Caliceal diverticulae are a frequent surgical problem. We present our experience with caliceal diverticular stones (CDS) managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and describe the two different techniques to deal with diverticula after stone retrieval.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively analyzed 10-year data of 44 consecutive patients who underwent PCNL for CDS. During PCNL, if the guide wire could be negoted through the neck of the diverticula, we dilated and stented it. If we couldnot find the neck, we fulgurated the diverticular walls. Follow-up included intravenous urogram at 3 months and annual plain films thereafter. We analyzed the outcome, complications, and recurrence rate.
Total stone clearance was obtained in 40 (90.90%) patients. We dilated and stented the diverticula in 35 (79.5%) patients and fulgurated the walls in nine (20.5%) patients. Complications occurred in three patients. The postoperative intravenous urogram showed obliteration of diverticula in seven patients and the improved drainage in 37 patients. At the average follow-up of 2 years, 41 (93.18%) patients were asymptomatic and two (4.5%) patients showed the recurrence of stone.
PCNL can clear calculi from caliceal diverticula in most cases with minimal morbidity. After stone retrieval, the diverticula may be drained into the pyelocaliceal system, if the neck is negotiable and fulgurated if the neck cannot be dilated.
Caliceal diverticula; Caliceal diverticular stones; percutaneous nephrolithotomy
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major public health concern in developing countries. Most UTIs are caused by E. coli, accounting for up to 90% of community-acquired UTIs (CAUTI). Recurrent UTI is considered as a major risk factor for urolithiasis. Virulence factors like adhesins and biofilm have been extensively studied by authors on UPEC isolated from recurrent UTI. The studies on isolates from infection stones in kidney are scanty. In a prospective study, we aimed to determine the expression of Haemagglutinins, (Type 1 and P fimbriae), Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics of Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) isolates from Community acquired Acute Urinary Tract Infection(CAUTI) and Urolithiasis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 43 UPEC isolates, 23 mid-stream urine (MSU) samples from patients with CAUTI attending Out Patient Departments and 20 from renal calculi of urolithiasis patients at the time of Percutaneous nephrolithostomy (PCNL) were included in the study and the expression of Haemagglutinins,(Type 1 and P fimbriae), Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics was assessed.
A total of 43 UPEC isolates 23 from CAUTI and 20 from renal calculi were tested for production of biofilm and hemagglutinins. In CAUTI, biofilm producers were 56.52% and hemagglutinins were detected in all isolates 100%. In urolithiasis, biofilm producers were 100% but hemagglutinins were detected only in 70% of isolates. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics used. CAUTI isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, whereas urolithiasis isolates were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins and 25% were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases ESBL producers.
HA mediated by type 1 fimbriae plays an important role in CAUTI (P < 0.001 highly significant), whereas, in chronic conditions like urolithiasis, biofilm plays an important role in persistence of infection and the role of hemagglutinins is less.
Biofilm; hemagglutination; mannose-resistant hemagglutination; mannose-sensitive hemagglutination; urolithiasis; uropathogenic Escherichia coli
There are few studies on the pathology of warty carcinoma (WC) of the penis and these have been from South America. Penile cancers are not uncommon in India. We reviewed the frequency of subtypes of penile squamous carcinoma (SC) and the pathological features and outcome of WC when compared to squamous carcinoma-not otherwise specified (SC-NOS). We also compared the clinicopathological features of WC in our series with those published earlier.
Materials and Methods:
We studied 103 cases of penile cancers over 6 years. Cases were classified into different subtypes according to established histologic criteria. Clinicopathologic features were studied in detail and compared among the different subtypes, especially between WC and SC-NOS. The patients were followed-up and disease free survival in months was noted.
SC-NOS constituted 75.7% of all penile cancer cases in our series. The frequency of other subtypes was WC: 9.7%, verrucous: 3.9%, basaloid type and papillary type: 0.97% each, and mixed types 8.7%. The average tumor size and depth of invasion did not differ significantly between the two subtypes. Frequency of lymphovascular emboli and percentage of lymph node metastasis in WC (30 and 10%) were lesser than in SC-NOS (49.37 and 26.58%), respectively. There were no recurrences after partial penectomy in the WC subtype. In the SC-NOS type, three cases had recurrence after partial/total penectomy.
