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1.  Influence of hyperprolactinemia on collagen fibers in the lacrimal gland of female mice 
Clinics  2015;70(9):632-637.
To quantify the collagen fibers in the lacrimal gland of female mice with hyperprolactinemia.
Forty adult female mice were randomly divided into two groups with 20 animals each: nonpregnant control (CTR1, control group, 0.2 mL of saline solution) and nonpregnant experimental (HPRL1, experimental group, 200 µg/day metoclopramide). Treatments lasted for 50 consecutive days. On day 50, 10 females from each group (control and experimental) were euthanized in the proestrus phase; then, the blood was collected and the lacrimal glands were removed. Thereafter, the remaining females were placed with the mates and continued to receive treatment with saline solution or metoclopramide. On the 6th post-coital day, 10 pregnant females from the control group (CTR2) and 10 pregnant females from the experimental group (HPRL2) were euthanized, after which blood was collected and the lacrimal glands removed. The lacrimal glands were processed for morphological analyses and collagen quantification, and prolactin and sex steroid levels were measured in the blood samples. Data were statistically analyzed using an unpaired Student t test (p<0.05).
Morphological analysis revealed greater structural tissue disorganization of the lacrimal glands in the metoclopramide-treated groups. The total collagen content was significantly higher in the HPRL1 group than in the CTR1 group (p<0.05), whereas the difference between the CTR2 and HPRL2 groups was not significant.
Our data suggest an impairment in the functioning of the lacrimal gland as a consequence of increased prolactin levels and decreased serum levels of estrogen and progesterone.
PMCID: PMC4557571  PMID: 26375566
Hyperprolactinemia; Collagen Fibers; Sex Hormones
2.  Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander? 
Clinics  2015;70(9):628-631.
Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints.
We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved.
The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years). Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001) was better than that obtained for either parameter alone.
Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.
PMCID: PMC4557572  PMID: 26375565
Lactate; Carboxyhemoglobin; Bilirubin; Carbon Monoxide; Poisoning
3.  Driving evaluation methods for able-bodied persons and individuals with lower extremity disabilities: a review of assessment modalities 
Clinics  2015;70(9):638-647.
Assessing the driving abilities of individuals with disabilities is often a very challenging task because each medical condition is accompanied by physical impairments and because relative individual functional performance may vary depending on personal characteristics.
We identified existing driving evaluation modalities for able-bodied and lower extremity-impaired subjects (spinal cord injury patients and amputees) and evaluated the potential relationships between driving performance and the motor component of driving.
An extensive scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify driving assessment tools that are currently used for able-bodied individuals and for those with spinal cord injury or lower extremity amputation. The literature search focused on the assessment of the motor component of driving. References were electronically obtained via Medline from the PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases.
This article compares the current assessments of driving performance for those with lower extremity impairments with the assessments used for able-bodied persons. Very few articles were found concerning “Lower Extremity Disabilities,” thus confirming the need for further studies that can provide evidence and guidance for such assessments in the future. Little is known about the motor component of driving and its association with the other driving domains, such as vision and cognition. The available research demonstrates the need for a more evidenced-based understanding of how to best evaluate persons with lower extremity impairment.
PMCID: PMC4557573  PMID: 26375567
Automobile Driving; Amputation; Spinal Cord Injury; Driving Assessment
4.  Differences between the real and the desired worlds in the results of clinical trials 
Clinics  2015;70(9):618-622.
We refer to the effectiveness (known as pragmatic or real world) and efficacy (known as explanatory or desired or ideal world) of interventions. However, these terms seem to be randomly chosen by investigators who design clinical trials and do not always reflect the true purpose of the study. A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary tool was thus developed with the aim of identifying the characteristics of clinical trials that distinguish between effectiveness and efficacy issues. We verified whether clinical trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool, and we categorized these clinical trials according to a new classification.
A systematic survey of randomized clinical trials was performed. We added a score ranging from 0 (more efficacious) to 10 (more effective) to each domain of the indicator summary tool and proposed the following classifications: high efficacy (<25), moderate efficacy (25-50), moderate effectiveness (51-75), and high effectiveness (<75).
