Although ionizing radiation is known to induce cellular senescence in vitro and in vivo, its long-term in vivo effects are not well defined. In this study, we examined the prolonged expression of senescence markers in mice irradiated with single or fractionated doses. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to 5 Gy of γ-rays in single or 5, 10, 25 fractions. At 2, 4, and 6 months after irradiation, senescence markers including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) common deletion, p21, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) were monitored in the lung, liver, and kidney. Increases of mtDNA deletion were detected in the lung, liver, and kidney of irradiated groups. p21 expression and SA β-gal staining were also increased in the irradiated groups compared to the non-irradiated control group. Increases of senescence markers persisted up to 6 months after irradiation. Additionally, the extent of mtDNA deletion and the numbers of SA β-gal positive cells were greater as the number of radiation fractions increased. In conclusion, our results showed that ionizing radiation, especially that delivered in fractions, can cause the persistent upregulation of senescence marker expression in vivo. This should be considered when dealing with chronic normal tissue injuries caused by radiation therapy or radiation accidents.
mitochondrial DNA deletion; p21; radiation; senescence; senescence-associated β-galactosidase
Components of silk including silk fibroin have long been used as anti-diabetic remedies in oriental medicine. However, detailed mechanisms underlying these anti-diabetic effects remain unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-diabetic activity of silk fibroin hydrolysate (SFH) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice, a well-known animal model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. When the db/db mice were administered SFH in drinking water for 6 weeks, hyperglycemia in the animals gradually disappeared and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin decreased, indicating that SFH plays important role in reducing the symptoms of diabetes. In addition, SFH-treated db/db mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance with increased plasma insulin levels. Immunohistochemical and morphological analyses showed that SFH up-regulated insulin production by increasing pancreatic β cell mass in the mice. In summary, our results suggest that SFH exerts anti-diabetic effects by increasing pancreatic β cell mass in a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus mouse model.
β cell mass; db/db mouse; diabetes; HbA1c; silk fibroin
T-cell receptor γ alternate reading frame protein (TARP) is expressed by human prostate epithelial, prostate cancer, and mammary cancer cells, but is not found in normal mammary tissue. To date, this protein has only been described in humans. Additionally, no animal model has been established to investigate the potential merits of TARP as tumor marker or a target for adoptive tumor immunotherapy. In this study conducted to characterize feline T-cell receptor γ sequences, constructs very similar to human TARP transcripts were obtained by RACE from the spleen and prostate gland of cats. Transcription of TARP in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic feline mammary tissues was evaluated by conventional RT-PCR. In felines similarly to the situation reported in humans, a C-region encoding two open reading frames is spliced to a J-region gene. In contrast to humans, the feline J-region gene was found to be a pseudogene containing a deletion within its recombination signal sequence. Our findings demonstrated that the feline TARP ortholog is transcribed in the prostate gland and mammary tumors but not normal mammary tissues as is the case with human TARP.
cat; C-region; J-region; T-cell receptor γ alternate reading frame protein (TARP); tumor marker
The distribution of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) antigens was examined by immunohistochemistry in the nervous and non-nervous organs of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during the course of an intramuscular infection. Histological changes resulting from the infection were evaluated from 3 days to 2 months post-infection. The specific antibody response was also studied 2 months post-challenge. Viral proteins were present throughout the experimental period in the retina (inner nuclear layer, ganglion layer, outer limiting membrane, and outer plexiform layer), brain (cerebellum and tectum opticum), and liver (hepatocytes and endothelial cells). These proteins were also observed in the renal tubular cells, white pulp of spleen, and in fibroblasts and cartilage of caudal fin. This is the first report of RGNNV proteins appearing in these organs, where the immunostaining was only detected at certain sampling times after the onset of mortality. Brain and retina of virus-exposed fish showed high levels of vacuolation, while accumulation of fat vacuoles was observed in the liver. RGNNV infection also induced a specific antibody response as measured by an ELISA. In summary, this is the first study demonstrating the presence of viral proteins in cells of caudal fin, kidney and spleen of European seabass.