Warty carcinoma constitutes nearly 10% of all penile squamous cell cancers. These patients seem to have a less aggressive behavior than SC-NOS.
India; cancer; penis; warty carcinoma
Micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean for age without the presence of any other penile anomalies, such as hypospadias. The term refers to a specific disorder that has a known set of causative factors and defined treatment modalities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hormonal therapy on the gonadal response and penile growth in children who presented with micropenis.
Materials and Methods:
Children (<18 years) who met the criteria for micropenis were included in this study. Children more than 11 years old were treated using a standard protocol of 1,500 to 2,000 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin administrated intramuscularly, once per week, for 6 weeks. Children less than 11 years old were treated with parenteral testosterone enanthate 25 mg once a month for 3 months. Response was evaluated in terms of change in testosterone levels and size of penis.
Serum testosterone levels at baseline and after 8 weeks of hormonal treatment were <20 and 449.4 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.0001) in all children more than 11 years old. Stretched penile length after hormonal treatment increased from 15.54 to 37.18 mm in children less than 11 years old and from 26.42 to 64.28 mm in children more than 11 years old (P < 0.001).
Management of isolated micropenis revolves around testosterone (direct administration or encouraging the patient's body to make its own), and results with respect to increase in penile length are promising.
Children; human chorionic gonadotropin; micropenis; testosterone
Pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) of the kidney can lead to a number of different clinical manifestations, which often require surgical intervention. Although the success of pyeloplasty and endopyelotomy are good, there are still a number of patients who fail primary treatment and develop secondary PUJO. These treatment failures can be a challenging cohort to manage. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the surgical options available to the urologist for managing secondary PUJO as well as providing some guidance on assessing factors that will influence management decisions.
Endopyelotomy; laparoscopic pyeloplasty; pelviureteric junction obstruction; reconstruction
We present a review on the current options for continent urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of patient selection. In current clinical practice continent urinary diversion is being used world-wide in patients undergoing radical cystectomy and in severe cases of benign bladder pathologies. We also discuss the specific complications of continent urinary diversion and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these patients in the long- term specifically in terms of their renal function and cancer recurrence.
Continent urinary diversion; outcomes; surgical techniques
Patients with a urinary bladder malignancy or severe anatomical/functional bladder abnormalities may be candidates for urinary diversion at the time of cystectomy. Most urinary diversions are constructed from intestinal segments. Urological surgeons who perform urinary diversion surgery should be aware of the physiological and metabolic changes that can occur when intestinal segments are in direct contact with urine. The complications associated with urinary diversion are both acute and chronic. The most important factor associated with the development of metabolic complications following urinary diversion is the length of time that the urine is in contact with the bowel and the type of bowel segment used for urinary diversion. In this review, we describe the metabolic complications associated with urinary diversion, their characteristic clinical presentation, follow-up, and specific treatment.
Metabolic complications; physiology; urinary intestinal diversion
Since the original description of the trans-appendicular continent cystostomy by Mitrofanoff in 1980, a variety of techniques have been described for creating a continent catheterisable channel leading to the bladder, which avoids the native urethra. The Mitrofanoff principle involves the creation of a conduit going into a low pressure reservoir, which can emptied through clean intermittent catheterization through an easily accessible stoma. A variety of tissue segments have been used for creating the conduit, but the two popular options in current urological practice remain the appendix and Yang-Monti transverse ileal tube. The Mitrofanoff procedure has an early reoperation rate for bleeding, bowel obstruction, anastomotic leak or conduit breakdown of up to 8% and the most common long-term complication noted is stomal stenosis resulting in difficulty catheterizing the conduit. However, in both pediatric and adult setting, reports imply that the procedure is durable although it is associated with an overall re-operation rate of up to 32% in contemporary series. Initial reports of laparoscopic and robotic-assisted Mitrofanoff procedures are encouraging, but long-term outcomes are still awaited.