A total of 844 randomized trials were analyzed. No analyzed trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool. Approximately 44% of the trials were classified as having moderate effectiveness, and 43.82% were classified as having moderate efficacy.
Most clinical trials used the term “efficacy” to illustrate the application of results in clinical practice, but the majority of those were classified as having moderate effectiveness according to our proposed score. The classification based on the 0-100 score is still highly subjective and can be easily misunderstood in all domains based on each investigator's own experiences and knowledge.
PMCID: PMC4557574  PMID: 26375563
Clinical Medicine; Clinical Trials; Evidence-Based Medicine; Research; Efficacy; Effectiveness
5.  Comparison of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients 
Clinics  2015;70(9):601-605.
In this study, we aimed to compare the cardiovascular risk factors that might be associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.
Fifty hemodialysis and 50 peritoneal dialysis patients who had been receiving dialysis therapy for at least one year were included in the study. Venous blood samples were taken after 12 hours of fasting, and serum glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and homocysteine levels were measured. The presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery was evaluated by carotid Doppler ultrasound. These data were analyzed by Student's t test, the chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate.
No difference was found between the hemodialysis (n=50) and peritoneal dialysis (n=50) patient groups regarding mean age, gender distribution, body mass index or dialysis duration (p=0.269, 0.683, 0.426, and 0.052, respectively). LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in peritoneal dialysis patients (p=0.006, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). In patients with diabetes mellitus (n=17) who were undergoing renal replacement therapy, LDL-cholesterol and fibrinogen levels were significantly higher than in patients without diabetes mellitus who were undergoing renal replacement therapy (p=0.001 and 0.004, respectively).
In our study, cardiovascular risk factors (especially LDL-cholesterol) were more frequent in peritoneal dialysis patients than in hemodialysis patients.
PMCID: PMC4557587  PMID: 26375560
Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Atherosclerosis; Hemodialysis; Peritoneal Dialysis; Kidney Failure
6.  The impact of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on life satisfaction among the elderly in China 
Clinics  2015;70(9):623-627.
To explore the effects of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on the relationship between living arrangements and life satisfaction among the elderly in China.
Secondary analysis of the 2005 dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was performed. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and living arrangements.
Among those with concordant actual and preferred living arrangements, living in a nursing home increased the likelihood of life satisfaction, whereas living alone and living with a spouse decreased the likelihood of life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. Among those with discordant living arrangements, there were no differences in life satisfaction between the various living arrangements, except that living with a spouse increased life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse.
A discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements modifies the relationship between life satisfaction and actual living arrangement. Living in a nursing home is a good option for Chinese elder care only if the older individual emotionally accepts it. Living alone or with a spouse is not a good arrangement for elder care, even though it is often preferred by the elderly. Those with discordant living arrangements are more satisfied living with their spouses.
PMCID: PMC4557588  PMID: 26375564
Life Satisfaction; Actual Living Arrangement; Preferred Living Arrangement; Discrepancy
7.  Analgesia for total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis comparing local infiltration and femoral nerve block 
Clinics  2015;70(9):648-653.
Patients frequently experience postoperative pain after a total knee arthroplasty; such pain is always challenging to treat and may delay the patient's recovery. It is unclear whether local infiltration or a femoral nerve block offers a better analgesic effect after total knee arthroplasty.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare local infiltration with a femoral nerve block in patients who underwent a primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through December 2014. Two reviewers scanned abstracts and extracted data. The data collected included numeric rating scale values for pain at rest and pain upon movement and opioid consumption in the first 24 hours. Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each end point. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate potential sources of heterogeneity.
While the numeric rating scale values for pain upon movement (MD-0.62; 95%CI: -1.13 to -0.12; p=0.02) in the first 24 hours differed significantly between the patients who received local infiltration and those who received a femoral nerve block, there were no differences in the numeric rating scale results for pain at rest (MD-0.42; 95%CI:-1.32 to 0.47; p=0.35) or opioid consumption (MD 2.92; 95%CI:-1.32 to 7.16; p=0.18) in the first 24 hours.
Local infiltration and femoral nerve block showed no significant differences in pain intensity at rest or opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty, but the femoral nerve block was associated with reduced pain upon movement.
