To evaluate the apical microleakage of Thermafil obturations after three different post space preparation techniques.
Materials and methods
33 root canals of mono-radiculated extracted teeth were prepared with M two and then obturated with Thermafil. Teeth so treated were then divided into three groups and the post space to middle root was prepared using three different techniques. In samples in group A the housing for the post was created using a Torpan bur, and the carrier was partially removed only in the coronal portion. In samples in group B the carrier was completely removed and gutta-percha was hand compacted, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. In samples in group C the carrier was completely removed, without guttapercha compaction, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. The roots were immersed for 72 hours in methylene blue dye solution and sectioned transversely at 1-3-5 mm from the apex for evaluation of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The data collected were processed using Win CAD software and subjected to statistical analysis using the Student t test for p<0.05.
There were no significant differences between the three groups, except for the presence of voids in the intermediate section of teeth in groups B and C.
Post space preparation did not influence the apical seal, and gutta-percha without voids was always found in the last millimetre of the canal obturation. This study proposes a post preparation technique which provides for complete carrier removal using pliers, hand compaction of residual gutta-percha with a manual plugger and enlargement of the root canal, using appropriate post space burs, free of any interference from the carrier. Operating time is reduced, as is the risk of creating ledges or iatrogenic perforations.
thermafil; post space; apical micro leakage
This article is a presentation of a clinical methodology aimed at minimizing binding in fixed orthodontic appliances. The dynforce archwire is explained. The dynforce archwire has a full size anterior segment (e.g. .021×.025) and undersized posterior segments with rectangular cross-section (e.g. .018×.025 or .018×.022), and is used in the orthodontic phase of space closure with or without TAD miniscrews. Two clinical cases are presented.
archwire; binding; friction; incisor; torque; sliding; retraction; miniscrew; TAD; skeletal anchorage; ceramic brackets
Surgical procedures for the application of implants in the lateral-superior sectors are affected by the availability of the residual bone.
When this condition is lower than 5 mm it is recommended that techniques involving two therapeutic phases, a reconstructive and an applicative one, as reported in the international literature, are adopted.
The authors propose here a new method with the potential to apply implants simultaneously with the reconstructive phase.
The aim of this longitudinal retrospective study was to evaluate the stability of implants applied with the fit lock technique in the upper maxillarys in us with bone availability lower than 4 mm by measuring resonance frequency at different follow-up periods The seme as urements, carried out on 30 implants, were analysed with specific statistical procedures.
The results indicate that the stability of the implants inserted with the fit lock method increases progressively over time in a statistically significant manner. The stability recorded after one year from the insertion (ISQ T2) is significantly higher than that recorded after six months (ISQ T1), and this is significantly higher than that recorded at the time of implant placement (ISQ T0).
The implants inserted in the maxillary zones with scarce bone availability and applied with this technique showed a similar stability as reported with other techniques.
In light of the results, the authors confirm that the primary stability represents the basic requirement to guarantee a correct healing of the implant and demonstrate that the fit lock technique also all ows reaching this condition when bone availability is minimal.
resonance frequency analysis; bone grafting; dental implants
Periodontitis is a disease that affects and destroys the tissues that support teeth. Tissues damage results from a prolonged inflammatory response to an ecological shift in the composition of subgingival biofilms. Three bacterial species that constitute the red complex group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, are considered the main pathogens involved in periodontitis.
In the present study a real-time PCR based assay was designed to detect and quantify red complex species, then used to investigate 146 periodontal pocket samples from 66 periodontitis patients and 80 controls. Results demonstrated a significant higher prevalence of red complex species and increased amount of P. gingivalis and T. denticola in periodontal pocket of periodontitis patients.
tooth; ligament; periodontal; diseases; inflammation; bone; resorption
Number, type and severity of dental injuries per patient differ according to the patient’s age and the cause of accident. The trauma group resulting from pedestrian-, bicycle-, and car-related injuries is usually dominated by multiple dental injuries, injuries to the supporting bone and soft-tissue injuries.