Appendix; Mitrofanoff; reconstruction
Augmentation cystoplasty (AC) has traditionally been used in the treatment of the low capacity, poorly compliant or refractory overactive bladder (OAB). The use of intravesical botulinum toxin and sacral neuromodulation in detrusor overactivity has reduced the number of AC performed for this indication. However, AC remains important in the pediatric and renal transplant setting and still remains a viable option for refractory OAB. Advances in surgical technique have seen the development of both laparoscopic and robotic augmentation cystoplasty. A variety of intestinal segments can be used although ileocystoplasty remains the most common performed procedure. Early complications include thromboembolism and mortality, whereas long-term problems include metabolic disturbance, bacteriuria, urinary tract stones, incontinence, perforation, the need for intermittent self-catheterization and carcinoma. This article examines the contemporary indications, published results and possible future directions for augmentation cystoplasty.
Complication; cystoplasty; reconstruction
The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.
Botulinum toxin; clam augmentation; clam cystoplasty; conduit urinary diversion; continent diversion; detrusor myomectomy; enterocystoplasy; ileocystoplasty; long-term outcome; neobladder; neurogenic; reconstruction; review; sphincterotomy; spinal cord injury; urethral stent; urinary tract dysfunction
The role of a bladder neck sparing (BNS) technique in radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. The potential advantages of improved functional recovery must be weighed against oncological outcomes. We performed a literature review to evaluate the current knowledge regarding oncological and functional outcomes of BNS and bladder neck reconstruction (BNr) in RP. A systematic literature review using on-line medical databases was performed. A total of 33 papers were identified evaluating the use of BNS in open, laparoscopic and robotic-assisted RP. The majority were retrospective case series, with only one prospective, randomised, blinded study identified. The majority of papers reported no significant difference in oncological outcomes using a BNS or BNr technique, regardless of the surgical technique employed. Quoted positive surgical margin rates ranged from 6% to 32%. Early urinary continence (UC) rates were ranged from 36% to 100% at 1 month, with long-term UC rate reported at 84-100% at 12 months if the bladder neck (BN) was spared. BNS has been shown to improve early return of UC and long-term UC without compromising oncological outcomes. Anastomotic stricture rate is also lower when using a BNS technique.
Bladder neck reconstruction; bladder neck sparing; lissosphincter; radical prostatectomy; rhabdosphincter
Pseudotumors are uncommon benign tumors considered as a reactive inflammatory lesion. We report a case of a 53-year-old male with a history of right laparoscopic hernia repair and now referred for suspected urachal cyst. Imaging investigations revealed an abdominal mass arising from the wall of the urinary bladder. During dissection, we found a tumor arising from the urinary bladder infiltrating the posterior wall of rectus muscles and further dissection revealed presence of the previously placed inguinal mesh. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed inflammatory pseudotumor. With only one comparable case described, an infected mesh presenting as pseudotumor of the bladder is extremely rare.
Infected mesh; laparoscopic hernia repair; pseudotumor
Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rapidly progressive necrotizing infection characterized by gas in the kidneys. We describe a 48-year-old woman, a newly diagnosed diabetic, who presented with clinical features of right sided pyelonephritis with hematuria of short duration. On further evaluation, she was diagnosed to have right sided EPN, with thrombus in the renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC). She was managed conservatively with hydration, insulin, intravenous antibiotics, anticoagulants and ureteric stenting on the right side. On follow-up, the gas shadows resolved and the thrombus completely regressed.
Diabetes; emphysematouspyelonephritis; thrombus
This is the first reported case of vesicouterine fistula presenting with a fully formed dead fetus in the urinary bladder.
Fetus in bladder; hematuria; termination of pregnancy; vesicouterine fistula
Migration of a ureteric double J stent down into the bladder or up into the kidney is a well known complication. We recently encountered a case where the stent migrated into the vascular system following attempted ureteroscopy for a lower ureteric calculus. The patient required open surgical exploration for stent retrieval.