PMCID: PMC4557589  PMID: 26375568
Total knee arthroplasty; Analgesia; Meta-analysis
8.  Partial epilepsy: A pictorial review of 3 TESLA magnetic resonance imaging features 
Clinics  2015;70(9):654-661.
Epilepsy is a disease with serious consequences for patients and society. In many cases seizures are sufficiently disabling to justify surgical evaluation. In this context, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most valuable tools for the preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci. Because these lesions show a large variety of presentations (including subtle imaging characteristics), their analysis requires careful and systematic interpretation of MRI data. Several studies have shown that 3 Tesla (T) MRI provides a better image quality than 1.5 T MRI regarding the detection and characterization of structural lesions, indicating that high-field-strength imaging should be considered for patients with intractable epilepsy who might benefit from surgery. Likewise, advanced MRI postprocessing and quantitative analysis techniques such as thickness and volume measurements of cortical gray matter have emerged and in the near future, these techniques will routinely enable more precise evaluations of such patients. Finally, the familiarity with radiologic findings of the potential epileptogenic substrates in association with combined use of higher field strengths (3 T, 7 T, and greater) and new quantitative analytical post-processing techniques will lead to improvements regarding the clinical imaging of these patients. We present a pictorial review of the major pathologies related to partial epilepsy, highlighting the key findings of 3 T MRI.
PMCID: PMC4557590  PMID: 26375569
Magnetic Resonance Imaging; 3 T; Partial Epilepsy
9.  The impact of tracheotomy on levels of procalcitonin in patients without sepsis: a prospective study 
Clinics  2015;70(9):612-617.
Procalcitonin is a reliable biomarker of infection and sepsis. We aimed to determine whether tracheotomy influences the procalcitonin concentrations in patients without sepsis and assess whether operative duration and procedure affect the peak procalcitonin level.
A total of 38 non-septic patients who required a tracheotomy underwent either a percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (n=19) or a surgical tracheotomy (n=19). Procalcitonin levels were measured at the beginning of the tracheotomy and at 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the procedure.
The baseline procalcitonin concentration before the tracheotomy was 0.24±0.13 ng/mL. The postoperative levels increased rapidly, with a 4-fold elevation after 2 h, reaching a peak 4 h later with a 5-fold increase over baseline. Thereafter, the levels gradually returned to 2-fold greater than the baseline level within 72 h. The peak levels of procalcitonin showed a significant positive correlation with operative durations (r=0.710, p<0.001) and procedures (rho=0.670, p<0.001).
In patients without sepsis, tracheotomy induces a rapid release of serum procalcitonin, and the operative duration and procedure have significant impacts on the peak procalcitonin levels. Thus, the nonspecific increase in procalcitonin levels following tracheotomy needs to be considered when this measure is used to evaluate infection.
PMCID: PMC4557591  PMID: 26375562
Tracheotomy; Procalcitonin; Sepsis; Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheotomy; Surgical Tracheotomy
10.  Temporal resolution in individuals with neurological disorders 
Clinics  2015;70(9):606-611.
Temporal processing refers to the ability of the central auditory nervous system to encode and detect subtle changes in acoustic signals. This study aims to investigate the temporal resolution ability of individuals with mesial temporal sclerosis and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test in identifying this type of lesion.
This prospective study investigated differences in temporal resolution between 30 individuals with normal hearing and without neurological lesions (G1) and 16 individuals with both normal hearing and mesial temporal sclerosis (G2). Test performances were compared, and the sensitivity and specificity were calculated.
There was no difference in gap detection thresholds between the two groups, although G1 revealed better average thresholds than G2 did. The sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test for neurological lesions were 68% and 98%, respectively.
Temporal resolution ability is compromised in individuals with neurological lesions caused by mesial temporal sclerosis. The gaps-in-noise test was shown to be a sensitive and specific measure of central auditory dysfunction in these patients.
PMCID: PMC4557592  PMID: 26375561
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Auditory Perception; Auditory Perceptual Disorder
11.  Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis is increasing in China: A ten-year retrospective study 
Clinics  2015;70(8):563-568.
Little is known about metabolic factors in cirrhotic patients in China. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the prevalence of both metabolic factors and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis in China.