ELISA; European seabass; histopathology; immunohistochemistry; RGNNV
In this study, we developed a novel tool for purifying two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN), in feed. This system utilized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against AFB1 and ZEN, and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Among ten MNPs with different diameters and functional groups, a 100-nm diameter MNP (fMA) conjugated to an amine group (-NH2) was found to be optimum for coupling with mAbs. The optimal mAb concentrations for coupling to the fMA along with mycotoxin purification capacities of the fMA-mAb conjugates (fMA-AFB1 and fMA-ZEN) were determined. A comparison of mean recovery rates (from corn and product X feed) between the fMA-mAb conjugates and immunoaffinity columns (IAC-AFB1 and IAC-ZEN) showed that the rate for fMA-AFB1 (90~92% and 81~88%) was higher (p > 0.05) than that of IAC-AFB1 (81~84% and 72~78%) for AFB1 (5, 10, 15 ng/mL), and the rate for fMA-ZEN (99~100% and 92~94%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of IAC-ZEN (86~88% and 81~88%) for ZEN (10, 25, 50 ng/mL) except at a concentration of 10 ng/mL, demonstrating the remarkable purification efficiency of the novel fMA-mAb method. Additionally, mycotoxin purification was much faster using our novel method (approx. 5 min) than the IAC-based technique (> 30 min). This study suggests that the novel purification system we developed would be a useful tool for monitoring and regulating mycotoxin contamination in feed, and replace IAC methods.
aflatoxin B1; immunoaffinity column; mAb; magnetic nanoparticle; zearalenone
Campylobacter (C.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. This species is currently divided into C. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital Campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. Cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. Here we describe a multiplex PCR method to detect C. fetus and differentiate between subspecies in a single step. The assay was standardized using cultured strains and successfully used to analyze the abomasal liquid of aborted bovine fetuses without any pre-enrichment step. Results of our assay were completely consistent with those of traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR technique we developed may be easily adopted by any molecular diagnostic laboratory as a complementary tool for detecting C. fetus subspecies and obtaining epidemiological information about abortion events in cattle.
bovine aborted fetuses; Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis; multiplex PCR
No information is currently available on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea. In this study, the status of PRRS in wild boars was investigated. Blood samples were collected from 267 wild boars from eight provinces in Korea. Four of the samples tested (1.5%) were positive for PRRSV antibodies and eight (3.0%) were positive for antigens. Of the virus-positive samples, three and five samples were typed as containing European (EU, type 1) or North American (NA, type 2) viruses, respectively. Two amplicons (one from type 1 and one from type 2) were used to analyze the PRRSV open reading frame 7 (ORF7) sequence. The nucleotide sequences of type 1 PRRSV ORF7 had identities between 96.1% and 98.4% with PRRSVs from domestic pigs in Korea. The sequences of type 2 PRRSV ORF7 had identities of 100% with the PRRSV strain VR-2332, which was prototypic North American strain. These results show that PRRSVs are present in wild boars in Korea, and effective PRRSV surveillance of the wild boar population might therefore be useful for disease control.
ELISA; Korea; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; RT-PCR; wild boar (Sus scrofa)
Bacillus (B.) anthracis is the pathogen that causes fatal anthrax. Strain-specific detection of this bacterium using molecular approaches has enhanced our knowledge of microbial population genetics. In the present study, we employed molecular approaches including multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) analysis to perform molecular typing of B. anthracis strains isolated in Korea. According to the MLVA, 17 B. anthracis isolates were classified into A3a, A3b, and B1 clusters. The canSNP analyses subdivided the B. anthracis isolates into two of the three previously recognized major lineages (A and B). B. anthracis isolates from Korea were found to belong to four canSNP sub-groups (B.Br.001/2, A.Br.005/006, A.Br.001/002, and A.Br.Ames). The A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames sub-lineages are closely related genotypes frequently found in central Asia and most isolates were. On the other hand, B. anthracis CH isolates were analyzed that belonged to the B.Br.001/002 sub-group which found in southern Africa, Europe and California (USA). B.Br.001/002 genotype is new lineage of B. anthracis in Korea that was not found before. This discovery will be helpful for the creation of marker systems and might be the result of human activity through the development of agriculture and increased international trade in Korea.
Bacillus anthracis; canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP); genotyping; multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)
Quail has been proposed to be an intermediate host of influenza A viruses. However, information on the susceptibility and pathogenicity of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) and swine influenza viruses in quails is limited. In this study, the pathogenicity, virus shedding, and transmission characteristics of pH1N1, swine H1N1 (swH1N1), and avian H3N2 (dkH3N2) influenza viruses in quails was examined. Three groups of 15 quails were inoculated with each virus and evaluated for clinical signs, virus shedding and transmission, pathological changes, and serological responses. None of the 75 inoculated (n = 45), contact exposed (n = 15), or negative control (n = 15) quails developed any clinical signs. In contrast to the low virus shedding titers observed from the swH1N1-inoculated quails, birds inoculated with dkH3N2 and pH1N1 shed relatively high titers of virus predominantly from the respiratory tract until 5 and 7 DPI, respectively, that were rarely transmitted to the contact quails. Gross and histopathological lesions were observed in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of quail inoculated with either pH1N1 or dkH3N2, indicating that these viruses were more pathogenic than swH1N1. Sero-conversions were detected 7 DPI in two out of five pH1N1-inoculated quails, three out of five quails inoculated with swH1N1, and four out of five swH1N1-infected contact birds. Taken together, this study demonstrated that quails were more susceptible to infection with pH1N1 and dkH3N2 than swH1N1.
