To compare ocular surface changes induced via glaucoma treatment in patients using fixed combinations of prostaglandin analogues (travoprost, latanoprost and bimatoprost) with 0.5% timolol maleate
A prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel group, single-blind clinical trial was performed in 33 patients with ocular hypertension or open angle glaucoma who had not been previously treated. The ocular surface was evaluated prior to and three months after treatment, with a daily drop instillation of one of the three medications. The main outcome measurements included the tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test, Lissamine green staining, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, impression cytology using HE and PAS and immunocytochemistry for interleukin-6 and HLA-DR. Ensaiosclinicos.gov.br: UTN - U1111-1129-2872
All of the drugs induced a significant reduction in intraocular pressure. Decreases in the Schirmer's test results were observed with all of the drugs. Decreases in tear-film break-up time were noted with travoprost/timolol and latanoprost/timolol. An increase in the Lissamine green score was noted with travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol. The Ocular Surface Disease Index score increased after treatment in the travoprost/timolol group. Impression cytology revealed a significant difference in cell-to-cell contact in the same group, an increase in cellularity in all of the groups and an increase in the number of goblet cells in all of the groups. The fixed combinations induced an increase in IL-6 expression in the travoprost/timolol group, in which there was also an increase in HLA-DR expression.
All of the fixed combinations induced a significant reduction in intraocular pressure, and the travoprost/timolol group showed increased expression of the inflammatory markers HLA-DR and interleukin-6. All three tested medications resulted in some degree of deterioration in the ocular surface after three months of glaucoma treatment.
Glaucoma; Conjunctiva; Immunohistochemistry; Inflammation; Treatment
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days.
The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained.
The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.
Roselle; Red Blood Cell Membrane; Oxidative Stress; Diabetes Mellitus
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, myxovirus resistance protein and osteopontin gene polymorphisms may influence the therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and an association with IL28 might increase the power to predict sustained virologic response. Our aims were to evaluate the association between myxovirus resistance protein, osteopontin and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 gene polymorphisms in combination with IL28B and to assess the therapy response in hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin.
Myxovirus resistance protein, osteopontin, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and IL28B polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, direct sequencing and real-time PCR. Ancestry was determined using genetic markers.
We analyzed 181 individuals, including 52 who were sustained virologic responders. The protective genotype frequencies among the sustained virologic response group were as follows: the G/G suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (rs4969170) (62.2%); T/T osteopontin (rs2853744) (60%); T/T osteopontin (rs11730582) (64.3%); and the G/T myxovirus resistance protein (rs2071430) genotype (54%). The patients who had ≥3 of the protective genotypes from the myxovirus resistance protein, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and osteopontin had a greater than 90% probability of achieving a sustained response (p<0.0001). The C/C IL28B genotype was present in 58.8% of the subjects in this group. The sustained virological response rates increased to 85.7% and 91.7% by analyzing C/C IL28B with the T/T osteopontin genotype at rs11730582 and the G/G suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 genotype, respectively. Genetic ancestry analysis revealed an admixed population.
Hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who were responders to interferon-based therapy had a high frequency of multiple protective polymorphisms in the myxovirus resistance protein, osteopontin and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 genes. The combined analysis of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and IL28B genotypes more effectively predicted sustained virologic response than IL28B analysis alone.
Hepatitis C; IL28B; MxA; Osteopontin; SOCS3; Genetic polymorphisms
Previous studies have investigated the effects of auditory temporal training on language disorders. Recently, the effects of new approaches, such as musical training and the use of software, have also been considered. To investigate the effects of different auditory temporal training approaches on language skills, we reviewed the available literature on musical training, the use of software and formal auditory training by searching the SciELO, MEDLINE, LILACS-BIREME and EMBASE databases. Study Design: Systematic review. Results: Using evidence levels I and II as the criteria, 29 of the 523 papers found were deemed relevant to one of the topics (use of software – 13 papers; formal auditory training – six papers; and musical training – 10 papers). Of the three approaches, studies that investigated the use of software and musical training had the highest levels of evidence; however, these studies also raised concerns about the hypothesized relationship between auditory temporal processing and language. Future studies are necessary to investigate the actual contribution of these three types of auditory temporal training to language skills.