The medical records of 1,582 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis from June 2003 to July 2013 at Daping Hospital (Chongqing, China) were retrospectively reviewed through a computer-generated search.
Serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen was present in 1,083 (68.5%) patients, and hepatitis B was found to be the only etiological factor in 938 (59.3%) of all patients. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension were observed in 229 (14.5%), 159 (10.1%), and 129 (8.2%) patients, respectively. From 2012-2013, the proportion of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis increased to 3.2%, whereas the average proportion of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis in the previous ten years was 1.9%. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was much higher in males than in females (6.3% vs. 3.7%, respectively, p=0.036). Obesity and diabetes mellitus did not significantly increase the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the whole cirrhotic group. The presence of hepatitis B virus was the only risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients (p<0.001).
Although hepatitis B virus remains the main etiology of liver cirrhosis in China, steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis is increasing in frequency. Hepatitis B virus was the sole significant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in the whole cirrhotic group in the present study, in contrast to obesity and diabetes mellitus, for which only a trend of increased hepatocellular carcinoma was found.
PMCID: PMC4518765  PMID: 26247669
Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis; Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Liver Cirrhosis; Obesity; Metabolism
12.  Ocular risk management in patients undergoing general anesthesia: an analysis of 39,431 surgeries 
Clinics  2015;70(8):541-543.
This study sought to describe and analyze ocular findings associated with nonocular surgery in patients who underwent general anesthesia.
The authors retrospectively collected a series of 39,431 surgeries using standardized data forms.
Ocular findings were reported in 9 cases (2.3:10,000), which involved patients with a mean age of 58.9±19.5 years. These cases involved patients classified as ASA I (33%), ASA II (55%) or ASA III (11%). General anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil was used in 4 cases, balanced general anesthesia was used in 4 cases, and regional block was used in combination with balanced general anesthesia in one case. Five patients (55%) underwent surgery in the supine position, one patient (11%) underwent surgery in the lithotomy position, two patients (22%) underwent surgery in the prone position, and one patient (11%) underwent surgery in the lateral position. Ocular hyperemia was detected in most (77%) of the 9 cases with ocular findings; pain/burning of the eyes, visual impairment, eye discharge and photophobia were observed in 55%, 11%, 11% and 11%, respectively, of these 9 cases. No cases involved permanent ocular injury or vision loss.
Ophthalmological findings after surgeries were uncommon, and most of the included patients were relatively healthy. Minor complications, such as dehydration or superficial ocular trauma, should be prevented by following systematic protocols that provide appropriate ocular occlusion with a lubricating ointment and protect the eye with an acrylic occluder. These procedures will refine the quality of anesthesia services and avoid discomfort among patients, surgeons and anesthesia staff.
PMCID: PMC4518766  PMID: 26247665
Blindness; Anesthesia; Eye Injuries
13.  Treatment with dasatinib or nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia patients who failed to respond to two previously administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors – a single center experience 
Clinics  2015;70(8):550-555.
To evaluate hematological, cytogenetic and molecular responses as well as the overall, progression-free and event-free survivals of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with a third tyrosine kinase inhibitor after failing to respond to imatinib and nilotinib/dasatinib.
Bone marrow karyotyping and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after the initiation of treatment with a third tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular responses were defined according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. BCR-ABL1 mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing.
We evaluated 25 chronic myeloid leukemia patients who had been previously treated with imatinib and a second tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Nine patients were switched to dasatinib, and 16 patients were switched to nilotinib as a third-line therapy. Of the chronic phase patients (n=18), 89% achieved a complete hematologic response, 13% achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 24% achieved a major molecular response. The following BCR-ABL1 mutations were detected in 6/14 (43%) chronic phase patients: E255V, Y253H, M244V, F317L (2) and F359V. M351T mutation was found in one patient in the accelerated phase of the disease. The five-year overall, progression-free and event-free survivals were 86, 54 and 22% (p<0.0001), respectively, for chronic phase patients and 66%, 66% and 0% (p<0.0001), respectively, for accelerated phase patients. All blast crisis patients died within 6 months of treatment. Fifty-six percent of the chronic phase patients lost their hematologic response within a median of 23 months.
