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1.  SEM evaluation of human gingival fibroblasts growth onto CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):244-249.
Summary
Aim
To evaluate the growth of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured onto sample discs of CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis at different experimental times.
Methods
A total of 26 experimental discs, divided into 2 groups, were used: Group A) CAD/CAM zirconia (3Y-TZP) discs (n=13); Group B) veneering ceramic for zirconia discs (n=13). HGFs were obtained from human gingival biopsies, isolated and placed in culture plates. Subsequently, cells were seeded on experimental discs at 7,5×103/cm2 concentration and cultured for a total of 7 days. Discs were processed for SEM observation at 3h, 24h, 72h and 7 days.
Results
In Group A, after 3h, HGFs were adherent to the surface and showed a flattened profile. The disc surface covered by HGFs resulted to be wider in Group A than in Group B samples. At SEM observation, after 24h and 72h, differences in cell attachment were slightly noticeable between the groups, with an evident flattening of HGFs on both surfaces. All differences between Group A and group B became less significant after 7 days of culture in vitro.
Conclusions
SEM analysis of HGFs showed differences in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the early hours of culture. Results showed a better adhesion and cell growth in Group A than in Group B, especially up to 72h in vitro. Differences decreased after 7 days, probably because of the rougher surface of CAD/CAM zirconia, promoting better cell adhesion, compared to the smoother surface of veneering ceramic.
PMCID: PMC3935356  PMID: 24611089
CAD/CAM zirconia; veneering ceramic; human gingival fibroblasts; scanning electron microscope; zirconia cell attachment; ceramic cell attachment
2.  Mechanical resistance of carbon and stainless steel hand instruments used in a reciprocating handpiece 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):259-262.
Summary
Aim
The manual files are still widely used for initial canal negotiation prior the use of nickel-titanium shaping instruments, to determine working length and to verify patency. A mechanical glide path can be performed using manual files with handpieces, such as M4 Handpiece (SybronEndo, USA) that allows a 30°/30° reciprocating motion. The Pathfinders (SybronEndo, USA) are hand files designed to negotiate complex canals, made from stainless steel (SS) or carbon steel (CS) alloys. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare cyclic fatigue resistance of these two different types of manual Pathfinder instruments used in a M4 reciprocating handpiece in double curved artificial canals.
Materials and methods
Manual instruments designed for glide path (size #9 ISO .02 taper) made from different alloys were selected: Group SS -stainless steel Pathfinders (Sybron Endo) and Group CS - carbon steel Pathfinders size K2 (Sybron Endo). Ten instruments of each group were tested for resistance to cyclic fatigue with a reciprocating M4 handpiece inside an artificial S-shaped canal; the time to fracture was recorded for each file and data were statistically analyzed (ANOVA).
Results
Mean values (and SD) were 527 (± 89) seconds for the CS instruments and 548 (± 104) seconds for the SS files. No significant differences were observed between groups (p=0,062).
Conclusions
According to the results, both carbon and stainless steel instruments presented similar fatigue resistance when used with M4 reciprocating handpiece in double curved canals.
PMCID: PMC3935348  PMID: 24611091
cyclic fatigue; endodontic instruments; carbon steel; stainless steel; reciprocating hand-piece
3.  Validation of the Italian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (IOHIP-14) 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):239-243.
Summary
Objective
The original english version of Oral Health Impact Profile (IOHIP) was translated in Italian language, and then validated among a consecutive sample of patients attending in the dental ward at the Dental Institute of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy.
Research design
The original english version of IOHIP-14 was translated into the Italian language by a professional translator and subsequently back-translated into English by an independent person and then validated. Participants: 852 person, 342 males (40.1%) and 510 females (59.9%) participated to this survey.
Results
The Cronbach’s alpha of the scale was 0.90. No correlation was negative and the correlation coefficients extended form 0.27 (the correlation between “pain“ “irritable”) to 0.69 (the correlation between “totally unable to function” and “difficult to do jobs”). The coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.74 with no value above the drop-out value of 0.20 recommended for included an item in a 15 points scale. A highly significant relationship between the IOHIP scores and the perceived oral health status was observed. The subjects who perceived their oral health status to be poor had a higher IOHIP score than those thought their oral health status was good or fair. Similarly there was a significant relationship between the IOHIP scores and the perceived need for dental care.
Conclusions
The translated Italian version of IOHIP-14 demonstrates an acceptable method to assess the impact of oral health on the quality of life, with evidence of reliability and validity, making it a promising instrument for assessing IOHIP in an adult population.
