A retrospective comparative study.
To provide an ideal correction angle of lumbar lordosis (LL) in degenerative flat back deformity.
Overview of Literature
The degree of correction in degenerative flat back in relation to pelvic incidence (PI) remains controversial.
Forty-nine patients with flat back deformity who underwent corrective surgery were enrolled. Posterior-anterior-posterior sequential operation was performed. Mean age and mean follow-up period was 65.6 years and 24.2 months, respectively. We divided the patients into two groups based on immediate postoperative radiographs-optimal correction (OC) group (PI-9°≤LL
Patients in OC group had significantly less correction loss and maintained normal sagittal alignment (sagittal vertical axis<5 cm), as compared to patients in UC group (p<0.05). LL of low PI group significantly maintained within 9° better than high PI group (p<0.05). Oswestry disability index (ODI) significantly decreased at last follow-up, as compared to preoperative state. However, there was no significant difference in last follow-up ODI between the groups.
In flat back deformity, correction of LL to within 9° of PI will result in better sagittal balance. Thus, we recommend sufficient LL to prevent correction loss, especially in patients with high PI.
Flat back deformity; Lumbar lordosis; Pelvic incidence
To evaluate the radiological and clinical results of three different methods in the deformity correction of a degenerative flat back.
Overview of Literature
There are no comparative studies about different procedures in the treatment of degenerative flat back.
Sixty-four patients who consecutively underwent corrective surgery for degenerative flat back were reviewed. The operations were performed by three different methods: posterior-only (group P, n=20), one-stage anterior-posterior (group AP, n=12), and two-stage anterior-posterior with iliac screw fixation (group AP-I, n=32). Medical and surgical complications were examined and radiological and clinical results were compared.
The majority of medical and surgical complications were found in group AP (5/12) and group P (7/20). The sagittal vertical axes were within normal range immediately postoperatively in all groups, but only group AP-I showed normal sagittal alignment at the final follow-up. Postoperative lumbar lordosis was also significantly higher in group AP-I than in group P or group AP and the finding did not change through the last follow-up. The Oswestry disability index was significantly lower in groups AP and AP-I than in group P at the final follow-up. Meanwhile, the operating time was the longest in group AP-I, and total amount of blood loss was larger in group AP-I and group AP than in group P.
Anterior-posterior correction showed better clinical results than posterior-only correction. Two-staged anterior-posterior correction with iliac screw fixation showed better radiological results than posterior-only or one-staged anterior-posterior correction. Two-staged anterior-posterior correction with iliac screw fixation also showed a lower complication rate than one-staged anterior-posterior correction.
Lumbar vertebrae; Kyphosis; Surgical procedures; Treatment outcome
This is a prospective, randomized, controlled study designed and conducted over 10 years from 2002 to 2012.
The study aimed to monitor the effect of suction drains (SD) on the incidence of epidural fibrosis (EF) and to test, if the use of SD alone, SD with local steroids application, SD combined with fat grafts and local steroids application, or SD combined with fat grafts and without local steroids application, would improve outcome.
Overview of Literature
EF contributes to significant unsatisfactory failed-back syndrome. Efforts have been tried to reduce postoperative EF, but none were ideal.
Between September 2002 and 2012, 290 patients with symptomatic unilateral or bilateral, single-level lumbar disc herniation were included in the study. Two groups were included, with 165 patients in group I (intervention group) and 125 patients in group II (control group). Group I was subdivided into four subgroups: group Ia (SD alone), group Ib (SD+fat graft), group Ic (SD+local steroids), and group Id (SD+fat graft+local steroids).
The use of SD alone or combined with only fat grafts, fats grafts and local steroids application, or only local steroids application significantly improved patient outcome and significantly reduced EF as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
This study has clearly demonstrated the fact that the use of suction drainage alone or combined with only fat grafts, fats grafts and local steroids application, or only local steroids application significantly improved patient outcome with respect to pain relief and functional outcome and significantly reduced EF as measured by an MRI. A simple grading system of EF on MRI was described.
Epidural fibrosis; Suction drain; Lumbar; Failed back; Prevention
Descriptive cases series.
To evaluate clinical findings and results of conventional surgery in patients with spinal osteoid osteoma (OO).
Overview of Literature
OO is a rare benign tumor with spinal involvement rate of about 10%-20%.
