Coronary artery anomalies may involve the origin, course, and structure of epicardial coronary arteries and occur in less than 1% of the general population. Clinical presentation ranges from being completely asymptomatic to sudden death. Multi-detector computed tomography has come a long way in the diagnosis of coronary artery anomalies since the introduction of 4 rows of detectors in scanners, considering its non invasive nature and the benefits of 3D reconstruction. Defining the coronary anatomy helps in clinical decision making and timely intervention. Since repeated angiographies may be required, low dose CT is an excellent investigation for diagnosis and post interventional follow up rather than repeated invasive catheter angiographies or high dose CT examination. We report two cases of clinically significant single coronary artery anomalies; a case of single Right coronary artery and another case of single Left coronary artery (Anomaly of origin & course).
Coronary anomalies; coronary arteries; single coronary artery; MDCT in coronary artery imaging
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging has risen to the forefront of imaging for acute stroke. However, the differential diagnosis of restricted diffusion is wide and includes ischemia, metabolic derangements, infections, and highly-cellular masses. We present a case of central nervous system (CNS) candidiasis presenting radiographically as bilateral punctate areas of restricted magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion in the basal ganglia. This case illustrates the value of carefully considering the causes of restricted diffusion in the brain, notably to be broader than acute stroke and to include invasive fungal infections.
Neurocandidiasis; Central Nervous System Candida; Diffusion Weighted Imaging; Restricted Diffusion; Basal Ganglia
Nipple discharge is a common breast complaint in women. Discharge in the post-operative patient for breast cancer is especially concerning, as these women are at higher risk for recurrent or new breast cancer. Galactography is a reliable method to evaluate nipple discharge, attempting to identify a mass that may cause the discharge within the duct of concern. We present two cases of women with spontaneous nipple discharge after lumpectomy for breast cancer. In both cases, evaluation with galactography demonstrated a post-operative seroma that communicated with a native breast duct, causing nipple discharge. This presentation of a post-operative seroma is important to recognize by breast surgeons and breast imagers. Galactography can play an important role in the work up of these patients, demonstrating etiology of the nipple discharge with greater confidence than other imaging modalities.
mammography; breast; post-operative; seroma; spontaneous nipple discharge; galactography
A 53 year-old African American woman with a three-year history of pulmonary sarcoidosis had a follow-up computed tomographic scan to evaluate the status of her disease and response to treatment. On the scan, an abnormal, hypodense mass on the left renal superior pole, which was not present on previous scans, was incidentally discovered. The initial concern was of carcinoma, despite her lack of any urinary symptoms. She underwent further evaluation with magnetic resonance, and the enhancement pattern and the shape of the mass were more suggestive of lymphoma or infarction than a carcinoma. A review of literature revealed sparse case reports demonstrating sarcoidosis presenting as infiltrative granulomatous masses resembling tumors with nonspecific imaging qualities. This diagnosis was entertained and then proven by biopsy. Pseudotumorous renal sarcoid should be in the differential of renal masses, especially in patients with a history of sarcoidosis, as it alters clinical management.
Sarcoidosis; Renal Sarcoidosis; Renal Mass; Pseudotumor
We report a case of a mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in a two-year-old boy. He presented to the emergency room with abdominal distention and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography were performed and revealed a large, intra-peritoneal lesion, with thick wall, multiple cysts of variable size and solid septa. The lesion was surgically resected. Pathological examination revealed a mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver. We are including a short literature review, highlighting the main features of mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver, and discussing its differential diagnosis.
Mesenchymal hamartoma; liver; abdominal cystic masses
Post-pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage is a life threatening complication reported to occur in 2–7% of patients. Historically, treatment required an exploratory laparotomy. Introduction of endovascular embolization has broadened the available treatment options. The most common location for a post-pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage is the gastroduodenal artery stump. Nonetheless, unusual sources of hemorrhage exist and are hard to localize, thus they are often treated with open surgery. Here we report two cases of CTA proven hemorrhage from the dorsal pancreatic arcade and transverse pancreatic artery, which were successfully located with conventional angiography and treated with endovascular arterial coil embolization. Both patients were status post-pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) and presented with a sentinel bleed and a drop in hematocrit levels.
