Lipomatous extra-axial lesions in the Sylvian fissure are a rare entity. Their identification, however, is usually simple if a systematic radiological approach is adopted. The best line of management for these lesions is still a matter of controversy and fraught with complications. We present a case of a Sylvian fissure lipoma referred to our neurosurgery services with symptomatic seizures and in a post-traumatic patient. The radiological differentiating features of intracranial lipomas and intracranial dermoids have been discussed. The unusual location of the lesion, in combination with the history of seizures and the nature of presentation (trauma being a red-herring) make this case an interesting find. The lesion was managed conservatively with good outcomes at follow up, on anti-epileptic medications.
Lipoma; Sylvian fissure; Seizures; Epilepsy; Extra-axial lesion
Extrathoracic lung hernias can be congenital or acquired. Acquired hernias may be classified by etiology into traumatic, spontaneous, and pathologic. We present a case of a 40-year-old male with a history of bronchial asthma and a blunt chest trauma who presented complaining of sharp chest pain of acute onset that began after five consecutive days of vigorous coughing. Upon physical examination a well-demarcated deformity overlying the third intercostal space of the left upper anterior hemithorax was revealed. Thoracic CT scan showed that a portion of the anterior bronchopulmonary segment of the left upper lobe had herniated through a chest wall defect. The role of imaging, especially chest computed tomography with multiplanar image reconstructions and maximum (MIP) and minimum intensity projection (MinIP) reformats can clearly confirm the presence of the herniated lung, the hernial sac, the hernial orifice in the chest wall, and exclude possible complications such as lung tissue strangulation.
Intercostal lung hernia; computed tomography; image reformats
We report a rare clinical presentation of renal cell carcinoma in the form of small bowel obstruction which was secondary to a metastatic ileal intussusception. Intussusception in the elderly is most commonly due to an underlying neoplasm, however metastases from a renal cell carcinoma is very uncommon. We present clinical details, radiological and pathological findings of the case followed by a discussion of the diagnosis and management of intussusception in the adult population.
Renal cell carcinoma; Intussusception; Ileal; Metastatic; CT; Computed tomography
Although the clinical features of gluteus maximus contracture syndrome have been frequently described, imaging features have been seldom described. Most commonly reported cases are those following intramuscular injection in the gluteal region although congenital contracture is an uncommon but important occurrence. This condition has most often been reported in children of school going age. These patients often present with difficulty in squatting, limitation of hip motion or specific deformities and often require surgical correction. We describe the plain radiography, ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this condition in a patient with no previous known history of intramuscular injections.
Gluteus maximus; contracture; MRI pelvis; hip abduction deformity; congenital
We report the case of a previously well 18-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with lower limb pain. An ultrasound demonstrated extensive left sided deep vein thrombosis and computed tomography demonstrated inferior vena cava agenesis, leading to the diagnosis of inferior vena cava agenesis associated deep vein thrombosis. The aetiology of inferior vena cava agenesis is explored in depth.
Inferior vena cava agenesis; deep vein thrombosis; inferior vena cava agenesis associated deep vein thrombosis; inferior vena cava anomalies; venous thromboembolism; IVC
Cardiac metastases are rare, but more common than primary cardiac tumours, and metastatic melanoma involves heart or pericardium in greater than 50% of the cases, although cardiac metastasis are rarely diagnosed ante mortem because of the lack of symptoms. A multimodality approach may help to obtain a more timely diagnosis and in some cases a quicker and better diagnosis can enable a surgical resection to prevent cardiac failure or to reduce the tumour before chemotherapy. We present a case of a patient with cardiac metastasis as first evidence of a malignant melanoma: in this case the patient underwent echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography. This case underlines the importance of advanced diagnostic techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance, not only for the detection of cardiac masses, but also for a better anatomic definition and tissue characterization, to enable a quick and accurate diagnosis which can be followed by appropriate treatment.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; computed tomography; metastases; melanoma; cardiac tumours
We report a case of primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as multiple intraventricular masses in an immunocompetent 68 year old man with severe headache and unsteady gait. The diagnosis was obtained by analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and subsequent surgical biopsy. This is an unusual appearance for primary central nervous lymphoma, with the majority of the cases presenting as solitary masses.
Primary CNS lymphoma; intraventricular masses
Intraosseous pneumatocyst is a gas containing lesion located within a bone. It is a relatively rare condition of unclear etiology and with an undetermined natural course. Gas-density-fluid level pneumatocyst is even rarer. Pneumatocyst is frequently seen in adults but rarely reported in pediatrics. The lesion is usually small and is seen in the vertebral bodies as well as around the sacroiliac joints. Rarely does it occur in other parts of the skeleton. We are reporting a case of large blood signal intensity containing intraosseous pneumatocyst in a 14 year old boy and reviewing other pediatric cases of pneumatocysts as well as those with gas-density-fluid level. The recognition of this incidental rare benign lesion is essential to avoid over investigation and an inappropriate aggressive intervention.