This descriptive study was conducted on 19 patients (11 males and 8 females with an average age of 19.8 years) with documented histopathological and imaging findings of OO referred to a university hospital. Neurologic symptoms and pain were scored before and after the open surgical excision. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 16 software using chi-square and significance level of 0.05.
The most common complaint was back or neck pain (84.2%) and in 68.4% spinal deformity (mostly scoliosis) shown with an average cobb angle of 21° at presentation. The sites of involvement were 35% in the lumbar, 35% in the thoracic, 25% in the cervical, and 5% in the sacrum. Lamina was the most common site (50%) of involvement with predilection for the right side (p=0.001). All patients were treated by conventional surgical excision with a complete recovery of pain and deformity. No recurrence occurred after a mean follow up of 44.5 months, but 4 of 19 cases instrumented because of induced instability. In one case there were two levels of involvement (C7-T1) simultaneously. Interestingly, 10 out of 19 of our cases belonged to a specific race (Bakhtiari).
Surgical intra-lesional curettage is potentially an effective method without any recurrence, which can lead to spontaneous scoliosis recovery and pain relief. Race may be a potential risk factor for spinal (OO).
Osteoid osteoma; Bone tumor; Surgical outcoms; Spine
A retrospective chart review.
In endemic resource poor countries like Pakistan, most patients are diagnosed and treated for Potts disease on clinical and radiological grounds without a routine biopsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and effect of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy in the management of Potts disease since the technique is becoming increasingly available.
Overview of Literature
CT-guided biopsy of spinal lesions is routinely performed. Literature on the utility of the technique in endemic resource poor countries is little.
This study was conducted at the Neurosurgery section of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. All the patients with suspected Potts disease who underwent CT-guided biopsy during the 7 year period from 2007 to 2013 were included in this study. Details of the procedure, histopathology and microbiology were recorded.
One hundred and seventy-eight patients were treated for suspected Potts disease during the study period. CT-guided biopsies of the spinal lesions were performed in 91 patients (51.12%). Of the 91 procedures, 22 (24.2%) were inconclusive because of inadequate sample (10), normal tissue (6) or reactive tissue (6). Sixty-nine biopsies were positive (75.8%). Granulomatous inflammation was seen in 58 patients (84.05%), positive acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear in 4 (5.7%) and positive AFB culture in 12 patients (17.3%). All 91 cases in which CT-guided biopsy was performed responded positively to antituberculosis therapy (ATT).
75.8% of the specimens yielded positive diagnoses. Granulomatous inflammation on histopathology was the commonest diagnostic feature. In this series, the rates of positive AFB smear and culture were low compared to previous literature.
Potts disease; Computed tomography; Aspiration biopsy
To design a new tool for classifying lumbar spinal canal stenosis (CLSCS).
Overview of Literature
Grading of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is controversial.
The Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the neurogenic claudication outcome score (NCOS) were recorded. Four parameters, which indicate the severity of LSCS disease, including Hufschmidt-grade, grading of magnetic resonance imaging, self-paced walking test, and stenosis ratio (SR) were employed. For the SR, quartile analysis was applied for classifying LSCS and the Hufschmidt-grade was modified into a 4-grade score. An initial score was assigned to each metric based on the severity of LSCS. Using the inverse-variance weighting method, the relative weights of these domains and their categories were determined. The score for all of the cases was obtained based on their weight by summing up the points of the four variables. Quartile analysis was used and a CLSCS score was proposed. Finally, intra- and interobserver reliability, and validity were assessed.
A total of 357 patients were studied. The final CLSCS score for each case ranged from 4 to 16.5. Based on the quartile analysis, using the new criteria set, the CLSCS score was divided into four categories: CLSCS<7 (grade 0); 7≤CLSCS<10 (grade 1); 10≤CLSCS<13 (grade 2); and 13≤CLSCS≤16.5 (grade 3). The kappa values of for the CLSCS score indicated a perfect agreement. The CLSCS was correlated with the ODI and NCOS. All patients with grade 3 CLSCS were observed in the surgical group.
The CLSCS score can be helpful for classifying LSCS patients and in the decision-making process.
Lumbar spinal canal stenosis; New tool; Classification; Classifying lumbar spinal canal stenosis
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
To determine the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis, define the distribution of the curve magnitude, evaluate the accuracy of Moiré topography as a screening tool, and investigate the cost-effectiveness of our screening system.