avian H3N2 virus; infection; pandemic H1N1 2009 virus; quail; swine H1N1 virus
Two Bangladeshi infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates collected in 2007, termed GB1 and GB3, were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Sequence analysis of a 474-bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that among four major amino acid substitutions observed in the strains, two were unique to GB1 and GB3 (Ser217Leu and Ala270Thr) while one substitution was only found in GB1 (Asn299Ser). Among IBDVs from Bangladesh including GB1 and GB3, the rate of identity and homology was around 97~99%. The amino acid sequences of GB1 and GB3 differ from those of previous Bangladeshi IBDV isolates and contain amino acid substitutions Pro222Ala and Asn299Ser (in GB3 only). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GB1 and GB3 are grouped with other very virulent IBDVs of European and American origin in contrast to two previously isolated Bangladeshi IBDV strains (GenBank accession Nos. AF362776 and AF260317), which belong to the Asian group. It was concluded that GB1 and GB3 belong to a very virulent group of IBDVs. However, amino acid sequences of GB1 and GB3 differ from those of the other Bangladeshi IBDVs by one or two amino acids encoded in the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene.
chickens; infectious bursal disease virus; molecular characterization
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are believed to have potential use for treating many illnesses. Most cells, including ASCs, are generally cultured in medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, FBS, which could induce an immune response or infection, is not recommended for clinical applications. In the present study, we evaluated the morphology, proliferation rate, and characterization of rabbit ASCs grown in medium containing autologous serum (AS) and compared these cells to ones cultured with FBS. Morphological changes were monitored by microscopy and flow cytometry. Proliferation rates were assessed with cell counting and ASC phenotypes were characterized by flow cytometry using representative surface markers (CD44 and CD45). Expression of epidermal growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results of our study showed that ASCs had a greater expansion rate in AS without developing morphological heterogeneity than cells grown in FBS. AS-cultured ASCs expressed representative growth factors, CD44 but not CD45, similar to cells cultured in FBS. Expression levels of some growth factors were different between AS and FBS. In conclusion, our findings indicated that AS could potentially be used as a culture medium supplement for the expansion of autologous ASCs.
adipose-derived stem cells; autologous; bystander effect; rabbit
The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images.
computed tomography; dog; otitis media; virtual otoscopy
We detected Torque teno sus virus
1 and 2 (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2) in tissue samples from 18 stillborn piglets using nested polymerase chain reaction. The detection rates of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were 78% and 50%, respectively, with 83% of the stillborn piglets positive for TTSuV1 or TTSuV2. TTSuV1 was detected highest in the liver (72%) followed by heart (56%), spleen (38%) and tonsils (38%) while TTSuV2 was detected highest in the tonsils (38%) followed by liver (33%), spleen (25%), and heart (17%). These results indicate that TTSuVs are commonly present but not equally distributed among the tissues of stillborn piglets.
natural farrowing; sow; stillborn piglet; tissue; TTSuV
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrPres) are indispensable for diagnosing chronic wasting disease (CWD). In this study, eight mAbs were developed by immunizing PrP knockout mice with recombinant elk PrP and an immunogenic PrP peptide. The reactivity of the mAbs to recombinant PrP and the PrP peptide was measured, and their isotypes were subsequently determined. Among them, four mAbs (B85-05, B85-08, B85-12, and B77-75) were shown by Western blotting to recognize proteinase K-treated brain homogenate derived from an elk suffering from CWD.
CWD; elk; monoclonal antibody; prion; PrPres
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between plasma free amino acid (PFAA) levels and the clinical stages of mammary gland tumors (MGT) in dogs. PFAA levels in canines with malignant mammary tumors were decreased compared to those of healthy animals. The levels of aspartate and ornithine, in the dogs with tumor metastasis were significantly decreased when compared to those of dogs that did not have metastases. Results of this study indicate that PFAA levels could be a risk factor or biomarker for canine MGT metastasis.
dog; mammary gland tumor; plasma free amino acid
Here, we describe two cases of left displaced abomasum (LDA) in Holstein cattle at 6 and 9 months of twin gestation. Clinical examination revealed signs of proximal ileus with marked abdominal distension, but no ping sounds. An unusually high position of the gravid uterine horn on the left side was observed with ultrasound. Left exploratory laparotomy confirmed that the abomasum was displaced to the left and entrapped between the rumen and twin gravid uterine horn. A left surgical approach was necessary to correct the condition. Both animals recovered and gave birth to healthy twins. The present cases indicate that the subomental position of a heavy twin gravid uterine horn is a possible mechanical cause of LDA.