Intraosseous pneumatocyst; Gas-density-fluid level; Pediatrics; CT; MRI
Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver is a rare, benign lesion that may be mistaken for malignancy. IPTs are difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical, laboratory and imaging features. We report the case of a 38-year old Asian male who presented with fatigue, weight loss and hepatomegaly. He was found to have a large hepatic IPT and underwent surgical resection; approximately two and a half years later, he developed acute cholangitis secondary to IPT recurrence. We present the imaging features of hepatic IPT using ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also review the literature on the diagnosis and management of this disease. The unique features of this case include the IPT’s recurrence following surgical resection, large size and multiple modalities presented.
Inflammatory pseudotumor; inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; liver; ultrasound; computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging
Pseudocysts containing activated enzymes are a common complication of pancreatitis. Pseudocysts can rupture into adjacent structures including the peritoneal cavity, adjacent organs, and rarely vascular structures. While arterial pseudoaneurysms and venous thrombosis or occlusion are well known complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis, only 17 cases of pancreas-portal venous fistula have been encountered in review of the literature. A patient with chronic pancreatitis presented with a history of weight loss, fatigue and was found to have a pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula. The patient was treated surgically with good outcome.
pancreatic duct; portal vein; fistula; pseudocyst; pancreatitis; fat necrosis; percutaneous trans-hepatic portography
We present a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with a skin lesion with extension to the soft tissues of the left thigh. On ultrasound, a homogeneous and hypoechoic expansile formation in the subcutaneous tissue was found, measuring 6.5 × 5 × 3.5 cm, with scarce vascularization. Computed tomography showed a low attenuating neoformation with surrounding edema. An inflammatory disorder was the first diagnosis, but the absence of improvement with antibiotics led us to perform magnetic resonance imaging that showed a high signal lesion on T2-weighted imaging and low intensity signal on T1-weighted imaging and surrounding contrast uptake. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography showed uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose by the lesion. The final diagnosis was anaplastic cutaneous lymphoma.
Anaplastic Lymphoma; Ultrasound; Computed Tomography; Magnetic Resonance; Positron Emission Tomography
Systemic arterialization of the lung without pulmonary sequestration is the rarest form of anomalous systemic arterial supply to the lung. This condition is characterised by an aberrant arterial branch arising from the aorta which supplies an area of lung parenchyma with normal bronchopulmonary anatomy. It is often diagnosed following investigation of an incidental cardiac murmur or based on abnormal imaging, as most patients are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. Thoracic computed tomography and computed tomography angiography are generally the most useful diagnostic tests. We present a case of a 22-year old female who was diagnosed with systemic arterial supply to a portion of otherwise normal right lower lobe following investigation of low volume haemoptysis.
Systemic arterialization of the lung without sequestration; systemic arterial supply; pulmonary artery abnormality; lung; haemoptysis; pulmonary sequestration
Orbital pathology often presents a diagnostic challenge to the reporting radiologist. The aetiology is protean, and clinical input is therefore often necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis. With this manuscript, we provide a pictorial review of adult ocular and orbital pathology.
Orbit; globe; adult; pathology; vascular; inflammatory; infectious; endocrine; neoplastic; paranasal sinuses; bone lesions; trauma; iatrogenic
Massive pulmonary embolism not amenable to systemic thrombolysis is a therapeutic challenge. Catheter directed clot fragmentation and thrombolysis have been efficacious in this setting. We describe successfully treating a massive pulmonary embolism with catheter-directed thrombolysis and clot fragmentation using local tPA, aspiration, and the Cleaner™ device in a patient with an absolute contraindication to systemic thrombolysis.
Pulmonary embolism; catheter-directed thrombolysis; clot fragmentation; Cleaner™ device
Pylephlebitis - suppurative thrombophlebitis of the portal and/or mesenteric veins - is a rare complication of abdominal infections, especially diverticulitis. It can lead to severe complications such as hepatic abscess, sepsis, peritonitis, bowel ischemia, etc., which increase the mortality rate. Here we present a case of suppurative thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein, as a complication of sigmoid diverticulitis. The epidemiology, clinical and radiological features as well as treatment strategies are discussed. We also review the anatomy of the mesenteric vein given its anatomic variation in the present case and how this anatomic knowledge might influence the operative approach should surgery be necessary.
pylephlebitis; mesenteric thrombosis; mesenteric vein variant; inferior mesenteric vein; sigmoid diverticulitis; CT
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucocorticoids. The enzyme deficiency generally leads to a deficiency of cortisol and/or aldosterone production within the adrenal cortex. The lack of glucocorticoids generally leads to elevated levels of plasma corticotropin (ACTH), which often results in adrenal hyperplasia. Testicular adrenal rest tumors may develop in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to overstimulation of aberrant adrenal cells within the testes. Recognition of this disease entity is essential when evaluating young males with testicular masses.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia; testicular adrenal rest tumors; testicular ultrasonography
Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.