Overview of Literature
Early detection of idiopathic scoliosis provides the opportunity for conservative treatment before the deformity is noticeable. We believe that scoliosis screening in schools is useful for detection; however, screening programs are controversial owing to over referral of students who do not require further testing or follow-up. In Japan, school scoliosis screening programs are mandated by law with individual policies determined by local educational committees. We selected Moiré topography as the scoliosis screening tool for schools in Nara City.
We selected Moiré topography as the scoliosis screening tool for schools in Nara City. We screened boys and girls aged 11-14 years and reviewed the school scoliosis screening results from 1990 to 2012.
A total of 195,149 children aged 11-14 years were screened. The prevalence of scoliosis (defined as ≥10° curvature) was 0.057%, 0.010%, and 0.059% in fifth, sixth, and seventh grade boys and 0.337%, 0.369%, and 0.727% in fifth, sixth, and seventh grade girls, respectively. The false-positive rate of our Moiré topography was 66.7%. The minimum cost incurred for scoliosis detection in one student was 2,000 USD.
The overall prevalence of scoliosis was low in the students of Nara City schools. Over 23 years, the prevalence of scoliosis in girls increased compared to that in the first decade of the study.
Scoliosis; Mass screening; Prevalence; Moiré topography; Costs and cost analysis
A cross-sectional, descriptive study.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between kyphosis and lordosis measured by using a flexible ruler and musculoskeletal pain in students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.
Overview of Literature
The spine supports the body during different activities by maintaining appropriate body alignment and posture. Normal alignment of the spine depends on its structural, muscular, bony, and articular performance.
Two hundred forty-one students participated in this study. A single examiner evaluated the angles of lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis by using a flexible ruler. To determine the severity and frequency of pain in low-back and inter-scapular regions, a tailor-made questionnaire with visual analog scale was used. Finally, using the Kendall correlation coefficient, the data were statistically analyzed.
The mean value of lumbar lordosis was 34.46°±12.61° in female students and 22.46°±9.9° in male students. The mean value of lumbar lordosis significantly differed between female and male students (p<0.001). However, there was no difference in the level of the thoracic curve (p=0.288). Relationship between kyphosis measured by using a flexible ruler and inter-scapular pain in male and female students was not significant (p=0.946). However, the relationship between lumbar lordosis and low back pain was statistically significant (p=0.006). Also, no significant relationship was observed between abnormal kyphosis and frequency of inter-scapular pain, and between lumbar lordosis and low back pain.
Lumbar lordosis contributes to low back pain. The causes of musculoskeletal pain could be muscle imbalance and muscle and ligament strain.
Kyphosis; Lordosis; Pain
A prospective, randomized, controlled study.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two techniques of skin preparation with povidone-iodine.
Overview of Literature
Preoperative skin preparation is important for preventing surgical site infection by reducing the bacteria in the surgical area. Povidone-iodine is a commonly used agent for preoperative skin preparation, and further decrease in surgical site infections can be expected by understanding how to apply it more effectively.
Eighty-nine spine surgery patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In group A, povidone-iodine was applied to the surgical site just before starting the operation; in group B, povidone-iodine was applied several minutes prior to starting the operation and was allowed to dry. We collected samples from the wound edge before suturing, and we compared the rates of positive culture between the two groups.
The rate of positive culture was 30.2% (13 out of 43 patients) in group A, and 6.5% (3 out of 46 patients) in group B. This indicates that there was a significant difference in postoperative infection rates between group A and group B.
Because bacteria on the skin appeared significantly reduced by allowing povidone-iodine to dry for several minutes prior to surgery, we recommend this approach to reduce the incidence of postoperative infections.
Surgical wound; Infection; Povidone-iodine
To evaluate the radiological outcome of the surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures by using short segment posterior instrumentation (SSPI) and fusion.
Overview of Literature
The optimal surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures remains a matter of debate. SSPI is one of a number of possible choices, yet some studies have revealed high rates of poor radiological outcome for this SSPI.
Patients treated using the short segment instrumentation and fusion technique at the Spinal Injuries Center (Iizuka, Fukuoka, Japan) from January 1, 2006 to July 31, 2012 were selected for this study. Radiographic parameters such as local sagittal angle, regional sagittal angle, disc angle, anterior or posterior height of the vertebral body at admission, postoperation and final observation were collected for radiological outcome evaluation.