cattle; gestation; left displaced abomasum; twin pregnancy
Reports of influenza A virus infections in dogs has received considerable attention from veterinarians, virologists, and epidemiologists. Interaction between influenza viral hemagglutinin and cell oligosaccharides containing sialic acid residues results in infection. Sialic acids have an α-2,3-linkage to the penultimate galactose in the avian influenza virus receptor and an α-2,6-linkage in the human receptor. To date, there are no detailed data on the tissue distribution or histological features of either type of sialic acid-linked influenza virus receptors in beagle dogs, which are common laboratory animals and pets. We conducted the current study to visualize the in situ tissue distribution of both sialic acid-linked influenza virus receptors in various organs of beagle dogs using Maackia amurensis lectin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin. Both α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acid-linked receptors were detected in the endothelial cells of the respiratory tract and other organs. Endothelial cells of most gastrointestinal organs were negative for α-2,3-sialic acid-linked receptors in the dogs. Our results suggested that these canine organs may be affected by influenza virus infection. The findings from our study will also help evaluate the occurrence and development of influenza virus infections in dogs.
dogs; influenza virus receptors; lectin; sialic acid
The temporal expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β mRNA was examined in male Japanese quails. Femurs of quails receiving 17β-estradiol underwent RTPCR and histochemical analysis 1 to 15 days after treatment. Untreated quails were used as controls (day 0). Between days 0 and 5, cells lining the bone endosteal surface differentiated into osteoblasts, which in turn formed medullary bone. Expression of ER-α was already observed on day 0 and increased slightly during bone formation whereas ER-β was hardly detected throughout this process. After osteoclasts appeared on the medullary bone surface, this type of bone disappeared from the bone marrow cavity (days 7~15). ER-α expression simultaneously decreased slightly and ER-β levels remained very low. These results suggest that estrogen activity mediated by ER-α not only affects medullary bone formation but also bone resorption.
estrogen receptor α; estrogen receptor β; medullary bone; osteoblasts; osteoclasts
The current study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of SHU9119 [a nonselective melanocortin receptor (McR) antagonist] and MCL0020 (a selective McR antagonist) on the serotonin-induced eating and drinking responses of broiler cockerels deprived of food for 24 h (FD24). For Experiment 1, the chickens were intracerebroventricularly injected with 2.5, 5, and 10 µg serotonin. In Experiment 2, the chickens received 2 nmol SHU9119 before being injected with 10 µg serotonin. For Experiment 3, the chickens were given 10 µg serotonin after receiving 2 nmol MCL0020, and the level of food and water intake was determined 3 h post-injection. Results of this study showed that serotonin decreased food intake but increased water intake among the FD24 broiler cockerels and that these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of serotonin on food intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SHU9119 and MCL0020. However, the stimulatory effect of serotonin on water intake was not altered by this pretreatment. These results suggest that serotonin hypophagia and hyperdipsia were mediated by different mechanisms in the central nervous system, and that serotonin required downstream activation of McRs to promote hypophagia but not hyperdipsia in the FD24 chickens.
chicken; food and water intake; MCL0020; serotonin; SHU9119
Akt/protein kinase B is a well-known cell survival factor and activated by many stimuli including mechanical stretching. Therefore, we evaluated the cardioprotective effect of a brief mechanical stretching of rat hearts and determined whether activation of Akt through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is involved in stretch-induced cardioprotection (SIC). Stretch preconditioning reduced infarct size and improved post-ischemic cardiac function compared to the control group. Phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrate, GSK-3β, was increased by mechanical stretching and completely blocked by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor. Treatment with lithium or SB216763 (GSK-3β inhibitors) before ischemia induction mimicked the protective effects of SIC on rat heart. Gadolinium (Gd3+), a blocker of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs), inhibited the stretch-induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. Furthermore, SIC was abrogated by wortmannin and Gd3+. In vivo stretching induced by an aorto-caval shunt increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced myocardial infarction; these effects were diminished by wortmannin and Gd3+ pretreatment. Our results showed that mechanical stretching can provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Additionally, the activation of Akt, which might be regulated by SACs and the PI3K pathway, plays an important role in SIC.