Training; Hearing; Language, Music; Software
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether frequent premature ventricular contractions originating from the right ventricular outflow tract remodel the cardiac structure and function in patients with a “seemingly normal heart” and whether radiofrequency ablation can reverse this remodeling.
Sixty-eight patients with idiopathic frequent premature ventricular contractions originating from the right ventricular outflow tract and normal heart structure and function were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the therapeutic method: radiofrequency ablation group (24 cases), anti-arrhythmia drug group (26 cases), and control group (18 cases without any treatment). Clinical Registration number: ChiCTR-ONRC-12002834
The basic patient characteristics were comparable between the three groups, except for the premature ventricular contraction rate, which was significantly lower in the control group. After six months of follow up, the premature ventricular contraction rate was significantly reduced in the radiofrequency ablation group, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in the following cardiac cavity inner diameters, as determined by echocardiography: right atrium (33.33±3.78 vs. 30.05±2.60 mm, p = 0.001), right ventricle (23.24±2.40 vs. 21.05±2.16 mm, p = 0.020), and left ventricle (44.76±4.33 vs. 41.71±3.44 mm, p = 0.025). These results were similar in the anti-arrhythmia drug group, although this group exhibited a smaller extent of change (right atrium: 33.94±3.25 vs. 31.27±3.11 mm, p = 0.024; right ventricle: 22.97±3.09 vs. 21.64±2.33 mm, p = 0.049; left ventricle: 45.92±6.38 vs. 43.84±5.67 mm, p = 0.039), but not in the control group (p>0.05). There was a tendency toward improvement in the cardiac functions in both the radiofrequency ablation and anti-arrhythmia drug groups. However, these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05).
These results indicate that radiofrequency ablation can potentially reverse the cardiac remodeling caused by frequent premature ventricular contractions even in structurally normal hearts and that frequent premature ventricular contractions should be abated even in structurally normal hearts.
Cardiac Remodeling; Radiofrequency Ablation; Idiopathic Frequency Premature Ventricular Contraction; Right Ventricular Outflow Tract
To determine the awakening arterial blood concentration of desflurane and its relationship with the end-tidal concentration during emergence from various durations of general anesthesia.
In total, 42 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I-II female patients undergoing elective gynecologic surgery were enrolled. General anesthesia was maintained with fixed 6% inspiratory desflurane in 6 l min-1 oxygen until shutoff of the vaporizer at the end of surgery. One milliliter of arterial blood was obtained for desflurane concentration determination by gas chromatography at 20 and 10 minutes before and 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after the discontinuation of desflurane and at the time of eye opening upon verbal command, defined as awakening. Concentrations of inspiratory and end-tidal desflurane were simultaneously detected by an infrared analyzer.
The mean arterial blood concentration of desflurane was 1.20% at awakening, which correlated with the awakening end-tidal concentration of 0.96%. The mean time from the discontinuation of desflurane to eye opening was 5.2 minutes (SD = 1.6, range 3-10), which was not associated with the duration of anesthesia (60-256 minutes), total fentanyl dose, or body mass index (BMI).
The mean awakening arterial blood concentration of desflurane was 1.20%. The time to awakening was independent of anesthetic duration within four hours. Using well-assisted ventilation, the end-tidal concentration of desflurane was proven to represent the arterial blood concentration during elimination and could be a clinically feasible predictor of emergence from general anesthesia.
Desflurane; Arterial Blood; End-Tidal; Awakening
Accelerated bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women has been linked to oxidative stress and increased free radicals. We propose the use of antioxidants to prevent and reverse postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of tocotrienol, a vitamin E analog, on bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. Our previous study showed that tocotrienol increased the trabecular bone volume and trabecular number in ovariectomized rats. In the current study, we investigated the effects of tocotrienol supplementation on various biochemical parameters in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A total of 32 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The baseline group was sacrificed at the start of the study, and another group was sham operated. The remaining rats were ovariectomized and either given olive oil as a vehicle or treated with tocotrienol at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of treatment, blood was withdrawn for the measurement of interleukin-1 (IL1) and interleukin-6 (IL6) (bone resorbing cytokines), serum osteocalcin (a bone formation marker) and pyridinoline (a bone resorption marker).