This report describes a case of a 16.2-year-old female who suffered traumatic injuries to her permanent maxillary incisors after a car accident. Concussion of tooth 12, extrusive luxation of tooth 11, avulsion of tooth 21 and subluxation with complicated crown fracture of tooth 22 were observed at the emergency visit 75 minutes after the trauma. Tooth 21 was dry stored for 15 minutes, then in milk for 60 minutes. The treatment plan according to IADT guidelines was performed with the satisfaction of the dentists and the patient. After 1 year follow- up a replacement root resorption of tooth 21 was diagnosed; it was then considered severe at the time of the 2 year control visit.
Educational programs are essential to optimize the treatment outcome both at the accident site and also at the dental office.
permanent incisor; extrusive luxation; avulsion; crown fracture; replantation; root resorption
Periodontal diseases entail a variety of conditions affecting the periodontium. The pathogenesis results from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Although there are evidences to confirm a role of genetic determinants, the outcome of the available studies is controversial and the largest part of the research has been carried out in Asian populations.
We investigated two polymorphisms in the genes encoding Interelukin-1β (IL-1β +3953 C>T; rs1143634) and vitamin D receptor (VDR Taq1; rs731236) in 42 Caucasian patients with chronic periodontal disease and 39 Caucasian subjects, matched for age and gender.
The IL-1β C allele was present in 100% of cases and 92% of controls (p=0.07), the T allele was present in 19% of cases and in 44% controls (p=0.017). The prevalence of the VDR Taq1 tt genotype was lower in patients as compared with controls (i.e., 10 versus 59%; p<0.01), whereas the tT and TT genotypes were disproportionally higher in patients than in cases (i.e., 62 versus 33% for tT and 29% versus 8% for TT; p<0.01).
The t allele was present in 71% of cases and 92% of controls (p=0.016), whereas the T allele was present in 90% of patients with periodontal disease and in 41% controls (p<0.01).
The results of this case control study at-test that the T allele of VDR Taq1 is strongly associated with periodontal disease, whereas the t allele of the IL-1β +3953 confers a slightly protection against the risk of periodontitis.
periodontal diseases; periodontitis; genetics; interleukins; gene expression
To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma.
We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement.
The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment.
Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options.
eruption disturbances; impacted incisor; oral trauma; orthodontic traction; early diagnosis
The aim of the present study was to compare the resistance to cyclic fatigue of Hyflex® (Coltene-Whaledent, Allstatten, Switzerland) size 40 taper.04 nickel titanium instruments used in continuous rotation versus the use with a reciprocating motion. The null hypothesis was that different file motions had no influence on the lifetime of instruments subjected to a cyclic fatigue test.
24 Hyflex® size 40 taper.04 nickel titanium instruments were randomly divided in two groups (n=12 each), and submitted to a cyclic fatigue test. The first group (CR group) were used with a continuous rotation, while the second one (RCP group) with a reciprocating motion. The cyclic fatigue tests were performed by using a stainless steel block containing an artificial canal shaped with a 135° angle. All instruments were rotated or reciprocated until fracture occurred. The time to fracture was recorded visually with a 1/100 second chronometer. Data were recorded and statistically analysed.
Results indicated that instruments used with a reciprocating motion showed a significant increase in the meantime to failure when compared to those used in continuous rotation.
The null hypothesis was rejected. Results of the present study showed that reciprocating motion extended resistance to cyclic fatigue of the tested nickel titanium instruments, when compared to continuous rotation.
cyclic fatigue; nickel titanium; instruments
The aim of this work was to present data from a large sample of patients with Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD) in order to clarify some aspects of the development of pathological conditions that affect large parts of the population.
This preliminary work put in relation, through an epidemiological evaluation, anamnestic and clinical data collected from a sample of 2375 patients affected by TMD. Personal data were provided by questionnaire (age, sex, status, etc.), while clinical data were collected following a specific medical chart compiled in accordance with international criteria for TMD. An analysis of these data clearly showed that there were large quantities of variables involved in these disorders and which occur with a wide variety possible of clinical signs. This complexity, in accordance with the current knowledge that it is not able to clarify the etiology of these disorders, makes intricate both diagnostic then therapeutic aspects. You would find in front of a multi-factorial systemic disease that, interfering with the individual bioavailability, exposes him to the possibility of perceiving noxious stimuli which otherwise would not able to reach the pain threshold. To support this hypothesis is the data founded in this report that showed how many patients suffered, at the same time, by muscle and spinal pain associated to headache, pain that occur with high frequency from the same side. The presence of these painful conditions tends to underestimate the dysfunctional problems even if they occur with greater clinical prevalence. Further research should be carried out to clarify these controversial issues.