PMCID: PMC3935349  PMID: 24611088
oral health; quality of life; IOHIP-14
4.  A case report of a TPS dental implant rigidly connected to a natural tooth: 19-year follow-up 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):263-268.
Summary
Aim
A partial edentulous area was restored with a tooth to implant fixed partial denture and a rigid connection between the two elements. Maintenance recalls were performed over a 19-year period of observation on a yearly basis.
Methods
The following parameters were collected during each examination over the entire period of observation: PD around the implant and natural tooth abutment, gingival index, modified gingival index, plaque index, modified plaque index, occlusal assessment, marginal bone loss. Radiographic assessment of peri-implant bone remodeling was performed in a retrospective way. The following reference points were assessed on each image: fixture-abutment junction, threads, first contact of the crestal bone with the implant on both mesial and distal side. This made possible, with the known values for implant diameter and length, to make linear measurements of remaining peri-implant bone measured from the mesial and distal marginal bone levels and the fixture-abutment junction. The amount of bone change over the baseline to a 19 years follow-up observation time was calculated for both the implant and the natural tooth.
Results
Clinical parameters showed healthy values over the entire period of observation with slight isolated positive bleeding on probing. Bone remodeling values were constant over the entire period with slight higher values around the tooth. Peri-apical radiographs did not show any intrusion of the tooth.
Conclusions
The present case report showed the complete functionality and stability of a tooth to implant rigidly connected FPD over a period of 19 years.
PMCID: PMC3935350  PMID: 24611092
dental implants; natural tooth; rigid connection; follow-up
5.  Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for uncooperative patients according to surface protection treatment 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):250-258.
Summary
Background
Even today, use of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) as restorative material is indicated for uncooperative patients.
Aim
The study aimed at estimating the surface roughness of different GICs using or not their proprietary surface coatings and at observing the interfaces between cement and coating through SEM.
Materials and methods
Forty specimens have been obtained and divided into 4 groups: Fuji IX (IX), Fuji IX/G-Coat Plus (IXC), Vitremer (V), Vitremer/Finishing Gloss (VFG). Samples were obtained using silicone moulds to simulate class I restorations. All specimens were processed for profilometric evaluation. The statistical differences of surface roughness between groups were assessed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) (p<0.05). The Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-Way ANOVA) was used to evaluate the influence of two factors: restoration material and presence of coating. Coated restoration specimens (IXC and VFG) were sectioned perpendicular to the restoration surface and processed for SEM evaluation.
Results
No statistical differences in roughness could be noticed between groups or factors. Following microscopic observation, interfaces between restoration material and coating were better for group IXC than for group VFG.
Conclusions
When specimens are obtained simulating normal clinical procedures, the presence of surface protection does not significantly improve the surface roughness of GICs.
PMCID: PMC3935351  PMID: 24611090
GIC; roughness; coating
6.  Gnathological features in growing subjects 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):230-238.
Summary
Aim
Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of consecutive subjects.
Materials and methods
TMDs were recorded in a sample of 580 subjects (279 M, 301 F; mean age: 13.4y). For each subject a case history was compiled to evaluate the social and demographic parameters. An extraoral exam was effected to point out the face proportions, and an intraoral exam was performed to analyze dental occlusion, mandibular deviation during opening, presence of cross-bites, overjet and overbite. A functional exam was carried out to evaluate mandibular movements and to find joint sounds and myofascial pain. The sample was divided into 6 groups according to the: gender, age (ages 6y–11y and 12y–16y), Angle Dental Class, cross-bite, midline deviation and chewing side. For this investigation latex gloves, a millimeter calipers (precision 0,01 mm) and a phonendoscope were used. The percentages of signs and symptoms were compared using the ?2-test with Yates correction to determine the differences among the groups for the rates of TMDs, reduced opening/lateral/protrusive movements, and myofascial pain.
Results
The prevalence of TMDs in the total sample was 13,9%. Among 6y–11y subjects the percentage of TMD was 7,3% while it was 16,1% among 12y–16y subjects (?2=1.634;; p=0.201). Females showed a percentage of 16,6% of TMDs while males one of 10,8% (?2=0.556;; p=0.456). According to angle malocclusion, the prevalence was 14% in subjects with Class I malocclusion, 15% in sample with Class II and 9% in patients with Class III (?2=0.540;; p=0.763). According to presence or absence of crossbite, prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms was 13,8% among subjects without crossbite and 14,3% among subjects with crossbite, with no significant difference between the two subgroups (?2= 0,047619;; p=0.050). In relation of midline deviation, prevalence of TMDs was 15% in subjects without deviation, 15,8% in functional deviation subjects and 4,7% in anatomic deviation ones (?2=1.555;; p=0.05). Prevalence of TMDs was 12,6% in subjects with bilateral chewing and 28% in unilateral chewing.
