In order to further improve the impact of the continuously evolving neurointerventional techniques, the interventional neuroradiologist needs to have at his disposal more powerful techniques to image the central nervous system. With the recent development of diagnostics techniques that are computed tomography and magnetic resonance based we are now able to assess not just morphology, but also physiology, physiopathology and function. This review discusses the place of diagnostic techniques in the evaluation that the interventional neuroradiologist hast to make when confronted with patients. We provide an overview of current techniques for the brain and spine.
Neuroradiology; Brain; Imaging; Magnetic resonance; Interventional radiology
Effective prevention and management of osteoporosis would require suitable methods for population screenings and early diagnosis. Current clinically-available diagnostic methods are mainly based on the use of either X-rays or ultrasound (US). All X-ray based methods provide a measure of bone mineral density (BMD), but it has been demonstrated that other structural aspects of the bone are important in determining fracture risk, such as mechanical features and elastic properties, which cannot be assessed using densitometric techniques. Among the most commonly used techniques, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered the current “gold standard” for osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk prediction. Unfortunately, as other X-ray based techniques, DXA has specific limitations (e.g., use of ionizing radiation, large size of the equipment, high costs, limited availability) that hinder its application for population screenings and primary care diagnosis. This has resulted in an increasing interest in developing reliable pre-screening tools for osteoporosis such as quantitative ultrasound (QUS) scanners, which do not involve ionizing radiation exposure and represent a cheaper solution exploiting portable and widely available devices. Furthermore, the usefulness of QUS techniques in fracture risk prediction has been proven and, with the last developments, they are also becoming a more and more reliable approach for assessing bone quality. However, the US assessment of osteoporosis is currently used only as a pre-screening tool, requiring a subsequent diagnosis confirmation by means of a DXA evaluation. Here we illustrate the state of art in the early diagnosis of this “silent disease” and show up recent advances for its prevention and improved management through early diagnosis.
Diagnosis of osteoporosis; Screening techniques; X-ray based methods; Quantitative ultrasound; Peripheral sites; Bone mineral density
AIM: To experimentally investigate the acoustical behavior of different dual-mode nanosized contrast agents (NPCAs) for echographic medical imaging at low ultrasound (US) frequency.
METHODS: We synthesized three different nanosized structures: (1) Pure silica nanospheres (SiNSs); (2) FePt-iron oxide (FePt-IO)-coated SiNSs; and (3) IO-coated SiNSs, employing three different diameter of SiNS-core (160, 330 and 660 nm). Tissue mimicking phantoms made of agarose gel solution containing 5 mg of different NPCAs in 2 mL-Eppendorf tubes, were insonified by a commercial echographic system at three different low US pulse values (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 MHz). The raw radiofrequency signal, backscattered from each considered NPCA containing sample, has been processed in order to calculate the US average backscatter intensity and compare the acoustic behavior of the different NPCA types.
RESULTS: The highest US contrast was exhibited by pure SiNSs; FePt-IO-coated SiNSs acoustical behavior followed a similar trend of pure SiNSs with a slight difference in terms of brightness values. The acoustic response of the examined NPCAs resulted function of both SiNS diameter and US frequency. Specifically, higher US frequencies determined higher value of the backscatter for a given SiNS diameter. Frequency-dependent enhancement was marked for pure SiNSs and became less remarkable for FePt-IO-coated SiNSs, whereas IO-coated SiNSs resulted almost unaffected by such frequency variations. Pure and FePt-IO-coated SiNSs evidenced an image backscatter increasing with the diameter up to 330 nm. Conversely, among the types of NPCA tested, IO-coated SiNSs showed the lowest acoustical response for each synthesized diameter and employed US frequency, although a diameter-dependent raising trend was evidenced.
CONCLUSION: The US characterization of magnetically covered SiNS shows that FePt-IO, rather than IO, was the best magnetic coating for realizing NPCAs suitable for dual mode imaging of deep organs, combining US and magnetic resonance imaging.
Ultrasound; Magnetic resonance; Nanocomposite; Dual-mode Imaging; Contrast agent; Diagnostic imaging
AIM: To compare the computed tomography (CT) dose and image quality with the filtered back projection against the iterative reconstruction and CT with a minimal electronic noise detector.