Angiography; Computed Tomography; pseudoaneurysm; endovascular procedure; coil embolization
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), also known as Van Bogaert-Scherer-Epstein disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of the lipid metabolism. To date, there are less than 300 cases reported worldwide. We present a case of a 30 year old male who presented with mental retardation and swelling of ankles, with the a spectrum of CTX imaging findings. Imaging studies were performed which included plain X-ray, Ultrasound(US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) of both the brain and ankles. These pointed towards the diagnosis of CTX with the entire spectrum of findings which was confirmed with biopsy and laboratory findings. CTX is a potentially treatable condition with replacement therapy, and hence early diagnosis before neurological deterioration is important. This is aided by the imaging findings which are conclusive forte diagnosis of CTX.
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis; CTX; Cholestanol; CYP27A1; Chenodeoxycholic acid
The azygos fissure is typically visible on chest radiography as a right paramediastinal supernumerary line in projection of the right lung apex. The azygos vein, located at the bottom of the fissure, is visible as a teardrop- shaped opacity. The empty azygos fissure is a rare finding. It is the consequence of the displacement of the azygos vein out of the fissure with a close paramediastinal position. This phenomenon, related to lung collapse, has been described in the literature as the migration of the azygos vein due to various etiologies such as increased intrathoracic pressure, spontaneous or iatrogenic pneumothorax, or even during sudden development of kyphosis. In our clinical case, the empty azygos fissure was developed after drainage of a large right pleural effusion. An empty azygos fissure must therefore suggest a history of pulmonary atelectasis related to pneumothorax or large drained effusion.
Empty azygos fissure; azygos fissure; vanishing; CT; pleural effusion
A femoral hernia containing an appendix, known as de Garengeot hernia, is an uncommon and potentially confusing presentation. Prompt differentiation of this condition from other groin hernias in an acute setting will influence management and reduce morbidity. Computed Tomography (CT) should be performed in all suspected cases and an awareness of likely CT findings can facilitate rapid pre-operative diagnosis. Despite this, we present only the fourth published case of prospective CT diagnosis of de Garengeot hernia.
de Garengeot; prospective diagnosis; femoral; hernia
Adenoma malignum is a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma. Clinical presentation is variable with watery vaginal discharge being the most commonly associated finding. We report a case of adenoma malignum incidentally detected on pelvic computed tomography (CT) performed for a trauma patient. The cervical mass was further characterized by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and remained compatible with adenoma malignum. Local cervical biopsy was suggestive of the diagnosis which was subsequently confirmed by gross surgical pathology. We briefly discuss adenoma malignum with particular attention to CT and MR imaging features.
Adenoma malignum; cervical neoplasm; pelvic MR
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common form of hereditary cerebral angiopathy. We present a case in which a pattern of diffusion signal change compatible with bihemispheric acute watershed infarcts occurred in a symptomatic patient demonstrating global hypoperfusion. To our knowledge, watershed infarcts in the clinical presentation of CADASIL have not been previously described.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infracts and leukoencephalopathy; CADASIL; Watershed infarcts; Global cerebral hypoperfusion; MRI
Fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare variant of solitary fibrous tumor, a mesenchymal fibroblastic neoplasia with a particular branching hypervascular pattern. This tumor is usually classified as benign and only very few fat-forming SFTs with malignant histologic features have been reported. We report a histologically malignant fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor in a 61-year-old man, located in his neck. Ultrasonography examination was first performed showing a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly hyperechoic, with sound beam attenuation, containing two hypoechoic solid nodules. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography examinations demonstrated a heterogeneous and predominantly adipose mass, containing post contrast enhancing solid nodules and thin septations. Treatment consisted of total removal of the lesion. Histologically, the tumor showed hypercellularity, numerous mitoses and cytological atypia, fulfilling the criteria for malignancy. The patient had no metastasis. This rare tumor may be confused with other fat-containing lesions on imaging examinations, mainly liposarcoma.
magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; helical computed tomography; ultrasonography; lipomatous hemangiopericytoma; malignant solitary fibrous tumor; fat-forming
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is an idiopathic non-malignant disease of large airways featured by submucosal cartilaginous to osseous nodules overlying the cartilaginous rings, which may be focal or diffuse. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic to symptoms like breathlessness, recurrent chest infections, cough and hemoptysis. Due to the lack of awareness of this disease, it remains an under recognized entity. We are describing the computed tomography and bronchoscopic findings of two recently diagnosed cases at our institute. The purpose of this report is to familiarize radiologists with imaging appearance of this condition, with the goal of increasing clinical suspicion of this uncommon condition.
