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1.  Survival of post-treatment canine-to-canine lingual retainers with fiber-reinforced composite resin: a retrospective study 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(3):81-86.
Summary
The aim of the study is to evaluate the long term results of ribbond retainer after orthodontic treatment. One hundred and thirty patients who were orthodontically treated satisfied the inclusion criteria of having received a semipermanent retention were treated with FRC lingual retainers (Ribbond ®). It was performed a follow up evaluation after 2 years average from the retainer application and any complication or failure was recorded.
Data from 119 remaining patients that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and no instances of loosening were observed. It may be concluded that orthodontic canine-to-canine FRC retainers provide aneffective means of retaining realigned anterior teeth for at least two years.
PMCID: PMC4252858  PMID: 25506411
retention; ribbond; orthodontic treatment; FRC; movement of relapsing
2.  Histological evaluation of a biomimetic material in bone regeneration after one year from graft 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(3):103-107.
Summary
Aim
The use of substitute materials is one of the solutions used in periodontology for the reconstruction of intrabony defects. Advances in scientific research gave rise to a new generation of biomaterials of synthetic origin stoichiometrically unstable and therefore really absorbable.
Our research is directed precisely towards a biomaterial synthesis, Engipore® (Finceramica, Faenza, Italy) which is a bone substitute of the latest hydroxyapatite-based generation, that possesses chemical and morphological properties similar to those of natural bone in the treatment of infrabony periodontal defects. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Engipore® in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects.
Methods
The study was conducted on 100 parodontopatics patients, which had gingival pockets of at least infrabonies 8/10 mm. The histological evaluation was performed with samples after one year from the graft.
Results
The histological samples collected after one year showed an abundant new bone formation, with mature lamellar bone tissue surrounding the residual particles of Engipore® that appear completely osteointegrated. The surrounding connective tissue shows no signs of inflammation.
Conclusions
The results obtained in our research demonstrated that, after a proper selection of patients and lesions, and applying an adequate surgical technique, this type of biomaterial in the treatment of periodontal defects acts in an optimal manner as a filler inducing the formation of new bone as evidenced by histological examinations.
PMCID: PMC4252859  PMID: 25506415
biomimetic material; bone regeneration; periosteum; intrabony defects
3.  A multimedia oral health promoting project in primary schools in central Italy 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(3):87-90.
Summary
Aim
The purpose of the study Project was to test the effectiveness of a multimedia game designed in order to attract the attention of primary school children to oral health basic concepts and use the instrument to assess students’ knowledge.
Materials and methods
An originally designed multimedia game on oral health was administered in the computer class rooms, before (T0) and after (T1) an educational stage, to third (8–9 years) and fifth graders (10–11 years) of primary schools in urban and rural areas of two provinces of medium-small cities in Center Italy (Terni and Latina). Considered variables were: age, gender, school time schedule (only antemeridian, extended schedule). The statistical test used was the non-parametric Wilcox on signed-rank test.
Results
Response rate was 90.6% (due to absence on the due date). 1,300 students were involved. Overall, the average of the correct answers was 40.7% before oral health lessons and 59.2% after. An improving trend of correct answers was recorded from T0 to T1, significantly (p < 0.05) among: fifth graders (+ 17.5%), extended school time schedulers (+18.1%) and females (+18.9%). The results, however, show poor global oral health knowledge, being total percentage of correct answers below 60%.
Conclusions
The results stress the importance of the school environment as access to health promotion for all socio-economic classes. The multimedia educational approach has proved a valuable and updated tool to attract the attention of digital native children.
PMCID: PMC4252857  PMID: 25506412
oral health; health promoting school; primary school
4.  Root canal obturation: experimental study on the thermafil system related to different irrigation protocols 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(3):91-97.
Summary
Aim
The aim of this study was to stress the ability of a specific obturation technique (thermafil technique) to seal root canal system in presence or absence of smear layer.
Methodology
Sixteen monoradicular teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected for this study. All specimens were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files, and then divided into two groups: for each group was applied a different kind of irrigation method, verifying the effectiveness in removing the smear layer, thus rendering the dentinal tubules more permeable for penetration of softened gutta-percha. Thermafil system was used to fill the root canals, and then all the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Results
The results showed that the Group which followed irrigation only with sodium hypochlorite exhibited significantly less gutta-percha tags when compared to the second Group, which was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA.
Conclusion
The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated.