METHODS: A lung phantom (Chest Phantom N1 by Kyoto Kagaku) was scanned with 3 different CT scanners: the Somatom Sensation, the Definition Flash and the Definition Edge (all from Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The scan parameters were identical to the Siemens presetting for THORAX ROUTINE (scan length 35 cm and FOV 33 cm). Nine different exposition levels were examined (reference mAs/peek voltage): 100/120, 100/100, 100/80, 50/120, 50/100, 50/80, 25/120, 25/100 and 25 mAs/80 kVp. Images from the SOMATOM Sensation were reconstructed using classic filtered back projection. Iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, level 3) was performed for the two other scanners. A Stellar detector was used with the Somatom Definition Edge. The CT doses were represented by the dose length products (DLPs) (mGycm) provided by the scanners. Signal, contrast, noise and subjective image quality were recorded by two different radiologists with 10 and 3 years of experience in chest CT radiology. To determine the average dose reduction between two scanners, the integral of the dose difference was calculated from the lowest to the highest noise level.
RESULTS: When using iterative reconstruction (IR) instead of filtered back projection (FBP), the average dose reduction was 30%, 52% and 80% for bone, soft tissue and air, respectively, for the same image quality (P < 0.0001). The recently introduced Stellar detector (Sd) lowered the radiation dose by an additional 27%, 54% and 70% for bone, soft tissue and air, respectively (P < 0.0001). The benefit of dose reduction was larger at lower dose levels. With the same radiation dose, an average of 34% (22%-37%) and 25% (13%-46%) more contrast to noise was achieved by changing from FBP to IR and from IR to Sd, respectively. For the same contrast to noise level, an average of 59% (46%-71%) and 51% (38%-68%) dose reduction was produced for IR and Sd, respectively. For the same subjective image quality, the dose could be reduced by 25% (2%-42%) and 44% (33%-54%) using IR and Sd, respectively.
CONCLUSION: This study showed an average dose reduction between 27% and 70% for the new Stellar detector, which is equivalent to using IR instead of FBP.
Low dose computed tomography; Computed tomography image quality; Dose reduction; Computed tomography detector; Image noise; Computed tomography signal to noise
AIM: To report our preliminary experience with a new generation aspiration catheter in the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE).
METHODS: A retrospective database search for pulmonary artery embolectomy since introduction of the Pronto .035” and XL extraction catheter (Vascular Solutions, Minneapolis, MN) at our institution in 10/2009 was performed. Ten consecutive patients were identified in which the Pronto .035” or XL catheter was used between 01/2010 and 03/2013. All patients were referred for catheter based embolectomy due to contraindications to systemic lysis, or for being in such a critical clinical condition that immediate percutaneous treatment deemed warranted. The computed tomography (CT) right to left heart ratio as predictor for the severity of the PE was retrospectively evaluated on standard axial views. The difference between pre- and post-procedure pulmonary pressure measures was taken to assess the procedural effect.
RESULTS: Extensive PE was confirmed angiographically in all patients. Measured right- to left ventricle (RV/LV) ratios were elevated beyond one in seven of the eight available CTs. Acute procedural success defined as clinical removal of visible thrombus and improvement in mean pulmonary artery pressure was seen in all recorded patients (n = 8), the mean pulmonary pressures declined from a median (range) of 35.5 (19-46) to 23 (10-37, P = 0.008) mmHg. Neither death nor other complications occurred intra- or immediately periprocedural, yet short term mortality within 30 d was found in 6 out of 9 patients, one patient was lost in follow up. The cause of death within 30 d in the 6 patients was identified as: Circulatory failure in direct connection with the PE (n = 2), stroke, sepsis, or succumbing to malignancy in a hospice setting (n = 2).
CONCLUSION: Success in thrombus removal with improved pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension suggests this aspiration technique to be effective. Aspiration catheters should be part of further trials.
Pulmonary embolism; Aspiration; Catheter; Thrombectomy; Pulmonary artery
The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the common and uncommon sites of renal cell carcinoma recurrence throughout the body by examining their appearances on computerized tomography (CT). CT imaging protocols will be discussed. The sites of recurrence have been categorized into 4 groups: chest and mediastinum, abdomen and pelvis, musculoskeletal, and neurological. For each site of recurrence, a representative CT image correlate with discussion is provided. The unique CT appearance of renal cell carcinoma recurrence and how it can be used in lesion detection will be discussed. Renal cell carcinoma recurrences are hypervascular like the primary tumor, which can aid in not only lesion detection but also in some cases, differentiation from other primary tumors. Through CT case review of various sites of recurrence, lesions are shown to be easily seen on arterial phase while sometimes being nearly inconspicuous on venous or delayed phases. Coronal and sagittal reconstructions can also improve diagnostic sensitivity. CT is the most commonly used imaging tool for surveillance of renal cell carcinoma recurrence after nephrectomy. Knowledge of sites of recurrence as well as the utility of arterial phase imaging and multiplanar reconstructions will aid in optimizing detection of disease recurrence.