Tocotrienol supplementation in ovariectomized rats significantly reduced the levels of osteocalcin, IL1 and IL6. However, it did not alter the serum pyridinoline level.
Tocotrienol prevented osteoporotic bone loss by reducing the high bone turnover rate associated with estrogen deficiency. Therefore, tocotrienol has the potential to be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent in postmenopausal women.
Estrogen Deficiency; Ovariectomy; Tocotrienol
To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice.
Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 μM). Cell proliferation was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR.
Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of α-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3).
Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, in part due to a reduction in ET-1.
Crocetin; Fibroblasts; Systemic scleroderma; Collagen; Fibrosis
Successful revascularization of chronic total occlusions has been associated with improved left ventricular systolic function, reduced anginal symptoms, increased exercise capacity, and increased survival. This study was conducted to determine the impact of revascularization in chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function using novel echocardiographic techniques.
A total of 129 patients with chronic total occlusion who underwent revascularization between April 2011 and November 2012 were included in this study. Echocardiographic assessments with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography were performed before the procedure and one month after the procedure. The left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular volumes, and three-dimensional systolic dyssynchrony index were quantified.
An immediate procedural success was obtained in 118 patients (91.5%). There were no acute or subacute stent thromboses during follow-up. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased (p<0.001), while the left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes significantly decreased (p = 0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The three-dimensional systolic dyssynchrony index also decreased significantly (p<0.001). The global longitudinal strain showed a significant increase after successful revascularization (p<0.001). An increase in the global longitudinal strain was correlated with an increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). The patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% displayed a greater improvement in the global longitudinal strain, and the patients with diabetes showed less improvement.
Using novel echocardiographic techniques, our results showed that restoring the coronary blood flow in chronic total occlusion patients reduces the left ventricular volumes and improves the left ventricular ejection fraction and the global longitudinal strain of hibernating myocardium.
Chronic Total Occlusions; Left Ventricular Function; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
After acute myocardial infarction, during the cardiac repair phase, periostin is released into the infarct and activates signaling pathways that are essential for the reparative process. However, the role of periostin in chronic cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between tissue periostin and cardiac variables in the chronic cardiac remodeling induced by myocardial infarction.
Male Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: a simulated surgery group (SHAM; n = 8) and a myocardial infarction group (myocardial infarction; n = 13). After 3 months, morphological, functional and biochemical analyses were performed. The data are expressed as means±SD or medians (including the lower and upper quartiles).
Myocardial infarctions induced increased left ventricular diastolic and systolic areas associated with a decreased fractional area change and a posterior wall shortening velocity. With regard to the extracellular matrix variables, the myocardial infarction group presented with higher values of periostin and types I and III collagen and higher interstitial collagen volume fractions and myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations. In addition, periostin was positively correlated with type III collagen levels (r = 0.673, p = 0.029) and diastolic (r = 0.678, p = 0.036) and systolic (r = 0.795, p = 0.006) left ventricular areas. Considering the relationship between periostin and the cardiac function variables, periostin was inversely correlated with both the fractional area change (r = -0.783, p = 0.008) and the posterior wall shortening velocity (r = -0.767, p = 0.012).
Periostin might be a modulator of deleterious cardiac remodeling in the chronic phase after myocardial infarction in rats.
Fibrosis; Myocardial Infarction; Periostin
The aims of this study were to evaluate the anteroposterior displacement behavior of the center of pressure without any visual reference and determine its relationship with knee muscle strength and reports of falls in postmenopausal women. Among those with osteoporosis, the specific objective was to evaluate the correlation of thoracic kyphosis and vitamin D with center of pressure displacement.