PMCID: PMC4252860  PMID: 25506413
smear layer; sodium hypochlorite; EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid); thermafil; gutta-percha tags; dentinal tubules
5.  Atomic force microscopy study of enamel remineralization 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(3):98-102.
Summary
Aim
The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of two products: a CPP-ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse, GC Corp.) and a desensitizing toothpaste (Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, Colgate-Palmolive) on preventing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca Cola) by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).
Methods
Thirty enamel specimens were assigned to 6 groups of 5 specimens each. 1: intact enamel, 2: enamel + soft drink, 3: intact enamel + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 4: enamel + soft drink + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 5: intact enamel + GC Tooth Mousse, 6: enamel + soft drink + GC Tooth Mousse. The surface of each specimen was imaged by AFM. The root mean-square roughness (Rrms) was obtained from the AFM images and the differences in the averaged values among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA test.
Results
Comparing groups 4 and 6 (soft drink + toothpastes) with group 2 (eroded enamel) a statistical difference (P<0.05) was registered, suggesting effectiveness in protecting enamel against erosion of the products investigated.
Conclusions
The use of new formulation toothpastes can prevent enamel demineralization.
PMCID: PMC4252861  PMID: 25506414
AFM; enamel; remineralization; SEM; soft drinks; surface roughness
6.  Nano-hydroxyapatite and its applications in preventive, restorative and regenerative dentistry: a review of literature 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(3):108-114.
Summary
This study aims to critically summarize the literature about nano-hydroxyapatite. The purpose of this work is to analyze the benefits of using nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, especially for its preventive, restorative and regenerative applications. We also provide an overview of new dental materials, still experimental, which contain the nano-hydroxyapatite in its nano-crystalline form. Hydroxyapatite is one of the most studied biomaterials in the medical field for its proven biocompatibility and for being the main constituent of the mineral part of bone and teeth. In terms of restorative and preventive dentistry, nano-hydroxyapatite has significant remineralizing effects on initial enamel lesions, certainly superior to conventional fluoride, and good results on the sensitivity of the teeth. The nano-HA has also been used as an additive material, in order to improve already existing and widely used dental materials, in the restorative field (experimental addition to conventional glass ionomer cements, that has led to significant improvements in their mechanical properties). Because of its unique properties, such as the ability to chemically bond to bone, to not induce toxicity or inflammation and to stimulate bone growth through a direct action on osteoblasts, nano-HA has been widely used in periodontology and in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Its use in oral implantology, however, is a widely used practice established for years, as this substance has excellent osteoinductive capacity and improves bone-to-implant integration.
PMCID: PMC4252862  PMID: 25506416
nano-HA; preventive; restorative; regenerative
8.  Implant-supported prostheses with temporomandibular joint reproduction after hemimandibular resection: a case report 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(Suppl 2 to No 2):1-9.
Summary
Aim of the study
The change in anatomy and physiology resulting from radical mandible surgery is often exacerbated by radiation therapies that make the mucosa atrophic and susceptible to irritation and ulceration rendering the task of areating functional complete dentures for edentulous subjects very challenging to prosthodontists. The aim of this study is to describe an implant supported denture rehabilitation in an edentulous hemimandibulectomized patient with a singular prosthetic design in order to compensate for the lack of a condylar process.
Materials and methods
The subject of the clinical case, had a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the right tonsillar region for which it was subjected to a hemimandibulectomy and was primarily rehabilitated with an over denture mounted onto a bar furnished by a resin condylar eminence in articulation with the glenoid fossa of the upper denture. The need to provide greater stabilization for the upper prosthesis led to a maxillary implant insertion and to the realization of a new joint connection that was constituted inferiorly by a titanium condyle and superiorly by a teflon acetabulum.
Discussion
The prosthetic balance guaranteed by the second rehabilitation greatly affected the biomechanics of mastication leading to a reduction of eccentric interferences, a stabilization of centric occlusion, and a lowering of intensity contraction by masticatory muscles. This difference is well represented by two and three-dimensional plans obtained from the application of a T-Scan III device.
Conclusions
The rehabilitative solution proposed was effective in resolving the lateral deviation, in relieving masticatory and speech discomfort, as well as restoring an aesthetically acceptable appearance in a hemimandibulectomized and not reconstructed patient.