Double “J” stent; migration; ureteroscopy complications
Obstructive uropathy secondary to uretero-inguinal hernia is a rare phenomenon. Two types have been described-the rarer extraperitoneal type is frequently associated with other renal anomalies. Pre-operative diagnosis is essential in order to reduce the risk of ureteric injury intra-operatively. We describe one such case.
Inguinal hernia; obstructive uropathy; scrotal hernia; ureteral hernia
Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is an uncommon tumor and the overall incidence is 1% of all sarcomas. PNET of the adrenal gland is an even rarer entity. A 37-year-old female was evaluated for an episode of loin pain. Ultrasonography showed a large heterogenous left adrenal mass with internal echogenic components. Computed tomography did not show any fat density within to suggest a myelolipoma. Biopsy suggested a poorly differentiated neoplasm with a possibility of PNET of the adrenal gland.
Adrenal; PNET; CD99
The superomedial thigh flap is a reliable and easy method for scrotal reconstruction described in 1980 and infrequently reported in the literature since its description. We used it for four patients presenting scrotal defects after Fournier's gangrene with some technical modifications to improve the esthetic results and to facilitate the closure of the donor area. We describe the technical steps and the results.
Scrotal reconstruction; flap; Fournier's gangrene; thigh
Fournier's gangrene is an aggressive disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors associated with mortality among patients of Fournier's gangrene.
Materials and Methods:
Between May 2011 and September 2012, all patients of Fournier's gangrene treated at our center were included in the study. All patients underwent emergency surgical debridement and received broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Their baseline characteristics, treatment, and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed.
A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Of these, six patients (20%) died during the treatment. Age <55 years, total leukocyte count <15000 cumm, extent of the area involved, septic shock at admission, visual analog scale (VAS) <7 at admission, and Fournier gangrene severity index (FGSI) score <8 at admission were significantly associated with increased mortality.
In patients of Fournier's gangrene, increased age, total leukocyte count, extent of the area involved, septic shock at admission, VAS score, and FGSI score at admission have a significant association with mortality.
Fournier's gangrene; Fournier gangrene severity index; mortality; surgical debridement
Burch colposuspension is a standard treatment for stress urinary incontinence. However, it is associated with recurrence and urinary retention. We describe a modification of this technique to overcome these problems and evaluate the results in comparison with the standard procedure.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 145 patients with isolated stress urinary incontinence (SUI), underwent either our modified pleated colposuspension (PC); n = 97) or standard Burch colposuspension (BC) (n = 48). Description of PC: Three No. 0 non-absorbable sutures were placed in the side-to-side manner at the mid-urethral level with 0.5-1.0 cm distance between them using double bites and were passed through the Cooper's ligament. The patients were followed-up every 6 months for SUI and genital prolapse evaluation. Successful surgery was defined as (1) No self-reported SUI symptoms, (2) Negative Marshall's coughing test (MT), (3) No retreatment for SUI, (4) Absence of urodynamic SUI. In addition, failure was defined as the occurrence of urinary retention, use of catheter on 6-week visit, maximum flow rate >15 ml/s, flow time <60 s, or residual urine <100 ml. Data was compared using Student's paired test and Mantel-Haenzel's χ2 test. P > 0.05 was considered significant.
The mean follow-up after surgery for PC was 102.4 months and for BC was 103.6 months. At last follow-up, data suggesting failure (Stress score ≥7, urge score ≥7, Pad test with weight < 15 g/day and positive MT during lithotomic/upright position) were more frequent in BC group (P > 0.05; P > 0.0; P > 0.01; P > 0.05; P > 0.05, respectively). The incidence of recurrent SUI was 5.2% after PC and almost triple (14.6%) after BC. Residual urine <100 ml and weak stream were more frequent in the BC group (P > 0.05; P > 0.01, respectively). Detrusor over-activity on urodynamic studies, Flow time <60 s, urethral pressure profilometry positive for obstruction had a higher incidence in BC group (P > 0.01; P > 0.001; P > 0.01, respectively).
Our modified pleated colposuspension showed improved outcomes when compared with standard Burch colposuspension.
Colposuspension; genital prolapse; urinary stress incontinence