temporo-mandibular disorders; statistical analysis; epidemiology
Apical extrusion of infected debris to the periradicular tissues is one of the principal causes of postoperative pain and discomfort. Recent researches have shown that reciprocating instrumentation techniques seem to significantly increase the amount of debris extruded beyond the apex and, consequently, the risk of postoperative pain. The goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare postoperative pain using three different nickel-titanium instrumentation techniques: a rotary crown-down technique using TF instruments (SybronEndo, Orange, Ca), a reciprocating single-file technique using WaveOne instruments (Maillefer DEntsply, Baillagues, CH), and a novel instrumentation technique (TF Adaptive, SybronEndo, Orange, Ca), using a unique, proprietary movement, combining reciprocation and continuous rotation.
Ninety patients requiring endodontic treatment on permanent premolar and molar teeth with non vital pulps preoperatively were included in the study. The patients were assigned into three groups of 30 patients each, trying to make the groups very similar, concerning the number of root canals, presence of initial pain and periapical lesions. The teeth in group 1 (n = 30) were instrumented with a crown-down technique using TF instruments, whilst those in group 2 (n = 30) were instrumented with a single-file technique using Waveone 08 25. The third group (n = 30) used the 3-file Tf Adaprtive sequence. All techniques were performed following manufacturers’ instructions and all canals were shaped, cleaned and obturated in a single-visit by the same operator. The assessment of postoperative pain was carried out at 3 days by using a visual analogue scale. VAS pain scores were compared using one-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey test. A value of p < 0.05 was required for statistical significance.
Results for VAS pain scores showed a statistically significant difference was found between the WaveOne (p=0,021) technique and the other two techniques. No statistical significant differences were found between TF and TF Adaptive (p= 0,087).
When evaluating patient experiencing sever pain the incidence of symptoms was significantly higher with the WaveOne technique.
Since the incidence of preoperative pain, the type of tooth and the pulp and periodontal pathology were quite similar between the three tested groups, and all the other variables (operator, irrigation, obturation) were identical, we may conclude that the difference in postoperative pain can be mainly related to the different instrumentation techniques.
root canal treatment; pain; endodontic instruments
The aims of this study were to conduct a morphometric analysis on the buccal furcation grooves in freshly extracted bifurcated maxillary first premolars (MFPs) and to correlate all anatomical measurements using microcomputed tomography.
Materials and Methods.
Twenty-three human MFPs with bifurcated canals were selected for this study. The specimens were analyzed with microcomputed tomography. The length, the beginning, and the ending of the grooves were measured. The minimum cross-sectional canal wall thickness in the grooves was located, and the width of the dentin thickness was calculated. All measurements were recorded and statistically analyzed.
The concavity of the grooves begins before the bifurcation site in 9/23 samples and after the bifurcation in 56.5% of samples. The groove length varied between 1.1–9 mm; the cross-sectional area with minimum palatal dentin thickness was 0.78±0.14 mm, which was located at a mean distance of 7.1 mm from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and 1.38 mm from the furcation.
The presence of the furcation grooves in the palatal aspects of the buccal roots of the MFPs was 100%. The length, depth, location, and width of the dentin thickness of the grooves varied in relation to tooth length, bifurcation, and CEJ. These parameters should be taken into consideration before any endodontic or restorative procedures are performed. Reducing dentin width too vigorously by intracanal instrumentation can predispose to vertical root fractures or perforations; if a post cannot be avoided, it should not extend 6.5 mm from the CEJ.