There were 31 patients who met the inclusion criteria with a mean follow-up duration of 22.7 months (range, 12-48 months). The mean age of this group was 47.9 years (range, 15-77 years). The mean local sagittal angles at the time of admission, post-operation and final observation were 13.1°, 7.8° and 14.8°, respectively. There were 71% good cases and 29% poor cases based on our criteria for the radiological outcome evaluation. The correction loss has a strong correlation with the load sharing classification score (Spearman rho=0.64, p<0.001).
The loss of kyphotic correction following the surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture by short segment instrumentation is common and has a close correlation with the degree of comminution of the vertebral body. Patients with high load sharing scores are more susceptible to correction loss and postoperative kyphotic deformity than those with low scores.
Short segment instrumentation; Thoracolumbar burst fractures; Correction loss; Degree of comminution; Load sharing classification
A randomized, controlled animal study.
To investigate the effectiveness of fusion and new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix (DBM) strips with jelly strengths.
Overview of Literature
The form of the DBM can make a difference to the outcome. The effect of different jelly strengths on the ability of DBM to form new bone is not known.
Forty-eight rabbits were randomized into a control group and two experimental groups. In the control group (group 1), 1.4 g of autologous iliac crest bone was placed bilaterally. In the experimental groups, a high jelly strength DBM-hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin strip (group 2) and a low jelly strength DBM-HA-gelatin strip (group 3) were used. The fusion was assessed with manual manipulation and radiographs. The volume of the fusion mass was determined from computed tomographic images.
The fusion rates as determined by manual palpation were 37.5%, 93.8% and 50.0% in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p<0.05). By radiography, the fusion rate of High jelly strength DBM strip was statistically significantly greater than that of the other alternatives (p<0.05). The mean bone volume of the fusion mass as determined by computed tomography was 2,142.2±318.5 mm3, 3,132.9±632.1 mm3, and 2,741.5±380.4 mm3 in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p<0.05).
These results indicate that differences in the structural and mechanical properties of gelatin that are associated with jelly strength influenced cellular responses such as cell viability and bony tissue ingrowth, facilitating greater bone fusion around high jelly strength implants.
Demineralized bone matrix; Spinal fusion
To evaluate clinical and radiological results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) performed with cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screw insertion with those of TLIF using 'conventional' or percutaneous pedicle screw insertion.
Overview of Literature
CBT is a new trajectory for pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine; clinical and radiological results of TLIF using pedicle screws inserted with CBT are unclear.
In total, 26 patients (11 males, 15 females) were enrolled in this retrospective study and divided into three groups: TLIF with pedicle screw insertion by conventional minimally invasive methods via the Wiltse approach (M-TLIF, n=10), TLIF with percutaneous pedicle screw insertion (P-TLIF, n=6), and TLIF with pedicle screw insertion with CBT (CBT-TLIF, n=10). Surgical results and preand postoperative radiological findings were evaluated and compared.
Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less with CBT-TLIF (p=0.03) than with M-TLIF. Postoperative lordotic angles did not differ significantly among the three groups. Complete fusions were obtained in 10 of 12 levels (83%) with M-TLIF, in seven levels (100%) with P-TLIF, and in 10 of 11 levels (91%) with CBT-TLIF. On postoperative computed tomography, correct positioning was seen in 84.1% of M-TLIF screws, 88.5% of P-TLIF screws, and 90% of CBT-TLIF screws.
CBT-TLIF resulted in less blood loss and a shorter operative duration than M-TLIF or P-TLIF. Postoperative rates of bone union, maintenance of lordotic angles, and accuracy of pedicle screw positions were similar among the three groups.
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; Cortical bone trajectory; Conventional trajectory; Percutaneous insertion; Computed tomography
Herein, we report on an inferior migration of an intervertebral disc C6-7 to the cervicothoracic junction manifesting as acute paraplegia. The patient showed a remarkable recovery after the surgery. The diagnostic dilemma and management difficulties of such an entity are briefly discussed.