Renal cell carcinoma; Recurrence; CT; Metastasis; Diagnosis
The authors report on a case of benign myolipoma (synonym lipoleiomyoma) which was first described in 1991. The benign soft tissue tumor is composed of smooth muscle and adipose tissue and occurs sporadically in different locations. In the available literature cases were described retroperitoneal, spinal, orbital and subcutaneous and mostly have been discovered in females. Characteristically myolipomas are very large at diagnosis and reach diameters of 7 to 30 cm particularly in peritoneal or retroperitoneal localization. The sometimes enormous size leads to a displacing growth pattern which ultimately leads to the clinical symptoms. The patients often complain of nonspecific, mostly painless abdominal or thoracic pressure. Bordered by an intact capsule the tumors show no signs of malignancy and in the available literature there is no evidence of metastatic seeding. To the best of our knowledge the presented case is the first description of a diffuse mesenteric myolipoma in a male individual. In this article, we present the multidetector computed tomographic image characteristics, macroscopic appearance and histopathological findings.
Multidetector computed tomography; Male individual; Small bowel; Peritoneum; Diffuse mesenteric myolipoma
With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery, it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically. This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans. Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient, it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors. During radiotherapy, treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues. To combat this, image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine. However, it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume. Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician. Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure. Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy. Real-time dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose. They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient. In external beam radiotherapy, there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained: (1) Collimator; (2) Patient; (3) Couch; and (4) Electronic Portal Imaging Device. Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information about the actual dose delivered to radiotherapy patients.
Cancer; Radiotherapy; External beam; Dosimetry; Real-time
Fetal malformations are very frequent in industrialized countries. Although advanced maternal age may affect pregnancy outcome adversely, 80%-90% of fetal malformations occur in the absence of a specific risk factor for parents. The only effective approach for prenatal screening is currently represented by an ultrasound scan. However, ultrasound methods present two important limitations: the substantial absence of quantitative parameters and the dependence on the sonographer experience. In recent years, together with the improvement in transducer technology, quantitative and objective sonographic markers highly predictive of fetal malformations have been developed. These markers can be detected at early gestation (11-14 wk) and generally are not pathological in themselves but have an increased incidence in abnormal fetuses. Thus, prenatal ultrasonography during the second trimester of gestation provides a “genetic sonogram”, including, for instance, nuchal translucency, short humeral length, echogenic bowel, echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst, that is used to identify morphological features of fetal Down’s syndrome with a potential sensitivity of more than 90%. Other specific and sensitive markers can be seen in the case of cardiac defects and skeletal anomalies. In the future, sonographic markers could limit even more the use of invasive and dangerous techniques of prenatal diagnosis (amniocentesis, etc.).
Prenatal diagnosis; Prenatal sonography; Chromosome abnormalities; Nuchal translucency; Fetal echocardiography; Skeletal dysplasia
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis between neoplastic and non-neoplastic peripheral pleuro-pulmonary lesions.
METHODS: One hundred patients with pleural or peripheral pulmonary lesions underwent thoracic CEUS. An 8 microliters/mL solution of sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles stabilized by a phospholipid shell (SonoVue®) was used as US contrast agent. The clips were stored and independently reviewed by two readers, who recorded the following parameters: presence/absence of arterial enhancement, time to enhancement (TE), extent of enhancement (EE), pattern of enhancement (PE), presence/absence of wash-out, time to wash-out, and extent of wash-out. After the final diagnosis (based on histopathologic findings or follow-up of at least 15 mo) was reached, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of each CEUS parameter in the differential diagnosis between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were calculated. Furthermore, an arbitrary score based on the ratio between the PPVs of each CEUS parameter was calculated, to evaluate if some relationship could exist between overall CEUS behaviour and neoplastic or non-neoplastic nature of the lesions.