Akt/protein kinase B; cardioprotection; ischemia-reperfusion injury; mechanical stretching
The incidence of diabetes mellitus is increasing among companion animals. This disease has similar characteristics in both humans and animals. Diabetes is frequently identified as an independent risk factor for infections associated with increased mortality. In the present study, homozygous diabetic (db/db) mice were infected with Listeria (L.) monocytogenes and then treated with the anti-diabetic drug exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue. In aged db/db mice, decreased CD11b+ macrophage populations with higher lipid content and lower phagocytic activity were observed. Exendin-4 lowered high lipid levels and enhanced phagocytosis in macrophages from db/db mice infected with L. monocytogenes. Exendin-4 also ameliorated obesity and hyperglycemia, and improved ex vivo bacteria clearance by macrophages in the animals. Liver histology examined during L. monocytogenes infection indicated that abscess formation was much milder in exendin-4-treated db/db mice than in the control animals. Moreover, mechanistic studies demonstrated that expression of ATP binding cassette transporter 1, a sterol transporter, was higher in macrophages isolated from the exendin-4-treated db/db mice. Overall, our results suggest that exendin-4 decreases the risk of infection in diabetic animals by modifying the interaction between intracellular lipids and phagocytic macrophages.
diabetes mellitus; exendin-4; Listeria monocytogenes; macrophage; mice
The aim of this study was to assess changes of Hsp70 and HSF-1 protein and mRNA expression in stress-sensitive organs of pigs during transportation for various periods of time. Twenty pigs were randomly divided into four groups (0 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h of transportation). A significant increased activity of AST and CK was observed after 1 h and 2 h of transportation. Histopathological changes in the heart, liver, and stomach indicated that these organs sustained different degrees of injury. Hsp70 protein expression in the heart and liver of transported pigs did not change significantly while it increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the stomach. Hsp70 mRNA levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the heart after 4 h of transportation. However, mRNA expression increased significantly in the liver after 1 (p < 0.05) and 4 h (p < 0.01) of transportation, and increased significantly in the stomach of the transported pigs after 1, 4 (p < 0.01), and 2 h (p < 0.05). HSF-1 levels were reduced at 1 and 4 h (p < 0.05) only in the hearts of transported pigs. These results indicate that Hsp70 mediates distinct stress-related functions in different tissues during transportation.
heat shock factor-1; heat shock protein 70; pig transport; stress-sensitive organs; transport time
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection.
calves; Lactobacillus; lactose; probiotic; Salmonella Dublin challenge
The present study describes the genotypic distribution of rotaviruses (RVs) in an Indian bovine population with unexpectedly higher proportions of G3 alone or in combination of G8/G10. PCR-genotyping confirmed that 39.4% (13/33) of the prevalent RVs were the G3 type while 60.6% (20/33) were dual G3G10 or G3G8 types. P typing revealed that 93.9% (31/33) of the samples were P while 6.1% (2/33) possessed a dual PP type. Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene from G3 strains viz. B-46, 0970, and BR-133 showed that these strains had sequence identities of 90.5% to 100% with other bovine G3 strains. The highest identity (98.9% to 100%) was observed with RUBV3 bovine G3 strains from eastern India. The G3 strains (B-46, 0970, and BR-133) showed 97.5% to 98.8% sequence homologies with the Indian equine RV strain Erv-80. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that G3 strains clustered with bovine RUBV3 and J-63, and equine Erv-80 G3. Overall, these results confirmed that the incidence of infection by RVs with the G3 genotype and mixed genotypes in the bovine population was higher than previously predicted. This finding reinforces the importance of constantly monitoring circulating viral strains with the G3 genotype in future surveillance studies.
bovine group A rotavirus; distribution; G and P type; India; PCR genotyping
This study measured the clinical prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) among sheep and goats in India between 2003 and 2009 by analyzing clinical samples from suspected cases of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory, Division of Virology, IVRI, Mukteswar for PPR diagnosis. PPR outbreaks were confirmed by detecting PPR virus (PPRV)-specific antigen in the clinical samples. Clinical samples (blood, nasal swabs, spleen, lymph node, kidney, liver, intestine, and pooled tissue materials) were taken from a total of 592 sheep and 912 goats in different states of India and screened for the presence of PPRV antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA kit. A total of 20, 38, and 11 laboratory-confirmed PPR outbreaks occurred among sheep, goat, and combined sheep and goat populations, respectively. Our findings provide evidence of widespread PPR endemicity in India. The underlying reasons could be variations in husbandry practices in different geographical regions, agro-climatic conditions, and livestock migration. Furthermore, decrease in the number of PPR outbreaks over time might be due to the effectiveness of current live PPR vaccines and timely vaccination of target species. Vaccination against PPR has been practiced in India since 2002 to control this disease.
clinical prevalence; goats; India; PPR; sheep