Although the responses achieved by the third tyrosine kinase inhibitor were not sustainable, a third tyrosine kinase inhibitor may be an option for improving patient status until a donor becomes available for transplant. Because the long-term outcome for these patients is poor, the development of new therapies for resistant chronic myeloid leukemia patients is necessary.
PMCID: PMC4518767  PMID: 26247667
CML; Dasatinib; Nilotinib; Third-line TKI treatment
14.  The effect of elemene on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell radiosensitivity and elucidation of its mechanism 
Clinics  2015;70(8):556-562.
To investigate the effect of elemene on the radiosensitivity of A549 cells and its possible molecular mechanism.
Apoptosis of A549 cells was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The effect of double-strand break (DSB) damage repair in A549 cells was evaluated using the neutral comet assay. Protein expression levels were detected using western blotting, and the correlation between protein levels was analyzed.
Elemene exhibited a radiosensitizing effect on A549 cells. The level of apoptosis induced by elemene combined with radiation was significantly greater (p<0.01) than that elicited by either radiation or elemene alone. Following radiation and subsequent repair for 24 h, the tail intensity of A549 cells treated with a combination of elemene and radiation was greater than that of cells treated with either elemene or radiation alone (p<0.01). This result indicates that elemene inhibits cellular DSB repair. Both elemene combined with radiation and radiation alone decreased the protein expression of DNA-PKcs and Bcl-2 compared to elemene alone (p<0.01), while p53 protein expression was increased (p<0.01). A negative correlation was observed between DNA-PKcs and p53 expression (r=-0.569, p=0.040), while a positive correlation was found between DNA-PKcs and Bcl-2 expression (r=0.755, p=0.012).
Elemene exhibits a radiosensitizing effect on A549 cells, and its underlying molecular mechanism of action may be related to the downregulation of DNA-PKcs gene expression.
PMCID: PMC4518768  PMID: 26247668
Elemene; Radiosensitivity; A549 cells; DNA-PKcs; Bcl-2; p53
15.  Flow-through anastomosis using a T-shaped vascular pedicle for gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation in brachial plexus injury 
Clinics  2015;70(8):544-549.
In gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation, the limited caliber of the dominant vascular pedicle increases the complexity of the anastomosis and the risk of vascular compromise. The purpose of this study was to characterize the results of using a T-shaped vascular pedicle for flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury.
The outcomes of patients with brachial plexus injury who received gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation with either conventional end-to-end anastomosis or flow-through anastomosis from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively compared. In the flow-through group, the pedicle comprised a segment of the profunda femoris and the nutrient artery of the gracilis. The recipient artery was interposed by the T-shaped pedicle.
A total of 46 patients received flow-through anastomosis, and 25 patients received conventional end-to-end anastomosis. The surgical time was similar between the groups. The diameter of the arterial anastomosis in the flow-through group was significantly larger than that in the end-to-end group (3.87 mm vs. 2.06 mm, respectively, p<0.001), and there were significantly fewer cases of vascular compromise in the flow-through group (2 [4.35%] vs. 6 [24%], respectively, p=0.019). All flaps in the flow-through group survived, whereas 2 in the end-to-end group failed. Minimal donor-site morbidity was noted in both groups.
Flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury can decrease the complexity of anastomosis, reduce the risk of flap loss, and allow for more variation in muscle placement.
PMCID: PMC4518818  PMID: 26247666
Brachial plexus injury; Functioning free muscle transplantation; Flow-through anastomosis; Gracilis muscle; T-shaped pedicle
16.  Operative versus nonoperative treatment for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures: a meta-analysis based on current evidence 
Clinics  2015;70(8):584-592.
Literature searches of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data databases were performed from 1966 to September 2014. Only randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials comparing operative and nonoperative treatments for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures were included. Data collection and extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Thirteen studies were considered in the meta-analysis. Constant scores and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were improved in the operative fixation group at a follow up of one year or more. The nonunion and symptomatic malunion rates were significantly lower in the operative group. Additionally, the nonoperative group had a higher likelihood of neurological symptoms compared with the operative group. A significantly higher risk of complications was found in patients treated conservatively than in those who underwent operative fixation. However, when patients with nonunion and symptomatic malunion were excluded from the analysis, no significant differences in the complication rate were found. We concluded that based on the current clinical reports, operative treatment is superior to nonoperative treatment in the management of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. However, we do not support the routine use of primary operative fixation for all displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adults.