RESULTS: Five patients were lost at follow-up before a conclusive diagnosis was reached, 53 lesions resulted neoplastic and 42 non-neoplastic. Enhancement in the arterial phase was observed in 53/53 neoplastic lesions and 30/42 non-neoplastic lesions. On the whole, 40/42 non-neoplastic lesions showed absence of enhancement or early enhancement (95.2%) vs 3/53 neoplastic lesions (5.7%). EE was marked in 29/53 (54.7%) neoplastic lesions and 25/30 (83.3%) non-neoplastic lesions, moderate in 24/53 (45.5%) and 5/30 (16.7%), respectively. PE was homogeneous in 6/53 (11.3%) neoplastic lesions and 18/30 (60%) non-neoplastic lesions, inhomogeneous in 47/53 (88.7%) and 12/30 (40%), respectively. 19/30 (63.3%) non-neoplastic lesions enhancing in the arterial phase had no wash-out in the venous phase, 11/30 (36.7%) had late and mild wash-out. Wash-out was early in 26/53 (49%) neoplastic lesions, late in 26/53 (49%), absent in 1 (2%); marked in 16/53 (30.2%), and moderate in 36/53 (67.9%). The delayed enhancement in the arterial phase showed a sensitivity of 94.32%, specificity of 95.2%, PPV of 96.2%, NPV of 93%, PLR of 19.81, and NLR of 0.06 in identifying the neoplastic lesions. All other parameters individually considered showed unsatisfactory values of sensitivity, or specificity, or both, in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions. The median of the overall arbitrary score was 3 (range 0-14) in non-neoplastic lesions, and 16.5 (range 7.0-17.5) in neoplastic lesions (P < 0.001). The correlation between the diagnosis of neoplastic vs non-neoplastic lesion and the score value was statistically significant (r = 0.858, P < 0.001). Based on the score distribution, a cut-off of 7.5 enabled to reach a sensitivity of 98.1%, specificity of 95.1%, PPV 96.3%, NPV 97.5%, PVR 20.1 and NVR 0.02 in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions.
CONCLUSION: CEUS could be useful in the diagnostic workup of pleuropulmonary lesions. A delayed TE or a score ≥ 7.5 suggest the neoplastic nature of a lesion.
Thoracic ultrasonography; Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; Pleuropulmonary diseases; Neoplastic lesion; Diagnostic accuracy
Life-threatening hemorrhage rarely occurs from the portal vein following blunt hepatic trauma. Traditionally, severe portal bleeding in this setting has been controlled by surgical techniques such as packing, ligation, and venorrhaphy. The presence of portal hypertension could potentially increase the amount of hemorrhage in the setting of blunt portal vein trauma making it more difficult to control. This case series describes the use of indirect carbon dioxide portography to identify portal hemorrhage. Furthermore, these cases illustrate attempted endovascular treatment utilizing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in one scenario and transmesocaval shunt coiling of a jejunal varix in the other.
Trauma; Portal vein; Portal hypertension; Transjugular Intrahepatic Portasystemic Shunt; Varix
AIM: To retrospectively and prospectively compare diffusion-weighted (DW) images in the abdomen in a 1.5T system and 3.0T systems with and without two-channel functionality for B1 shimming.
METHODS: DW images of the abdomen were obtained on 1.5T and 3.0T (with and without two-channel functionality for B1 shimming) scanners on 150 patients (retrospective study population) and 10 volunteers (prospective study population). Eight regions were selected for clinical significance or artifact susceptibility (at higher field strengths). Objective grading quantified signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and subjective evaluation qualified image quality, ghosting artifacts, and diagnostic value. Statistical significance was calculated using χ2 tests (categorical variables) and independent two-sided t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests (continuous variables).
RESULTS: The 3.0T using dual-source parallel transmit (dpTX 3.0T) provided the significantly highest SNRs in nearly all regions. In regions susceptible to artifacts at higher field strengths (left lobe of liver, head of pancreas), the SNR was better or similar to the 1.5T system. Subjectively, both dpTX 3.0T and 1.5T systems provided higher image quality, diagnostic value, and less ghosting artifact (P < 0.01, most values) compared to the 3.0T system without dual-source parallel transmit (non-dpTX 3.0T).
CONCLUSION: The dpTX 3.0T scanner provided the highest SNR. Its image quality, lack of ghosting, and diagnostic value were equal to or outperformed most currently used systems.