Volvulus; Pregnancy Complications; Intestinal Diseases; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Ultrasonography
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (previously Ehlers-Danlos IV) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder caused by a 2q31 COL3A1 gene mutation encoding pro-alpha1 chain of type III collagen (in contrast to classic Ehlers-Danlos, caused by a COL5A1 mutation). The vascular type accounts for less than 4% of all Ehlers-Danlos cases and usually has a poor prognosis due to life threatening vascular ruptures and difficult, frequently unsuccessful surgical and vascular interventions. In 70% of cases, vascular rupture or dissection, gastrointestinal perforation, or organ rupture is a presenting sign. We present a case of genetically proven vascular Ehlers-Danlos with fatal recurrent retroperitoneal hemorrhages secondary to a ruptured right common iliac artery dissection in a 30-year-old male. This case highlights the need to suspect collagen vascular disorders when a young adult presents with unexplained retroperitoneal hemorrhage, even without family history of such diseases.
Vascular type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Arterial dissection; Common iliac artery dissection; Arterial rupture; Collagen vascular disease; Ectasia; Retroperitoneal hemorrhage; Axial CT; Retroperitoneal hematoma; Vascular imaging; Elastin; Iliac artery; Vascular fragility; Hypovolemic shock; Back pain; Perforation
Myelolipoma is an uncommon benign tumour composed of mature fat tissue and haematopoietic elements and is most commonly found in the adrenal gland. We report a case, which was discovered incidentally on chest X-ray, of a rare occurrence of multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma in the thoracic paravertebral region. This was further investigated with multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The presumed diagnosis, of extra-adrenal myelolipoma, was histologically confirmed via tissue sample obtained by computed tomography guided biopsy. We compare the adrenal and extra-adrenal entities from the perspective of published literature and also review the cases, published in Pubmed, of extra-adrenal myelolipomas in order to summarize the different locations of this lesion.
Extra-adrenal; adrenal; paravertebral; myelolipoma; incidental; CT; MRI; fat
Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital anomaly present at birth in males. Spontaneous testicular descent occurs in the majority of patients, typically before 6 months of age. Radiology plays an important role, predominantly in the assessment of the nonpalpable testis, with ultrasound being the most commonly employed modality. Magnetic resonance imaging is however the most accurate modality for the assessment of the nonpalpable testis, particularly with the use of fat suppressed T2 and diffusion weighted sequences. While traditionally treated in infancy, the untreated or occult form can radiologically be mistaken for lymphadenopathy. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography can play an important role in differentiating cryptorchidism from lymphadenopathy, most commonly in patients with known malignancy, although FDG uptake can be variable. We present a case of bilateral cryptorchidism in an adult male which masqueraded as lymphadenopathy in a patient with lower limb melanoma.
Cryptorchidism; Undescended testis; Lymphadenopathy; Lymph node; Melanoma
Venocaval anomalies are uncommon in the general population and often go unrecognized, but physicians should be aware of their significance. Duplicate superior vena cava should be identified during cardiac imaging, surgery, and catheter insertions. While interrupted inferior vena cava can predispose to thrombus formation, they protect against pulmonary embolism from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. We describe a unique case of a patient in which combined superior vena cava and inferior vena cava anomalies were found incidentally. This is the first reported case of a duplicate superior vena cava and interrupted inferior vena cava in a single patient in English literature. This article also provides a literature review on the topic.
Venocaval anomaly; vena cava embryology; duplicate SVC; interrupted IVC
Burkitt lymphoma is a fast-growing high grade B-cell neoplasm that rarely affects adults. Three clinical variants are described in the World Health Organization classification: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. The non-endemic form typically presents as an abdominal mass in children. Symptoms usually occur due to mass effect or direct intestinal involvement. We describe a very unusual presentation of a sporadic Burkitt lymphoma case in a 61-year-old male with diffuse peritoneal and omental involvement, without lymphadenopathies, mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Burkitt lymphoma; multidetector computed tomography; omental caking; peritoneal neoplasm
A 64 year-old male with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presented with bilateral hydronephrosis and renal impairment. Bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy drainage followed by ante-grade stenting was done. Shortly afterwards, the patient developed an extensive left-sided pleural effusion. His serum creatinine rose and he became anuric. Emergency pleural aspiration and later, pleural drainage were performed. Pleural aspirate was diagnostic of urinothorax and non contrast CT scan demonstrated a left reno-pleural fistula. The right stent was removed cystoscopically. The left stent could not be removed cystoscopically and was replaced in an ante grade manner through a fresh percutaneous renal approach. This led to cessation of pleural fluid accumulation. The patient was discharged with bilateral ureteric stents and normal renal function. A month later, he had normal renal function, no hydronephrosis and normal chest x-rays.
Urinothorax; percutaneous nephrostomy; reno-pleural fistula; complication; prostate cancer; ureteral stent
Heterotopic ossification is a benign process of mature laminar bone formation in the soft tissues. A synonymous term used to describe this pathology in muscle is myositis ossificans. The pathogenesis is unclear, but is likely multifactorial. The basic pathology is thought to be ectopic production of osseous tissue as part of a repair process in response to tissue injury. This report describes a case of heterotopic ossification of the quadratus lumborum muscle as an incidental finding. This case highlights that treatment is based on symptoms and conservative management might be appropriate for the asymptomatic patient.
Quadratus lumborum muscle; idiopathic ossification; imaging; computed tomography