Conclusions
TMDs seem to be not associated to age, to gender, Angle Class, cross-bite and chewing side.
PMCID: PMC3935352  PMID: 24611087
epidemiological study; temporomandibular disorders; dental malocclusions; skeletal discrepancy
7.  Diagnosis and treatment of synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ: a clinical case 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):269-272.
Summary
Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, chronic, progressive and proliferative lesion that usually affects large joints. This disease is characterized by the development of cartilaginous nodules within the space of synovial joints, tendon sheaths or cases; the nodules subsequently degrade, detach and form free-floating, calcified bodies within the joint space. In 1933, Axhausen described the first case of synovial chondromatosis affecting the temporomandibular joint. The aetiology still remains unknown, but a history of trauma and inflammation is often found. Clinical symptoms of chondromatosis affecting the TMJ are often characterized by swelling, pain, headache, crepitation, malocclusion and joint dysfunction. The big challenge concerning synovial chondromatosis is to suspect and establish a correct diagnosis. These nonspecific initial signs and symptoms may mimic other nonspecific TMJ’s diseases and can easily lead to a delay in diagnosis or a misdiagnosis. Here we present a case of synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ and the appropriate diagnostic and treatment performed.
PMCID: PMC3935353  PMID: 24611093
temporomandibular joint; chondrocalcinosis; TMJ surgery
8.  Immediate denture fabrication: a clinical report 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):273-277.
Summary
The aim of the present clinical report was to describe the use of a patient’s extensive fixed prosthesis, where the supporting teeth were hopeless, for fabricating an interim immediate complete denture. The present procedure was used to replicate the vertical dimension, phonetic and aesthetic of the existing fixed prostheses as part of an immediate denture and a final complete denture.
PMCID: PMC3935354  PMID: 24611094
immediate complete denture; dental prosthesis; vertical dimension
9.  Effectiveness of a personalized device in the evaluation of mandibular second molar periodontal healing after surgical extraction of adjacent third molar 
Annali di Stomatologia  2014;4(3-4):218-229.
Summary
Aim
The primary aim of the present study was to validate the effectiveness of a personalized device able to guide periodontal probing in evaluation of second molar periodontal healing after adjacent third molar surgical extraction. Secondarily, the study analyzed if any patient and tooth related factors affected the second molar periodontal healing as well as if they were able to affect the periodontal probing depth performed with or without the personalized device.
Materials and methods
Thirty-five lower second molars were evaluated after extraction of the adjacent third molar. Pre-operative as well as 3 and 12 month post-operative probing depths of the distal surface of the second molar were evaluated. All measurements were taken by two different methods: standard two-point and four-point probing using a personalized onlay-type guide. Periapical radiographs were also evaluated. The Pearson product moment and the general linear model with backward stepwise procedure were used for inferential statistics.
Results
The mean 12-month post-operative probing depth/mean pre-operative probing depth ratio obtained with the guided probing method showed a highly significant effect on the 12-month radiographic post-operative/pre-operative radiographic measure ratio. None of the examined patient- or tooth-related factors showed a significant effect on pre-operative/12-month post-operative radiographic measure ratio.
Conclusions
The use of the proposed personalized device seems to provide a more reliable estimate of second molar periodontal healing after adjacent third molar surgical extraction. No patient-or tooth-related factors seem to be able to affect either second molar periodontal healing or probing depth measures obtained with or without the personalized device in individuals younger than 25 years old. It can be therefore recommended that lower third molar surgical extraction be performed in young adults.
PMCID: PMC3935355  PMID: 24611086
periodontal healing; periodontal probing; radiographic measurements; smoking; statistics
10.  An unusual lesion of the palate 
Annali di Stomatologia  2013;4(Suppl 2):6.
PMCID: PMC3860212  PMID: 24353761
18.  Idiopathic fibrous hyperplasia of the palate 
Annali di Stomatologia  2013;4(Suppl 2):35.
PMCID: PMC3860195  PMID: 24353805

Results 1-25 (154)