Abdominal imaging; Diffusion weighted; 3.0T; Radiofrequency excitation; Signal-to-noise ratio
Xanthomas are rare bone tumors that occur more often in the appendicular skeleton and typically appear radiographically benign, with a narrow zone of transition and a sclerotic rim. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with hyperlipidemia presenting with bilateral shoulder pain after minor trauma. Radiographic and histopathologic investigation demonstrated intraosseous xanthoma with atypical features, including multifocality, a wide zone of transition and pathologic fractures-characteristics more commonly associated with aggressive lesions such as multiple myeloma or metastasis. The diagnosis, imaging, and histological appearance of xanthoma of bone are reviewed.
Xanthoma; Hyperlipidemia; Pathologic fracture
We present a case of left ectopic ureter insertion into the left seminal vesicle which is a rare anomaly. The incidence of ectopic insertion of the ureter is more common in females and is usually associated with incontinence, leading to the diagnosis, while in males it is present with infection. Ectopic ureter is defined as abnormal insertion of the ureter, occurring in the posterior urethra in approximately 50% of cases in males. Other sites include the seminal vesicle (approximately one-third), vas deferens, bladder neck, prostate and epididymis, while the urethra and vagina are commonly affected in females. Management is usually addressed to the upper tract only; if there is incontinence it requires removal of the ureteric stump. Our case was initially diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and the diagnosis confirmed by computed tomography (CT) guided seminal vesiculography as transrectal guidance for seminal vesiculography was refused by the patient. CT guided seminal vesiculography is less painful and more tolerable than the transrectal route.
Seminal vesicle; Ectopic; Ureter; Magnetic resonance imaging; Computed tomography; Seminal vesiculography
The purpose of this study was to review the magnitude of contribution of chemotherapy (CT) in the local control of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma in the studies where a combined radio-chemotherapy (RCT) was used (how much higher local control rates are obtained with RCT compared to RT alone). Studies on radiotherapy (RT) and combined RCT, neo-adjuvant, concurrent, adjuvant or combinations, reported after 1990 were reviewed. The mean complete response (CR) rates were significantly higher for the RCT studies compared to RT-alone studies: 75.9% vs 64.4% (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P = 0.001). Eleven of the included RCT studies involved 2-3 cycles of neo-adjuvant CT, in addition to concurrent RCT. The RCT studies included the one-phase type (where a full dose of RCT was given and then assessment of response and cystectomy for non-responders followed) and the two-phase types (where an assessment of response was undertaken after an initial RCT course, followed 6 wk later by a consolidation RCT for those patients with a CR). CR rates between the two subgroups of RCT studies were 79.6% (one phase) vs 71.6% (two-phase) (P = 0.015). The average achievable tumour control rates, with an acceptable rate of side effects have been around 70%, which may represent a plateau. Further increase in CR response rates demands for new chemotherapeutic agents, targeted therapies, or modified fractionation in various combinations. Quantification of RT and CT contribution to local control using radiobiological modelling in trial designs would enhance the potential for both improved outcomes and the estimation of the potential gain.
Bladder; Cancer; Chemoradiotherapy; Local control
Renal injuries are classified, based on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification, in to five grades of injury. Several imaging modalities have been available for assessing the grade of renal injury, each with their usefulness and limitations. Currently, plain radiographs and intravenous urography have no role in the evaluation of patients with suspected renal injury. Ultrasonography (USG) has a limited role in evaluating patients with suspected retroperitoneal injury; however, it plays an important role during follow up in patients with urinoma formation. USG helps to monitor the size of a urinoma and also for the drainage procedure. The role of selective renal arteriography is mainly limited to an interventional purpose rather than for diagnostic utility. Retrograde pyelography is useful in assessing ureteral and renal pelvis integrity in suspected ureteropelvic junction injury and for an interventional purpose, like placing a stent across the site of ureteric injury. Magnetic resonance imaging has no role in acute renal injuries. Multidetector computed tomography is the modality of choice in the evaluation of renal injuries. It is also useful in evaluating traumatic injuries to kidneys with preexisting abnormalities and can help to define the extent of penetrating injuries in patients with stab wounds in the flank region. The combination of imaging findings along with clinical information is important in the management of the individual patient. This article will describe a spectrum of renal injuries encountered in a trauma setting.
Trauma; Renal injury; Imaging; Focused abdominal sonography for trauma; Multidetector computed tomography; Contrast-enhanced computed tomography; Grading; American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification; Vascular injury; Revision of American Association for the Surgery of Trauma
AIM: To compare 3.0 Tesla (T) vs 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.