Buccal furcation groove; maxillary premolar; microcomputed tomography; morphometric analysis
In the lessons of medical-scientific methodologies of the medical faculty at the Sapienza University of Rome, basic notions on the ethical and deontologic aspects characterizing the history of the medical profession are provided, including the formulation and application of bioethical principles to clinics and biomedical research. Within such framework, an educational project has been initiated on the historical origin of the current normative and juridic dispositions in the regulation of experimental biomedical research and the relationship between health operators and patients, with particular attention to the procedure, the meaning the value either professional or deontologic, of ethics and the legality of the informed consensus. Emphasis is put on medical and experimental abuses that occurred in Germany during the nazi regime.
history of bioethics; dentistry in the nazi Germany
Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is an uncommon benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin, which shows extensive diversity in its clinico-pathological appearances and biological behavior. It most commonly occurs in broader age group of 1–82 years in anterior part of jaws which is classically described by presence of ghost cells. There are variants of COC according to clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics. Therefore a proper categorization of the cases is needed for better understanding of the pathogenesis of each variant. Here we report a rare case of ameloblastomatous calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst in 24 year old female with brief review of literature. Presence of ameloblastomatous proliferation and impacted canine presented a diagnostic dilemma and was diagnosed by careful radiographic and histopathogical interpretation. Long follow up and more case report are required to shed light on its behaviour as there scarcity of data of this lesion in literature.
cyst; ghost cells; neoplasm; odontogenic
the assessment of the limit dose for the organs at risk in external radiotherapy is a fundamental step to guarantee an optimal risk-benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to assess, through contouring the single dental cavities, the absorbed radiation dose on irradiated alveolar bones during the treatment of cervico-facial tumours, so as to test the correlation between the absorbed dose of radiation at alveolar level and the level of individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis.
Materials and methods
we selected 45 out of 89 patients on the basis of different exclusion criteria. Nine of these patients showed evidence of osteoradionecrosis. The patients were treated either with 3D conformational radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), there after alveolar bones were contoured using computed axial tomography (CAT scans) carried out following oncological and dental treatment. The dose-volume histograms (DVH) were obtained on the basis of such data, which included those relating to the dental cavities in addition to those inherent to the tumours and the organs at risk.
all patients, irrespective of type of treatment, received an average of 60 to 70 grays in 30/35 sittings. The patients treated with IMRT showed higher variation in absorbed radiation dose than those treated with 3D-CRT. The alveolar encirclement allowed the assessment of the absorbed radiation dose, and consequently it also allowed to assess the individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis in patients with head and neck tumours who underwent radiography treatment.
the study of DVH allows the assessment of limit dose and the detection of the areas at greater risk for osteoradionecrosis before dental surgery.
osteoradionecrosis; contouring; IMRT
this work aims at demonstrating that multiple systemic conditions, in association with the development of bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), increase the risk of complications and may lead to hospitalization. For this reason the dental approach to patients with multisystem disease should be carefully managed by a team of specialists.
a case of mandibular necrosis associated with intake of oral bisphosphonates in a complex systemic context is described.
Results and discussion
many different diseases and systemic conditions may draw the line at oral surgery. Multiple treatments (e.g. antithrombotic, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, antibiotics and bisphosphonates) can alter the normal physiological response to tissue healing.
patients taking bisphosphonates for more than three years (i.e. the term over which the risk of ONJ increases according to the literature, in presence of complex systemic situations, need to be carefully managed during the pre-operative, peri-operative and postoperative phases through a synergistic collaboration among different kind of specialists.
bisphosphonate osteonecrosis; oral surgery; therapeutic approach; CTX
the present case report aims at illustrating how implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer resection aids to improve their quality of life.
Material and methods
a patient with verrucous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible was treated with surgery and rehabilitation with three interforaminal dental implants and Toronto bridge. Three years after treatment, because of cancer recurrence, a segment of jaw and one of the three mandibular implants were removed. The histological examination showed healthy bone contact to implant surface, despite proximity to the neoplastic area.
the case shows the maintainance of the osseointegration implants despite the cancer recurrence in the same area.
endosseous implants represent a useful and valid tool for the prosthetic rehabilitation of cancer patients. Long-term effects of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in patients with cancer still need to be verified. It would be interesting to confirm the data obtained by numerical studies of representative samples.
oral cancer; oral surgey; neoplastic relapses; osseointegration; prosthetic rehabilitation
this report describes the masticatory implant- supported rehabilitation of a patient undergoing resection for mandibular ameloblastoma.
in the reported case the patient underwent resection and reconstruction with a fibula flap for masticatory rehabilitation of 7 implants at the level of the mandible.
ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive tumor of maxillary bones that often causes facial disfigurement. The dental management of the patient requires a collaboration of various specialists such as anesthetists, maxillofacial surgeons, and dentists.
in patients with oral cancers such as ameloblastoma, the correct planning of surgery for the tumor resection as well as prosthetic rehabilitation are crucial. Osseointegrated implants open a new perspective of treatment to improve the quality of life of patients resected for cancer.
ameloblastoma; fibula free flap; mandibular reconstruction; oral rehabilitation
Aim of the study
the treatment of oral cancer requires different surgical approaches such as marginal or segmental mandibular resection in order to allow a safe removal of the neoplastic lesion. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of an implant-supported denture rehabilitation for restoring oral function and facial appearance on a hemimandibulectomized patient.
Materials and methods
the patient was a 64 years old man, hard smoker and moderate drinker. Due to a jaw neoplastic lesion, he underwent a hemimandibulectomy, followed by the insertion of 4 implant fixtures at the chin cap symphysis site. The denture rehabilitation consisted in an over-denture mounted onto a bar furnished by a condylar eminence in articulation with the glenoid fossa of the upper denture.
this type of implant-supported denture rehabilitation allows the recovery of the masticatory function and the mandibular reposition with a satisfactory restoration of the proper facial symmetry and appearance.
in the edentulous patient implant-supported denture with artificial condyle allows the recovery of the masticatory function without the need of additional operations to re-establish the temporomandibular joint anatomy. It is currently considered as a low invasive technique with very low risk of side effects.
hemimandibulectomy; condylar prosthesis; implant-supported denture
currently, head and neck irradiation is not considered an absolute contraindication for implant placement (1), especially due to the transition from conventional to conformal radiotherapy. However, there is a difference in the success rate of implant placement between irradiated and non-irradiated bones (5). Successful osseointegration is mainly affected by the total dose of radiation (6). The main purpose of this study was to minimize problems related to radiation dose by evaluating in advance the most suitable site for implant insertion on the basis of the mean absorbed dose. Additional aims were: to estimate the appropriate timing for implant insertion in irradiated bones, to analyze the difference in stability between maxilla and mandible, and to evaluate the success of implants with wrinkled microgeometry and increased layer of TiO2.
Materials and methods
five patients who had been irradiated for head and neck cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were recruited for our study. Surgical procedures were performed following a pre-surgical evaluation of the correct insertion position of implant fixtures. The latter was based on a scrutiny of dose-volume histograms (DVH) developed by a team of experts in medical physics and radiotherapists after dentists had contoured the volumes of interest. Student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation test were used for comparison and correlation between the variables considered.
the percentage of osseointegration was 100%, which supports the usefulness of the adopted technique. A statistically significant difference in stability and crestal bone resorption emerged in the comparison between maxilla and mandible, but not between times of insertion. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between radiation dose and ISQ values: an increase in radiation dose corresponded to a decrease in primary stability. However, the correlation between ISQ values and implant length was not significant as well as that between primary stability and implant diameter.
implantology guided by assessment of absorbed irradiation dose in the site to be rehabilitated can lead both to an increase in implant survival into irradiated tissue bone, and to a reduction in the incidence of ORN. However, both a larger sample size and the development of long-term prospective studies are necessary to validate the described method.
implants rehabilitation; contouring; IMRT
The aim of this study is to investigate cyclic fatigue resistance of four nickel – titanium rotary (NTR) instruments produced by a new method or traditional grinding processes.
Four NTR instruments from different brands were selected: group 1. Twisted File produced by a new thermal treatment of nickel – titanium alloy; group 2. Revo S SU; group 3. Mtwo and group 4. BioRaCe BR3 produced by traditional grinding processes. A total of 80 instruments (20 for each group) were tested for cyclic fatigue resistance inside a curved artificial canal with a 60 degree angle of curvature and 5 mm radius of curvature. Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test until the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured tip was recorded for each instrument. Means and standard deviations (SD) of TtF and fragment length were calculated. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Group 1 (Twisted File) showed the highest value of TtF means. Cyclic fatigue resistance of Twisted File and Mtwo was significantly higher than group 2 (Revo S SU) and 4 (BioRace BR3), while no significant differences were found between group 1 (Twisted File) and 3 (Mtwo) or group 2 (Revo S SU) and 4 (BioRaCe BR3).