Cervical disc prolapse; Disc herniation; Cervico thoracic junction; Disc migration
Hemophilia A is a hereditary coagulation disorder. Most cases are diagnosed at birth or at least during childhood. A spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma was developed in a 74-year-old male patient who hadn't had a family or past medical history of bleeding disorders. On magnetic resonance imaging, epidural hematoma at L1-2 was accompanied by spinal stenosis at L4-5 and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at L5. Hematoma evacuation and surgery for distal lumbar lesions were performed at once. After transient improvement, complete paraplegia was developed due to redevelopment of large epidural hematomas at L1-2 and L4-S1 which blocked epidural canal completely. Emergency evacuation was performed and we got to know that he had a hemophilia A. Factor VIII was 28% of normal value. Mild type hemophilia A could have not been diagnosed until adulthood. Factor VIII should have been replaced before the surgical decompression.
Hemophilia A; Hematoma; Epidural; Spinal; Spontaneous; Senior
To date, no reports have presented radiculopathy secondary to heterotopic ossification following lumbar total disc arthroplasty. The authors present a previously unpublished complication of lumbar total disk arthroplasty (TDA) secondary to heterotopic ossification (HO) in the spinal canal, and they propose a modification to the McAfee classification of HO. The patient had undergone an L5/S1 lumbar TDA two years prior due to discogenic back pain. His preoperative back pain was significantly relieved, but he developed new, atraumatic onset radiculopathy. Radiographs and a computed tomography myelogram revealed an implant malposition posteriorly with heterotopic bone formation in the canal, causing an impingement of the traversing nerve root. Revision surgery was performed with implant extraction, L5/S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion, supplemental posterior decompression, and pedicle screw fixation. The patient tolerated the procedure well, with complete resolution of the radicular leg pain. At a two-year follow up, the patient had a solid fusion without subsidence or recurrence of heterotopic bone. This case represents a novel pattern of heterotopic ossification, and it describes a previously unreported cause for implant failure in lumbar disc replacement surgery-reinforcing the importance of proper intraoperative component positioning. We propose a modification to the existing McAfee classification of HO after TDA with the addition of Class V and VI HO.
Heterotopic ossification; Total disc arthroplasty; Radiculopathy
The breakage of an epidural catheter is an extremely rare complication. We describe a unique case where a retained epidural catheter fragment after epidural anesthesia was treated by surgery. The epidural catheter broke during its removal, requiring surgery to remove the retained catheter. Intraoperatively, the removal of the catheter was attempted by simple traction, but was impossible because of the adhesion. The adhesion of the dura mater surface was carefully exfoliated and the successful removal of the catheter was accomplished. Conventionally, it was said that this follow-up was enough for the retained catheter. However, if a catheter is retained within the spinal canal, surgical removal should thus be considered before the adhesion advances.
Epidural; Catheter; Complication; Surgery
Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is rarely seen in clinic because it is characteristically immediately fatal. With recent progress in the pre-hospital care, an increasing number of AOD survivors have been reported. However, because the pathophysiology of AOD is not clearly understood yet, the appropriate strategy for the initial management remains still unclear. We report a case of successful AOD treatment and describe important points in the management of this condition. It is important to note that abducens nerve palsy is a warning sign of AOD and that AOD can result in a life-threatening distortion of the arteries and the brain stem. We recommend the application of a halo vest to protect the patient's neural and vascular competence as the immediate initial step in the treatment of AOD. Horn's grading system is useful in assessing indications for surgery. Finally, when performing posterior fixation, C2 should be included because of the anatomy of the ligamentous architecture.
Atlanto-occipital joint; External fixators; Internal fixators
Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates.
Spine; Cervical vertebra; Intervertebral disc; Arthroplasty; Complications; Reoperations; Options
Despite their benign nature some symptomatic aggressive vertebral haemangiomas (AVH) require surgery to decompress spinal cord and/or stabilise pathological fractures. Preoperative embolisation may reduce the considerable blood loss during surgical decompression. This systematic review investigated whether preoperative embolisation reduced surgical blood loss during treatment of symptomatic AVH. PubMed Medline, Web of Science, and Ovid Medline were searched for case reports and clinical studies on surgical AVH treatment. Included were cases from all publications on surgical treatment of AVH where the amount of surgical blood loss and the use of preoperative embolisation were documented. 51 cases with surgically treated AVH were retrieved from the included studies. Blood loss in the embolised treatment group (980±683 mL) was lower than the non-embolised control group (1,629±946 mL). This systematic review found that embolisation prior to AVH resection reduced surgical blood loss (level of evidence, very low) and can be recommended (strong recommendation).
Spinal cord compression; Hemangioma; Therapeutic embolisation; Surgical blood loss