This was a cross-sectional observational study without intervention. The assessments were performed on 126 postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 years) who were grouped according to their lumbar bone density into osteoporosis and control groups. Center of pressure was evaluated on a force platform (100 Hz frequency and 10 Hz filter), with the subjects standing on both feet with eyes closed for 60 seconds. Knee muscle strength was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer in concentric/concentric mode at a velocity of 60°/s. In the osteoporosis group, vitamin D was assayed, and the thoracic spine was radiographed.
In the control group, there was a correlation between the center of pressure and knee strength (r = 0.37; p<0.003). Reports of falls were not associated with center of pressure displacement (p = 0.056). In the osteoporosis group, thoracic kyphosis and vitamin D levels were not correlated with the center of pressure.
Anteroposterior center of pressure displacement without visual influence was not associated with falls, thoracic kyphosis or vitamin D in the osteoporosis group. Only knee muscle strength was associated with center of pressure displacement in the control group.
Muscle Strength; Osteoporosis; Postmenopause; Postural Balance
The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of protein tyrosine kinase 2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11, which respectively encode focal adhesion kinase protein and src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 2, in hematopoietic cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
Protein tyrosine kinase 2 and tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11 expressions were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and healthy donors.
Protein tyrosine kinase 2 and tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11 expressions did not significantly differ between normal cells and myelodysplastic cells.
Our data suggest that despite the relevance of focal adhesion kinase and src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 2 in hematopoietic disorders, their mRNA expression do not significantly differ between total bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and healthy donors.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes; PTPN11; PTK2; FAK; SHP2
To compare the efficacy of transconjunctival needling revision with 5-fluorouracil versus medical treatment in glaucomatous eyes with uncontrolled intraocular pressure due to encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy.
Prospective, randomized, interventional study. A total of 40 eyes in 39 patients with elevated intraocular pressure and encapsulated blebs diagnosed at a maximum five months after primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were included. The eyes were randomized to either transconjunctival needling revision with 5- fluorouracil or medical treatment (hypotensive eyedrops). A maximum of two transconjunctival needling revisions per patient was allowed in the needling arm. All patients underwent follow-up for 12 months. Successful treatment was defined as an intraocular pressure ≤ 18 mmHg and a 20% reduction from baseline at the final follow-up. Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01887223.
Mean intraocular pressure at the final 12-month follow-up was lower in the transconjunctival needling revision group compared to the medical treatment group. Similar numbers of eyes reached the criteria for treatment success in both the transconjunctival needling revision group and the medical treatment group.
Despite similar success rates in eyes randomized to transconjunctival needling revision with 5-fluorouracil compared to eyes receiving medical treatment, there was a significantly lower mean intraocular pressure at 12 months after transconjunctival needling revision.
Needling; Medical Treatment; Glaucoma; Encapsulated bleb; Revision; 5-Fluorouracil
Dengue is a worldwide public health problem with approximately 50 million cases reported annually. The World Health Organization proposed a revised classification system in 2008 to more effectively identify the patients who are at increased risk of complications from dengue. Few studies have validated this new classification system in clinical practice. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized for dengue in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the capacity of the two classification systems for detecting severe cases of dengue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We conducted a cross-sectional study of survey data from the medical records of patients admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Grande Dourados under clinical suspicion of dengue during an epidemic from September 2009 to April 2010.
The distribution of patients according to the traditional classification system was as follows: dengue fever, 150/181 (82.9%); dengue hemorrhagic fever, 27/181 (14.9%); and dengue hemorrhagic shock, 4/181 (2.2%). Using the revised classification system, the distribution was as follows: dengue without warning signs, 45/181 (24.3%); dengue with warning signs, 107/181 (59.1%); and severe dengue, 29/181 (15.6%). Of the 150 patients classified as having dengue fever, 105 (70%) were reclassified as having dengue with warning signs or severe dengue.
These data demonstrate that the revised classification system has greater discriminatory power for detecting patients at risk of progression to severe disease and those needing hospitalization.