PMCID: PMC4308962
hemimandibulectomy; implant-supported prostheses; computerized occlusion analysis; mandibular deviation; condylar prosthesis
9.  Immediate loading of implants in the aesthetic zone: comparison between two placement timings 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(Suppl 2 to No 2):15-26.
Summary
Aim of the study
Implant rehabilitation delivered in accordance with the traditional protocol has proven to be highly predictable and acceptable (1). Nevertheless, the application of immediate loading on post-extraction implants, especially for aesthetic zones, has now considerably increased (2). The aim of this work is to illustrate the immediate loading of implants placed in the aesthetic zone through tapered design fixtures with microgeometry of a high degree of porosity inserted at the same time or 4–8 weeks from dental avulsion (TSA® Advance, Phibo®).
Materials and methods
A total of 15 implant fixtures of which 8 at an interval of 4–8 weeks from extraction (type 2) and the remaining according to the immediate post-extraction technique (type 1) were positioned. All implants were prosthesized within 24 hours from the placement. Definitive crowns replaced provisional restorations after 20–24 weeks. After 4 and 12 months from implant insertion, the following parameters were assessed: X-ray image, pain, mobility or suppuration, soft tissue condition and aesthetic appearance.
Results
Percentage of osseointegration was 93.75%, and 53.5% of the osseointegrated fixtures was type 2. No statistically significant difference between the mean ISQ values for implants of type 1 and 2 both in the post-operative period and after 12 months was evident, indicating that the timing of insertion did not affect the achievement of stability for the implant fixtures tested in our study. Immediate post-extraction implants showed a greater propensity for gingival recession and a peri-implant radiolucency greater than those placed at an interval of 4–8 weeks. The values obtained for the PES/WES and the subjective evaluation of the analyzed sample showed the considerable aesthetic value and the high level of satisfaction guaranteed by the implant technique illustrated.
Conclusion
Although well-designed, high quality, randomized clinical trials are still needed as well as the requirement to establish a common, complete, and reproducible index for the evaluation of aesthetic outcome, immediate/early placement and loading of a single TSA® Advance, Phibo® may be considered a valuable and predictable option in terms of implant success as well as hard and soft tissue stability.
PMCID: PMC4308963
immediate post-extraction implant; early post-extraction implant; immediate loading; aesthetic outcome assessment; non-functional loading
10.  Central osteoma of the maxilla: implant rehabilitation with immediate loading in fresh extraction socket 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(Suppl 2 to No 2):10-14.
Summary
Aim of the study
Solitary central osteomas of the jaw seem to be especially rare lesions; since 1955, only 12 cases have been reported and 4 of these were located in the maxilla.
Osteomas are benign osteogenic lesions considered as real tumours but without infiltrative or metastatic potential. Their growth potential is usually limited, but certain rare and large cases of peripheral osteoma are described in literature. Although surgery is recommended, there are no reports of malignant transformation. In this study, we describe successful implant rehabilitation in a patient with a central osteoma of the maxilla with immediate loading in a fresh extraction socket.
Materials and methods
The report concerns a 33-year-old woman with a compromised deciduous first molar in the left premolar region of the maxilla; an asymptomatic bony expansion of the palatal and vestibular sides of the left canine/premolar/molar area of the maxilla and by radiograph revealed a well-defined radiopaque mass. An immediate non-occlusal loading was performed, and complete loading of the implant was completed five months later.
Discussion and conclusion
The pathogenesis of these osteomas is unclear. Several authors reported a clear history of traumatic events, but others had no history of previous trauma or contributory medical factors. Since in our case no cancer growth happened over a period of more than four years, we decided to perform an immediate loading procedure during the implant rehabilitation. The outcome was successful.
PMCID: PMC4308964
osteoma; central osteoma; peripheral osteoma; immediate loading
11.  Bone augmentation with TiMesh. autologous bone versus autologous bone and bone substitutes. A systematic review 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(Suppl 2 to No 2):27-36.
Summary
Aim of the study
Reconstruction of segmental defects and the atrophic maxilla and mandible is performed using various techniques. Bone substitutes have received a wealth of reports in the literature demonstrating a long-term success when used in alveolar bone augmentation procedures.
Materials and methods
We reviewed articles comparing TiMesh GBR technique with different percentage of bone: autogenous bone alone (AB); anorganic bovine bone alone (ABB); 50:50 or 70:30. From an initial pool of 122, we selected 14 studies. ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test was used for statistical analysis.