METHODS: Upon Institutional Review Board approval, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective review of 147 consecutive 3.0T MR examinations and 98 consecutive 1.5T MR examinations in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer between 7/2009 and 5/2010 was performed. Eleven patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the 3.0T group were excluded. Mammographically occult suspicious lesions (BIRADS Code 4 and 5) additional to the index cancer in the ipsilateral and contralateral breast were identified. Lesion characteristics and pathologic diagnoses were recorded, and results achieved with both systems compared. Statistical significance was analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.
RESULTS: In the 3.0T group, 206 suspicious lesions were identified in 55% (75/136) of patients and 96% (198/206) of these lesions were biopsied. In the 1.5T group, 98 suspicious lesions were identified in 53% (52/98) of patients and 90% (88/98) of these lesions were biopsied. Biopsy results yielded additional malignancies in 24% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 14% of patients in the 1.5T group (33/136 vs 14/98, P = 0.07). Average size and histology of the additional cancers was comparable. Of patients who had a suspicious MR imaging study, additional cancers were found in 44% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 27% in the 1.5T group (33/75 vs 14/52, P = 0.06), yielding a higher positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system.
CONCLUSION: 3.0T MR imaging detected more additional malignancies in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and yielded a higher PPV for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system.
Breast; Breast cancer; Cancer staging; Outcome; Magnetic resonance imaging; Breast magnetic resonance imaging; 3 Tesla; Technical
AIM: To investigate diagnostic accuracy of high, low and mixed voltage dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for detection of prior myocardial infarction (MI).
METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive patients (88% male, mean age 65 ± 11 years old) with clinically documented prior MI (> 6 mo) were prospectively recruited to undergo late phase DECT for characterization of their MI. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed using a dual source CT system (64-slice Definition or 128-slice Definition FLASH, Siemens Healthcare) with initial first pass and 10 min late phase image acquisitions. Using the 17-segment model, regional systolic function was analyzed using first pass CT as normal or abnormal (hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic). Regions with abnormal systolic function were identified as infarct segments. Late phase DE scans were reconstructed into: 140 kVp, 100 kVp, mixed (120 kVp) images and iodine-only datasets. Using the same 17-segment model, each dataset was evaluated for possible (grade 2) or definite (grade 3) late phase myocardial enhancement abnormalities. Logistic regression for correlated data was used to compare reconstructions in terms of the accuracy for detecting infarct segments using late myocardial hyperenhancement scores.
RESULTS: All patients reported prior history of documented myocardial infarction, with most occurring more than 5 years prior (n = 18; 75% of cohort). Fifty-five of 408 (13%) segments demonstrated abnormal wall motion and were classified as infarct. The remaining 353 segments were classified as non-infarcted segments. A total of 1692 segments were analyzed for late phase enhancement abnormalities, with 91 (5.5%) segments not interpretable due to artifact. Combined grades 2 and 3 compared to grade 3 only enhancement abnormalities demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity and similar specificity for detection of infarct segments for all reconstructions evaluated. Evaluation of different voltage acquisitions demonstrated the highest diagnostic performance for the 100 kVp reconstruction which had higher diagnostic accuracy (87%; 95%CI: 80%-90%), sensitivity (86%-93%; 95%CI: 54%-78%) and specificity (90%; 95%CI: 86%-93%) compared to the other reconstructions. For sensitivity, there were significant differences noted between 100 kVp vs 140 kVp (P < 0.0005), 100 kVp vs mixed (P < 0.0001), and 100 kVp vs iodine only (P < 0.005) using combined grade 2 and grade 3 perfusion abnormalities. For specificity, there were significant differences noted between 100 kVp vs 140 kVp (P < 0.005), and 100 kVp vs mixed (P < 0.01) using combined grades 2 and 3 perfusion abnormalities.
CONCLUSION: Low voltage acquisition CT, 100 kVp in this study, demonstrates superior diagnostic performance when compared to higher and mixed voltage acquisitions for detection of prior MI.
Myocardial infarction; Dual energy computed tomography; Cardiac computed tomography angiography; Ischemic heart disease; Late enhancement computed tomography
AIM: To determine the merits of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) as the primary diagnostic test for choledochal cysts (CC’s).
METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, patients who underwent MRCP for perioperative diagnosis were identified. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and radiographic findings were recorded. MRCP results were compared with intraoperative findings. A PubMed search identified studies published between 1996-2012, employing MRCP as the primary preoperative imaging and comparing results with either endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or operative findings. Detection rates for CC’s and abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) were calculated. In addition detection rates for clinically related biliary pathology like choledocholithiasis and cholangiocarcinomas in patients diagnosed with CC’s were also evaluated.
