve BOO or lower urinary tract symptoms. Given these unanswered questions and the multitude of procedures available, it is clear that appropriate counselling is necessary in all men who undergo BPH surgery.
Green light laser; holmium laser enucleation of the prostate; laser prostatectomy; prostatectomy; thulium laser; transurethral resection of the prostate
Most men will develop histological BPH if they live long enough. Approximately, half will develop benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and about half of these will get BOO with high bladder pressures and low flow, this in turn leads to detrusor wall hypertrophy. Many of these men will only have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but a significant number will also suffer the other complications of BPH. These include urinary retention (acute and chronic), haematuria, urinary tract infection, bladder stones, bladder wall damage, renal dysfunction, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Recognition of the complications of BPH/BOO early allows more effective management of these complications. This is particularly important for the more serious urinary infections and also for high-pressure chronic retention (HPCR). Complications of LUTS/BPH are very rare in clinical trials because of their strict inclusion and exclusion criteria but are more common in real life practice.
Bladder calculi; renal dysfunction; urinary retention; urinary tract infection
With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence.
Materials and Methods:
Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed.
BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated.
The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; epidemiology; epigenetics; genetics; inflammation; prostate cancer
We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with the history of hirsutism. On evaluation, she was found to have testosterone secreting adrenal gland tumor. Histopathological examination of the adrenalectomy specimen revealed a lipoadenoma.
Adenolipoma; adrenal gland; hirsutism; virilization
We report a case of 76-year-old man, with a past medical history of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT), who presented with ureteral tumor diagnosed as urothelial carcinoma on imaging investigations. Histological examination showed an unusual finding. The tumor was a ureteral localization of the PCDLBCL-LT previously diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PCDLBCL-LT with ureteral spread described in the literature.
Lymphoma; metastasis; ureter
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the kidney is a very rare entity with no definite treatment protocol. Herein, we describe one such case with discussion of its diagnosis and management. The patient had a well circumscribed mass in right kidney extending into the inferior vena cava and metastasis to both the lungs. Right nephrectomy was performed and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis to be renal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. After surgical removal of the tumor, the patient was given chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Epirubicin, following which there was significant regression of lung nodules.
Chondrosarcoma; extraskeletal; kidney; mesenchymal
Anatomical structures with similar appearance may at times be confused for each other. This situation can be compounded by lack of normal anatomical planes. We did ureterocalicostomy on a 32-year-female with secondary pelvi-ureteral junction obstruction. Post-operatively, it was discovered that she had a long appendix running parallel to ureter in retroperitoneum, which was misidentified as ureter and anastomosed to the lower pole of the kidney. She was re-explored, appendix was removed, ureter was identified and ureterocalicostomy was done. Patient is asymptomatic at 1 year follow-up.
Appendicocalicostomy; appendix; ureter; ureterocalicostomy
We report a rare case of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the upper urinary tract in a child with a single kidney. Squamous metaplasia has rarely been reported in the upper urinary tract, and is even rarer in children.
Cholesteatoma; child; keratinizing; metaplasia; squamous
Supernumerary testis is a rare congenital anomaly of the testis arising from abnormal division in the genital ridge during the embryogenesis of testis. We describe a case of polyorchidism detected incidentally in a 52-year-old with renal failure.
Polyorchidism; supernumerary testis; triorchidism