Results
We present a table analysing fundamental parameters to value a successful GBR therapy. Autogenous bone remains the gold standard in GBR technique with TiMesh; however, the combination between AB/ABB in relation 50:50 and 70:30 allows reducing surgical cost exploiting properties of eterologous bone.
Conclusion
The use of autologous bone is associated with a height and width gain of bone, which are greater compared to other techniques, with a lower exposure of the mesh and a lower bone resorption. The use of heterologous graft leads to a lower bone earn and to percentage of resorption greater than autologous graft but does not differ from the gain and resorption of the bone of AB/ABB in percentage 50:50 and 70:30.
PMCID: PMC4308965
GBR technique; TiMesh; alveolar ridge augmentation; anorganic bovine bone; bone substitute
12.  Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with oro-nasal fistula: a case report 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(Suppl 2 to No 2):37-39.
Summary
Aim of the study
The odontogenic sinusitis has an incidence between 38 and 40.6%. Increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with the presence of periapical abscesses, periodontal disease, dental trauma, tooth extraction and implant placement when the sinusal membrane is perforated.
Materials and methods
A patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with oro-nasal fistula was treated.
Results
The follow-up at six months showed the complete resolution of maxillary sinusitis, palatal fistula got closed and pain symptoms disappeared.
Conclusion
This case report describes a rare complication of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: the oro-nasal fistula.
PMCID: PMC4308966
oro-nasal fistula; oro-antral fistula; maxillary sinusitis; odontogenic sinusitis
13.  Influence of vision on masticatory muscles function: surface electromyographic evaluation 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(2):61-65.
Summary
The role of the ocular disorders (OD) in pathogenesis of MMp is still a controversal issue. Ocular arc reflexes (OAR) may involve changes in head and neck posture and generate modifications of contraction resulting in muscle contraction and finally weakness. sEMG tests were performed on 28 patients (13 with masticatory muscles pain and myopia/15 healthy) in rest position with eyes open and eyes closed. Patients group control (healthy patients) showed no significance difference in sEMG record in open/close test. In non healthy patients there were great differences between the sEMG recordings with eyes closed and open. Temporalis and masseters showed a statistical difference of means activation in two tests (temporalis p = 0.0010; masseters = 0.0006). Great difference there was in means muscles activation between open eyes healthy test and non healthy. No difference in close eyes test was evaluated in temporalis and masseters close test in the two groups. The exact causes of MMp are still unknown. The role how ocular disorders (OD) may play an important role in pathogenesis of MMp is still a controversal issue. Ocular arc reflexes (OAR) may involve changes in head and neck posture and generate modifications of contraction resulting in muscle contraction and finally weakness.
PMCID: PMC4071361  PMID: 25002919
surface electromyography; masticatory muscles pain; ocular disorders
14.  Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia treated with the photodynamic therapy: a case report 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(2):77-80.
Summary
Aims
About 60% of the oral cancer arise on a pre-existent potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa like the oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. The treatment with the photodynamic therapy of these lesions represents, in the last years, an innovative, non-invasive and effective therapeutic possibility to achieve the secondary prevention of oral cancer. In the last decade, case reports have described patients with similar treated through a photochemical reaction induced by laser light. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the topical 5-ALA photodynamic therapy in the treatment of a case of Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia.
Case report
A female patient of 80 years old affected by white verrucous plaques on the right buccal mucosa was recruited for our case report. The right side lesion was treated with the photodynamic therapy with topical administered 5-aminolevulinic acid using the 635 nm laser light to activate the photosensitizer.
Results
The lesion showed complete response after 4 sessions of photodynamic therapy and no recurrence was noticed after 12 months.
Conclusions
The photodynamic therapy can be considered an effective treatment in the management of oral verrucous proliferative leukoplakia, but more clinical trials, with prolonged follow-up controls, are necessary to evaluate its effectiveness in the mid and long time period.
PMCID: PMC4071362  PMID: 25002922
photodynamic therapy; oral leukoplakia; oral cancer; 5-aminolevulinic acid; potentially malignant disorders
15.  Effect of PDGF, IGF-1 and PRP on the implant osseointegration. An histological and immunohistochemical study in rabbits 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(2):66-68.
Summary
The ability of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to increase the rate of osseointegration of endosseous implants and to improve the quality of bone remodeling on the surface of titanium, has been investigated in an experimental intraosseous defect model by an histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. The results from this study demonstrate that rabbits treated with the combination PDGF/IGF-1 showed a higher positive effect on bone regeneration than PRP-treated or controls.