PMCID: PMC4518819  PMID: 26247672
Clavicle; Midshaft clavicles; Operative treatment; Nonoperative treatment; Meta-analysis
17.  Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs 
Clinics  2015;70(8):577-583.
Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid.
Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis.
Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups.
Hypertonic saline infusion after intratracheal hydrochloric acid instillation does not have an effect on inflammatory biomarkers or respiratory gas exchange.
PMCID: PMC4518820  PMID: 26247671
Acute lung injury; Hypertonic saline; Pigs; Hydrochloric acid; Inflammation
18.  The negative prognostic impact of bone metastasis with a tumor mass 
Clinics  2015;70(8):535-540.
Typically, bone metastasis causes osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions resulting from the interactions of tumor cells with osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In addition to these interactions, tumor tissues may grow inside bones and cause mass lesions. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the negative impact of a tumor mass in a large cohort of patients with bone metastatic cancer.
Data from 335 patients with bone metastases were retrospectively reviewed. For the analysis, all patients were divided into three subgroups with respect to the type of bone metastasis: osteolytic, osteoblastic, or mixed. The patients were subsequently categorized as having bone metastasis with or without a tumor mass, and statistically significant differences in median survival and 2-year overall survival were observed between these patients (the median survival and 2-year overall survival were respectively 3 months and 16% in patients with a tumor mass and 11 months and 26% in patients without a tumor mass; p<0.001).
According to multivariate analysis, the presence of bone metastasis with a tumor mass was found to be an independent prognostic factor (p=0.011, hazard ratio: 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.11–1.76). Bone metastasis with a tumor mass was more strongly associated with osteolytic lesions, other primary diseases (except for primary breast and prostate cancers), and spinal cord compression.
Bone metastasis with a tumor mass is a strong and independent negative prognostic factor for survival in cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC4518841  PMID: 26247664
Bone metastasis; Bone metastasis with a tumor mass; Prognostic factor; Survival
19.  The association between the rs11196218A/G polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene and type 2 diabetes in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis 
Clinics  2015;70(8):593-599.
Transcription factor 7-like 2 has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple ethnic groups in recent years. In the Chinese Han population in particular, numerous studies have evaluated the association between the rs11196218A/G polymorphism of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the results have been inconsistent, so we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval values were calculated using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model based on heterogeneity analysis. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control group as well as on other variables, such as age, sex and body mass index. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to detect heterogeneity and to assess the stability of the results. In total, 10 case-control studies comprising 7,491 cases and 12,968 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The combined analysis indicated that the rs11196218A/G polymorphism was not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (G vs. A, OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.97-1.13, p=0.28). The subgroup analyses also did not show any association between the rs11196218A/G polymorphism and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the results of the subgroup analyses indicated that the absence of an association was not influenced by age, sex or body mass index. The results of the sensitivity analysis verified the reliability and stability of this meta-analysis. In conclusion, this study indicated that there is no significant association between the rs11196218A/G polymorphism and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Chinese Han population.
PMCID: PMC4518842  PMID: 26247673
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2); rs11196218A/G polymorphism; Meta-analysis
20.  [No title available] 
Clinics  2015;70(7):533.
PMCID: PMC4496748  PMID: 26222825
22.  Mean platelet volume is associated with disease severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 
Clinics  2015;70(7):481-485.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and thromboembolic events. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a predictor of cardiovascular thromboembolic events. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between the MPV and disease severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
We prospectively included 194 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular disease (mean age 56.5±12.5 years) who were undergoing sleep tests. An overnight full laboratory polisomnography examination was conducted on each patient. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): (1) AHIlow group: 5≤AHI<15, (2) AHImid group: 1530.
The highest MPV values were found in the AHIhigh group compared with other groups (p<0.05 for all). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the MPV was associated with the AHI (β=0.500, p<0.001) and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (β=0.194, p=0.010).