The cyclic fatigue resistance of Twisted File was significantly frigher than instruments produced with traditional grinding process except of Mtwo files.
cyclic fatigue; grinding process; nickel-titanium; rotary instruments; twisted file
During competitions and training many professional athletes use to wear occlusal splints to improve their sports performance. However, notwithstanding some studies concluded that achieving a balanced cranial-occlusal system could bring to an improvement of sports performances, the results are still contrasting.
Probably the gnathological postural treatment of athletes has greater influence on performance when the individual suffers of Temporomandibular Joint Disfunction (TMJ) or physio-postural pathologies owing to the consequent alteration of the “tonic-postural system”. This clinical case details a gnathological postural approach to a professional basketball player suffering from muscular problems related to the stomatognathic apparatus and a low back pain unresolved with the only physiotherapy, which limited her performance.
Force platform and T-Scan III appliances were used in order to check the postural and occlusal condition of the athlete and as an aid to clinical parameters in achieving a correct splint balance.
After the treatment involving inserting an occlusal splint and physiotherapy sessions, the patient no longer complained of low back pain problems and the symptoms associated with the stomatognathic apparatus improved considerably. In particular, after the tests carried out on an isokinetic machine, a force increase related to the quadriceps muscles was detected when the patient was wearing the occlusal splint.
All athletes must however be analysed individually and carefully with clinical and instrumental analyses in order to consider the possible real effectiveness of an occlusal splint for improving postural structure and sports performance.
posture; dental occlusion; bite force; occlusal splint; sports performance; sports medicine
The removal of impacted mandibular third molar is a common surgical procedure entailing some risk of complications, especially when the tooth and the inferior alveolar nerve and/or lingual cortical plate are in close proximity. A technique that can reduce the possibility of damage is the Ultra Sonic Bone Surgery. The aim of this report is to present a paradigmatic case of an impacted mandibular third molar closely associated with a complex odontoma, which was treated with the Ultrasonic Bone Surgery (UBS) device. This technique appeared to be a valid alternative to manual or mechanical treatment, strongly minimizing trauma to the inferior alveolar nerve, vascular tissues, or surrounding dental tissues.
lower third molar; odontoma; ultrasonic bone surgery
The aim of this study was to determine the caries prevalence in urban and suburban Albanian schools. A large sample (n= 2617) of subjects, aged 7–15, was examined by a clinical observation without radiograms. The sample comprised 1257 males and 1360 females. For each subject an anamnestic questionnaire about feeding, fluoride, dentist attendance and familiar informations was obtained. Gender and age differences were compared by Chi-square test. The total dmft index (decayed, missing and filled teeth in deciduous dentition) was 2.082; dmft in males was 2.137, in females was 2.032. The total DMFT index (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth in permanent dentition) was 2.327; DMFT in males was 2.253, in females was 2.396. Decayed teeth was principal component of both dmft and the DMFT index. Caries prevalence results higher in girls than boys in deciduous and in permanent teeth.
prevalence of caries; oral hygiene habits; Albanian schoolchildren
The purpose of this study is to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic appearance of a new implant design, with particular emphasis given to the type of prosthesis connection. Two dental implants of the same type (Torque Type®, WinSix®, BioSAFin. S.r.l. - Ancona, Italy), with sandblasted and acid etched surfaces (Micro Rough Surface®), but differing from each other for the prosthesis connection system, were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis at different magnifications: TTI implant, with a hexagonal internal connection, and TTX implant, with a hexagonal external connection. SEM analysis showed that the Torque Type® implant is characterized by a truncated cone shape with tapered tips. The implant body showed a double loop thread and double pitch with blunt tips. For both types of connection, the implant neck was 0.7 mm in height with a 3% taper. This implant design may be able to guarantee osteotomic properties at the time of insertion in a surgical site suitably prepared, a facilitated screwing, thanks to the thread pitch and to the broad and deep draining grooves, thereby ensuring a good primary stability. The different connection design appears defined and precise, in order to ensure a good interface between the fixture and the prosthetic components. Therefore, this design appears to be particularly suitable in cases where a good primary stability is necessary and a precise coupling between endosseous and prosthetic components, as it allows an easy insertion of the fixture even in conditions of reduced bone availability, and in cases of immediately loaded full-arch rehabilitations.
dental implant; Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); implant connection