PMCID: PMC4071363  PMID: 25002920
PDGF; IGF-1; PRP; growth factors; bone formation; dental implants
16.  Heavy metals and pain in the dysfunctional patient 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(2):41-51.
Summary
Aims
The aim of this research is to verify the quality and quantity of heavy metals (HM) of dental origin in TMD patients.
Methods
A population of 100 subject was studied and divided in two homogeneous groups: Study Group (SG) and Control Group (CG). Organism heavy metals were tested by a spot sampling method in which the first urine of the day, through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), were analyzed. The results obtained were compared with reference values (RV) of Italian people. Descriptive statistical analysis and student’s t-test has been applied (statistical significance for p > 0.05).
Results
The SG presented the absolute highest levels of HM compared to the CG (p=0.787). As regards the relation between pain and HM, the subjects that refer “severe/very severe” values of pain present the highest levels of HM in urines.
Conclusions
The obtained results seem to highlight a possible direct proportionality between the level of pain the increase of the concentration of heavy metals in all the examined groups and subgroups.
PMCID: PMC4071364  PMID: 25002917
heavy metals; pain; TMD
17.  Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(2):69-76.
Summary
Aim
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests.
Methods
The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay.
Results
The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition.
Conclusions
Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC4071365  PMID: 25002921
biocompatibility; MTT test; murine odontoblast; pulp capping materials
18.  Tooth wear among patients suffering from mental disorders 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(2):52-60.
Summary
Aim
Assess oral health, treatment needs and the correlation between tooth wear and medications in patients with psychiatric disease.
Methodology
92 patients (40 male and 52 female) admitted in the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of the Umberto I Hospital of Rome underwent an oral and dental clinical examination in accordance according to World Health Organization Basic Methods Criteria. One dentist performed all clinical examinations, training and calibration was carried out by an experienced clinical examiner. To measure the degree of inter-examiner agreement Kappa statistics was calculated. Level of tooth wear was assessed using the tooth wear classification of Johansson et al. Exact psychiatric pathology and medications of each patient were registrated. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.) was used to analyze the data. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results
34.78% of the sample regarding tooth wear demonstrated score 2. Men demonstrated 30% score 2, and 20% score 3 and 4 whereas female patients 38.46% score 2, 7.69% score 3 and none score 4.
Conclusions
Chronic exposure to neuroleptic drugs can cause phenomena of bruxism. There is a direct correlation between tooth wear, psychiatric disorders and administration of certain drugs. Poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment were widespread among psychiatric patients.
PMCID: PMC4071366  PMID: 25002918
tooth wear; psychiatric disorders; bruxism
20.  Resolution of endodontic issues linked to complex anatomy 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(1):34-40.
Summary
Anatomical abnormalities of the root canal system are frequently seen in specialist endodontic practice, and represent a challenge to be faced with skill and thoroughness, beginning with an accurate diagnostic phase and devising the most appropriate treatment plan. Fortunately, much progress has been made in endodontic research thanks to technological advances and the evolution of higher performance instruments, which now consent even very complex cases to be resolved with relative ease. Below are described the salient features of recent progress in endodontics, along with a description of several clinical cases in which the operator has encountered numerous difficulties due to peculiar tooth morphology, overcome successfully thanks to the application of modern tools and consolidated clinical experience in the field.
PMCID: PMC3974551  PMID: 24753800
complex endodontic therapy; endodontic anatomy; endodontic diagnosis; nickel-titanium instrumentation; tooth morphology
21.  Onlay bone grafting simultaneous with facial soft tissue augmentation in a hemifacial microsomia patient using de-epithelialized orthograde submental flap: a technical note 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(1):30-33.
Summary
Soft tissue augmentation in hemifacial microsomia patients is a challenging procedure. Free microvascular flap transfer is considered usually as the most accepted choice. On the other hand, bone grafting, simultaneous with facial soft tissue augmentation using de-epithelialized orthograde submental flap, is a suggested procedure. Moreover, preoperative evaluation of facial artery and anterior belly of the digastric muscle are essential steps for success in such flaps. Furthermore, bone suture technique helps achieve more predictable results and reduces the need for postoperative bulky dressing.
PMCID: PMC3974552  PMID: 24753799
hemifacial microsomia; submental flap; bone graft
22.  Effects of dentin surface treatments on shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cements 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(1):15-22.