RESULTS: Eight patients were identified with CC’s. Six patients out of them had type IV CC’s, 1 had type I and 1 had a new variant of choledochal cyst with confluent dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD) and cystic duct. Seven patients had an APBJ and 3 of those had a long common-channel. Gallstones were found in 2 patients, 1 had a CBD stone, and 1 pancreatic-duct stone was also detected. In all cases, MRCP successfully identified the type of CC’s, as well as APBJ with ductal stones. From analyzing the literature, we found that MRCP has 96%-100% detection rate for CC’s. Additionally, we found that the range for sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy was 53%-100%, 90%-100% and 56%-100% in diagnosing APBJ. MRCP’s detection rate was 100% for choledocholithiasis and 87% for cholangiocarcinomas with concurrent CC’s.
CONCLUSION: After initial ultrasound and computed tomography scan, MRCP should be the next diagnostic test in both adult and pediatric patients. ERCP should be reserved for patients where therapeutic intervention is needed.
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; Choledochal cyst; Abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction; Diagnostic test; Choledocholithiasis; Cholangiocarcinomas
AIM: To present computed tomography (CT) findings of different histological subtypes of parotid gland masses in detail and to establish diagnostic strategy.
METHODS: From January 2009 to November 2011, 56 patients were collected through the histopathology and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems records, which revealed 5 basal cell adenoma (BCA), 16 pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 25 Warthin’s tumor (War-T), 3 Kimura’s disease (KD) and 7 parotid carcinoma (PCa) cases. All the CT images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, based on their description of morphology (location, number, size, margin and fibrous capsule) and enhancement patterns of masses. In addition, the diagnostic efficiency of diagnostic strategy is tested.
RESULTS: War-T and BCA patients’ mean age was 59.9 ± 12.6 years and 58.4 ± 18.2 years; the significant difference was seen in War-T vs PA and BCA vs PA. About 40% of War-Ts presented with bilateral multifocal lesions, a higher ratio than others. Seventy two percent of War-Ts were limited to the superficial lobe, followed by BCA 60% and PA 40%. Vessel facing sign and enlarged lymph nodes were both frequent in War-T, which respectively accounts for 84% and 76% of cases. Rapid contrast enhancement and decreases were unique for War-T. BCA and PA showed obvious delayed enhancement. The diagnostic strategy of parotid gland tumor had a good diagnostic efficiency, with high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.
CONCLUSION: Determination of the histological subtypes of parotid gland masses might be possible based on CT findings and clinical data. A diagnostic strategy with high diagnostic efficiency was established.
Parotid gland tumor; Pleomorphic adenoma; Warthin’s tumor; Multi slice computed tomography
We report a case of Krukenberg tumor of gastric origin with adnexal metastasis, in which ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) played a key diagnostic role. An 64-year-old female patient was referred to our department for abdominal pain, nausea and ascites. US examination was performed as first line diagnostic imaging approach, confirming the presence of ascites and detecting marked thickness of the gastric wall and a right adnexal mass. CEUS was immediately performed and showed arterial enhancement followed by wash-out in the venous phase of both the gastric wall and the adnexal mass, suggesting the diagnosis of gastric cancer with right adnexal metastasis (Krukenberg syndrome). The patient underwent US-guided paracentesis and esophagogastroduodenoscopy that showed linitis plastica. Cytologic examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed the presence of signet-ring cells, and histologic examination of the specimen obtained by endoscopic biopsy showed primary gastric mucus-producing adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells. Although transvaginal US is undoubtedly the method of choice to evaluate ovarian tumors, abdominal US and CEUS can provide key diagnostic elements, supporting clinicians in the first steps of the diagnostic work-up of abdominal and pelvic masses.
Adnexal masses; Gastric cancer; Krukenberg tumor; Ultrasonography; Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography
We are the first to report a case that showed spontaneous resolution of epidural hematoma which was related to a steroid-induced osteoporotic compression fracture. The patient had a painful fracture with an intravertebral cleft at L1 accompanying an epidural hematoma posteriorly. Immediate pain relief was achieved after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Complete resolution of hematoma was noted three months after procedure. We theorized that intravertebral stability after treatment might have played a role in this patient.