The MPV is independently associated with both disease severity and inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4496750  PMID: 26222817
Obstructive sleep apnea; Apnea-hypopnea index; Mean platelet volume; High sensitivity C-reactive protein
23.  Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Clinics  2015;70(7):461-469.
Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. NCT01888705.
Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%).
We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
PMCID: PMC4496751  PMID: 26222814
Respiratory Impedance; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Airway Obstruction; Forced Oscillation Technique; Within-Breath Analysis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Diagnostics
24.  Pfannenstiel incision for intact specimen extraction in laparoscopic transperitoneal radical nephrectomy: a longitudinal prospective outcome study 
Clinics  2015;70(7):475-480.
To evaluate the intra- and postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with intact specimen extraction through a Pfannenstiel transverse suprapubic incision.
Prospective follow-up of 26 laparoscopic transperitoneal radical nephrectomies for suspected renal tumors in which the kidneys were extracted via a Pfannenstiel lower abdominal transverse incision.
The mean operating time was 152.3 (80–255) minutes, and the mean blood loss was 90 (20–300) ml. The mean extraction time was 20.4 (12–35) minutes. The mean weight of the removed specimen was 631.5 (190–1505) grams, and the mean longest diameter of the extracted specimen was 17.4 (9–25) cm. The mean extraction incision size was 10.7 (7–16) cm. No open surgical conversions were necessary. Pain control was excellent, with minimal intravenous morphine equivalent narcotic use by patients: 15.7 (0–31) mg in the recovery room, 33.8 (0–127) mg on the first postoperative day and 8.7 (0–60) mg in the first week after discharge. The patients experienced a short duration to full ambulation and normal dietary intake. Postoperative follow-up visits were recorded for at least six months. The patients reported a high cosmetic satisfaction rate of 97.7% (60–100). No late postoperative complications were observed related to the extraction site.
The operative specimen can be extracted via a low transverse Pfannenstiel incision during radical laparoscopic nephrectomy. This incision ensures the extraction of large specimens while preserving the aesthetic and functional advantages of laparoscopy without increasing the cancer risk. The absence of muscle cutting maintains the integrity of the abdominal wall and elicits minimal pain. No postoperative incisional hernias or keloid formations were observed.
PMCID: PMC4496752  PMID: 26222816
Pfannenstiel; Extraction site; Intact specimen; Laparoscopy, Nephrectomy
25.  Artificial disc and vertebra system: a novel motion preservation device for cervical spinal disease after vertebral corpectomy 
Clinics  2015;70(7):493-499.
To determine the range of motion and stability of the human cadaveric cervical spine after the implantation of a novel artificial disc and vertebra system by comparing an intact group and a fusion group.
Biomechanical tests were conducted on 18 human cadaveric cervical specimens. The range of motion and the stability index range of motion were measured to study the function and stability of the artificial disc and vertebra system of the intact group compared with the fusion group.
In all cases, the artificial disc and vertebra system maintained intervertebral motion and reestablished vertebral height at the operative level. After its implantation, there was no significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) of C3–7 in all directions in the non-fusion group compared with the intact group (p>0.05), but significant differences were detected in flexion, extension and axial rotation compared with the fusion group (p<0.05). The ROM of adjacent segments (C3−4, C6−7) of the non-fusion group decreased significantly in some directions compared with the fusion group (p<0.05). Significant differences in the C4-6 ROM in some directions were detected between the non-fusion group and the intact group. In the fusion group, the C4−6 ROM in all directions decreased significantly compared with the intact and non-fusion groups (p<0.01). The stability index ROM (SI-ROM) of some directions was negative in the non-fusion group, and a significant difference in SI-ROM was only found in the C4−6 segment of the non-fusion group compared with the fusion group.
An artificial disc and vertebra system could restore vertebral height and preserve the dynamic function of the surgical area and could theoretically reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration compared with the anterior fusion procedure. However, our results should be considered with caution because of the low power of the study. The use of a larger sample should be considered in future studies.
PMCID: PMC4496753  PMID: 26222819
Biomechanics; Cervical vertebral corpectomy and fusion; Adjacent segment disease; Artificial disc and vertebra system; Range of motion; Stability index range of motion

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