Summary
Aim
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) to dentin.
Materials and methods
80 bovine permanent incisors were used. 40 cylindrical specimens of a GIC (Fuji IX GP Extra) and 40 cylindrical specimens of a RMGIC (Fuji II LC) were attached to the dentin. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 8 groups of equal size (n=10), 4 for every type of glass-ionomer cement, corresponding to type of dentin surface treatments. Group 1: GC Cavity Conditioner; Group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel; Group 3: Clearfil SE Bond; Group 4: no dentin conditioning (control). The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Model 3343, Instron Corp., Canton, Mass., USA) and subsequently tested for shear bond strength (MPa).
Results
ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups. Post hoc Tukey test showed different values of shear bond strength for Fuji IX GP Extra and for Fuji II LC. The different conditioners variably influence the adhesion of the glass-ionomer cements tested. Conclusions. RMGIC shear bond to dentin was higher than GIC. The use of a Self-etch adhesive system improved the shear bond strength values of RMGIC and lowered the shear bond strength values of GIC significantly.
PMCID: PMC3974553  PMID: 24753797
conventional glass-ionomer cement; resin-modified glass-ionomer cement; dentin pre-treatment; phosphoric acid; polyacrylic acid; self-etch adhesives; shear bond strength test
23.  Salivary glucose concentration and daily variation in the oral fluid of healthy patients 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(1):1-6.
Summary
Aim
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration and the variations of salivary glucose in healthy patients who were sampled at five different intervals during the day.
Materials and methods
Samples of un-stimulated saliva have been collected from 21 healthy patients using the drooling technique and they were divided into two categories. In the first category, patients were asked not to toothbrush their teeth in the 8 hours prior to collection of the salivary sample. Patients in the second category were instead asked to toothbrush 90 minutes before the collection of the first sample of saliva. The glucose concentration was measured in all patients via an enzymatic spectrophotometry. Patients have been selected following a strict inclusion criteria, which included <5% of plaque presence e according to the plaque Index and a total absence of oral disease that could possibly interfere with sample taking or oral fluid analysis. The average age of patients was 22,4±2,6 years old of which 45% were female and 55% were male. Samples were collected five times between 8 am and 12 pm, before and after breakfast. Data was statistically analyzed using the Skewness/Kurtosis Test, Shapiro-Wilk Test, Kruskal Wallis Test and Linear Regression Model, considering values of p<0,05 to be significant.
Results
The average rate of un-stimulated salivary flow was 0,53±0,21 ml/min. There were no significant differences between salivary glucose values and salivary flow in female and male patients. However, we observed a typical trend which recurred for each patient and resembled a “pseudo-glycemic curve”.
Conclusions
The collected data suggests that glucose concentration results did not show statistically significant differences (p>0,078) which could however be due to the little number of patients assessed, nonetheless there is a trend, recalling a “pseudo-glycemic curve” not referable to changes in flow rates, probably due to glucose catabolism and shunt.
PMCID: PMC3974554  PMID: 24753793
salivary glucose; saliva; oral hygiene; oral fluid; spectrophotometry
25.  Characterizing scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals through evaluation of bibliometric indices 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;5(1):23-29.
Summary
The aim of this study was to characterize the scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals by evaluating different bibliometric indices. The bibliometric evaluation was conducted on the Scopus Database upon all the Active Members joining three important Italian scientific societies in Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, and SICOI). The scientific production was analysed by considering the number of total publications, number of total citations, h-index, and hc-index. Moreover, the overall sample was divided into two groups (Academics and Not Academics), according to the fact the professionals had or not a university position, and then into sub-groups according to the different career lengths. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the scientific productivity amongst groups. For all the considered parameters a lack of homogeneity between groups was reported, and significantly greater mean values were recorded for the Academics compared to the Not Academics Group. Moreover, the h-index values increased more regularly as the career length progressed than the hc-index values, even if the last seemed to be less variable. h- and hc-indices are both stable bibliometric parameters, but as the hc-index values are related not only to the number of citation but also to their age, it seems to be less influenced by the authors’ career length. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in dentistry may facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and clinical performance and be useful for a comparative assessment of authors or research groups in terms of quality and quantity of the scientific production.
PMCID: PMC3974556  PMID: 24753798
career length; contemporary h-index; h-index; oral surgery; scientific production

Results 1-25 (181)