Vertebroplasty; Osteoporosis; Epidural hematoma; Spinal canal compromise; Intravertebral cleft
We present the case of a 21-year-old man with an incidentally detected cystic renal mass. A well-defined, solid mass measuring approximately 8 cm x 6 cm with a cystic component was identified in the left kidney by abdominal multidetector computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. The mass was well-enhanced on the corticomedullary CT phase and washout of enhancement occurred on the nephrographic phase. The mass contained peripheral wall and septal calcifications in the cystic component. The lesion was resected and diagnosed as a primary renal carcinoid tumor. Primary carcinoid tumors of the kidney are extremely rare. This case is notable because of the rarity of this neoplasm and its unique radiologic and pathologic findings. A review of previously reported cases in the literature is also presented.
Kidney; Kidney neoplasms; Carcinoid tumor; Neuroendocrine
AIM: To retrospectively analyze changes in clinical indication, referring medical specialty and detected pathology for small bowel double-contrast examinations.
METHODS: Two hundred and forty-one (n = 143 females; n = 98 males; 01.01.1990-31.12.1990) and 384 (n = 225 females; n = 159 males; 01.01.2004-31.12.2010) patients underwent enteroclysis, respectively. All examinations were performed in standardized double-contrast technique. After placement of a nasojejunal probe distal to the ligament of Treitz, radiopaque contrast media followed by X-ray negative distending contrast media were administered. Following this standardized projections in all four abdominal quadrants were acquired. Depending on the detected pathology further documentation was carried out by focused imaging. Examination protocols were reviewed and compared concerning requesting unit, indication and final report.
RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-one examinations in 1990 faced an average of 55 examinations per year from 2004-2010. There was an increase of examinations for gastroenterological (33.6% to 64.6%) and pediatric (0.4% to 7.8%) indications while internal (29.0% to 6.0% for inpatients and from 16.6% to 9.1% for outpatients) and surgical (12.4% to 7.3%) referrals significantly decreased. “Follow-up of Crohn’s disease” (33.1%) and “bleeding/tumor search” (15.1%) represented the most frequent clinical indications. A total of 34% (1990) and 53.4% (2004-2010) examinations yielded pathologic findings. In the period 01.01.2004 -31.12.2010 the largest proportion of pathological findings was found in patients with diagnosed Crohn’s disease (73.5%), followed by patients with abdominal pain (67.6% with history of surgery and 52.6% without history of surgery), chronic diarrhea (41.7%), suspected Crohn’s disease (39.5%) and search for gastrointestinal bleeding source/tumor (19.1%). The most common pathologies diagnosed by enteroclysis were “changes in Crohn’s disease” (25.0%) and “adhesions /strictures” (12.2%).
CONCLUSION: “Crohn’s disease” represents the main indication for enteroclysis. The relative increase of pathologic findings reflects today’s well directed use of enteroclysis.
Inflammatory bowel diseases; Fluoroscopy; Double-Balloon enteroscopy; Magnetic resonance imaging; Helical computed tomography
AIM: To evaluate the value of administration of hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide (HBB) for image quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate.
METHODS: Seventy patients were retrospectively included in the study. Thirty-five patients were examined with administration of 40 milligrams of HBB (Buscopan®; Boehringer, Ingelheim, Germany); 35 patients were examined without HBB. A multiparametric MRI protocol was performed on a 3.0 Tesla scanner without using an endorectal coil. The following criteria were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists on a five-point Likert scale: anatomical details (delineation between peripheral and transitional zone of the prostate, visualisation of the capsule, depiction of the neurovascular bundles); visualisation of lymph nodes; motion related artefacts; and overall image quality.
RESULTS: Comparison of anatomical details between the two cohorts showed no statistically significant difference (3.9 ± 0.7 vs 4.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.54, and 3.8 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.07) for both readers. There was no significant advantage regarding depiction of local and iliac lymph nodes (3.9 ± 0.6 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.07, and 3.8 ± 0.9 vs 4.1 ± 0.8, P = 0.19). Motion artefacts were rated as “none” to “few” in both groups and showed no statistical difference (2.3 ± 1.0 vs 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.19, and 2.3 ± 1.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.22). Overall image quality was rated “good” in average for both cohorts without significant difference (4.0 ± 0.6 vs 4.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.78, and 3.8 ± 0.8 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.09).
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated no significant effect of HBB administration on image quality. The study suggests that use of HBB is not mandatory for MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla.
Butylscopolamine; Buscopan; Motion artefacts; Magnetic resonance imaging; Prostate cancer; 3 Tesla