Dengue; Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever; Dengue Shock; Severe Dengue; Case Classification
Strain and strain rate imaging is currently the most popular echocardiographic technique that reveals subclinical myocardial damage. There are currently no available data on this imaging method with regard to assessing right ventricular involvement in anterior myocardial infarction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate right ventricular regional functions using a derived strain and strain rate imaging tissue Doppler method in patients who were successfully treated for their first anterior myocardial infarction.
The patient group was composed of 44 patients who had experienced their first anterior myocardial infarction and had undergone successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Twenty patients were selected for the control group. The right ventricular myocardial samplings were performed in three regions: the basal, mid, and apical segments of the lateral wall. The individual myocardial velocity, strain, and strain rate values of each basal, mid, and apical segment were obtained.
The right ventricular myocardial velocities of the patient group were significantly decreased with respect to all three velocities in the control group. The strain and strain rate values of the right mid and apical ventricular segments in the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (excluding the right ventricular basal strain and strain rate). In addition, changes in the right ventricular mean strain and strain rate values were significant.
Right ventricular involvement following anterior myocardial infarction can be assessed using tissue Doppler based strain and strain rate
Right Ventricle; Involvement; Strain/Strain Rate; Doppler; Anterior Myocardial Infarction
We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy.
A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05.
After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents.
The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab.
TNF-alpha Blockers; Skin; Adverse Events; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Ankylosing Spondylitis
This study reviewed the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions aimed at reducing overweight, obesity and hypertension in children. We searched 14 databases and analyzed studies published between April 2009 and September 2012. Only randomized controlled trials performed at the school level that included elements of physical activity but did not include nutritional co-interventions were analyzed. Studies were assessed by two recommended tools (EPHPP and GRADE), and the standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were collected for a random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 12 papers were included in the meta-analysis, and these were divided according to three outcomes: body mass index (11 trials, n = 4,273, −0.02, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.17, p = 0.8); body weight (5 trials, n = 1,330, −0.07, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.04, p = 0.2); and blood pressure (6 trials, n = 1,549), including systolic (0.11, 95% CI: −0.10 to 0.31, p = 0.3) and diastolic pressure (−0.00, 95% CI: −0.10 to 0.10, p = 0.9). This meta-analysis of data from 11 randomized, school-based physical activity interventions suggests that, regardless of the potential benefits of physical activity in the school environment, the interventions did not have a statistically significant effect. However, it is difficult to generalize from these results because the duration, intensity and type of physical activity used in the interventions varied greatly.
Children; Schools; Physical Education and Training; Obesity; Randomized Controlled Trials; Review
To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities.
Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent).
Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old.
In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.
Anthropometry/Methods; Thoracic Wall/Abnormalities; Funnel Chest/Diagnosis
The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures.
A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6–8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each): control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red.
Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.
Hyperbaric Oxygenation; Platelet-rich Plasma; Fibula, Fracture Consolidation
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel phytoestrogen, α-Zearalanol, on Alzheimer's disease-related memory impairment and neuronal oxidation in ovariectomized mice.
Female C57/BL6 mice were ovariectomized or received sham operations and treatment with equivalent doses of 17β-estradiol or α-Zearalanol for 8 weeks. Their spatial learning and memory were analyzed using the Morris water maze test. The antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen species generation, neuronal DNA oxidation, and MutT homolog 1 expression in the hippocampus were measured.
Treatment with 17β-estradiol or α-Zearalanol significantly improved spatial learning and memory performance in ovariectomized mice. In addition, 17β-estradiol and α-Zearalanol attenuated the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and increased reactive oxygen species production in ovariectomized mice. The findings indicated a significant elevation in hippocampi neuronal DNA oxidation and reduction in MutT homolog 1 expression in estrogen-deficient mice, but supplementation with 17β-estradiol or α-Zearalanol efficaciously ameliorated this situation.
These results demonstrate that α-Zearalanol is potentially beneficial for improving memory impairments and neuronal oxidation damage in a manner similar to that of 17β-estradiol. Therefore, the compound may be a potential therapeutic agent that can ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders related to estrogen deficiency.
α-Zearalanol; Cognitive Deficits; Oxidized DNA; Alzheimer's Disease