Calcification; CT; Osteocartilaginous nodules; Trachea; Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica; TPO
Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease of uncertain etiology that affects lymph nodes. CD can be classified as a) unicentric vs. multicentric, based on clinical and radiological findings, b) hyaline vascular (80–90%) vs. plasmacytic (10–20%) vs. mixed cellularity variety based on histopathology. Unicentric disease is more common in the 3rd and 4th decade, whereas the multicentric form is more common in the 5th and 6th decade with no sex predilection. HIV seropositive individuals appear to be at an increased risk for multicentric castleman's disease (MCD) at a younger age due to the increased incidence of HHV- 8 infection. Diagnosis is usually based on histopathology features as imaging features show considerable overlap, thus posing diagnostic difficulties. Overall prognosis is good, particularly in the unicentric variety of disease. We have presented a case of the unicentric CD in a 40 year old male patient having abdominal pain and hematuria as chief complaints.
Castleman's Disease; unicentric; idiopathic; CT; Computed Tomography; MRI; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Computer tomography through the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) is the mainstay investigation of suspected renal tract calculi. However, several pathologies other than renal tract calculi can cause apparent urinary bladder calcification. We describe the case of a 45 year old man who presented with left sided renal colic. Prone CT KUB performed on admission revealed a calcified urachal remnant mimicking a urinary bladder calculus in the dependent portion of the urinary bladder, confirmed by reviewing the multi-planar reformatted images. This is the first reported case in the literature of this phenomenon. We discuss the importance of using multi-planar reformatted images (MPR) and maximum intensity projection images (MIP), as well as careful review of previous imaging, in making the correct diagnosis. We also discuss the differential diagnoses that should be considered when presented with urinary bladder calcification.
Urachus; Calculus; Urachal remnant; Computed tomography
Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized as aplasia or hypoplasia of uterus and vagina in women with normal development of secondary sex characteristics. It affects 1 in 4000–5000 female births. Women with this syndrome present with primary amenorrhoea. MRKH syndrome may be associated with renal, skeletal, cardiac and auditory anomalies. Women with MRKH syndrome may develop leiomyoma from a rudimentary uterus, though very rare. Initial investigation in women having MRKH syndrome with leiomyoma is ultrasonography (USG). However, CT and MRI are more accurate to evaluate the pelvic anatomy and pathologies.
MRKH syndrome; mullerian duct anomalies; leiomyoma; cystic degeneration
Intramural esophageal hematoma is part of a spectrum of esophageal injuries. Vomiting and straining, endoscopic procedures and bleeding disorders are the most common predisposing factors. However, it can also be an unusual complication of anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy. The most common symptoms are retrosternal chest pain, dysphagia and hematemesis. Computed tomography is the modality of choice and treatment is medically conservative with the cessation of Warfarin and thrombolysis use. When anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy is necessary, periodic reassessment for symptoms of intramural esophageal hematoma may be helpful for early identification and management. We described one case of intramural esophageal hematoma possibly resulting from anticoagulation and/or thrombolysis therapy in the setting of pulmonary embolism.
Esophageal hematoma; intramural; spontaneous; anticoagulation; thrombolysis
We describe a case of an incidentally-diagnosed ectopic tooth showing anomalous morphology in the maxillary antrum, using three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography images of the tooth obtained by multi-detector computed tomography.
Ectopic tooth; anomalous morphology; maxillary sinus; MDCT; Three-dimensional reconstruction
We report an unusual case of an invasive thymoma with a thrombus in the right atrium and describe the radiological findings consistent with the malignant nature of the thrombus. The thrombus showed significant enhancement on computerized tomography images similar to the tumoral mass. On magnetic resonance imaging, both the tumor and the thrombus have heterogeneously high signal intensities on T2-weighted images. On diffusion-weighted images they both exhibit high signal intensity and low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values which support the malignant nature of the thrombus and the mass.
invasive thymoma; tumor thrombus; intravascular growth
For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.
phyllodes; cystosarcoma phyllodes; breast cancer; mesenchyal breast tumor; metastatic; enhancing septations
While the clinical findings of cocaine-induced enteropathy from mesenteric ischemia are fairly well understood, there is a paucity of imaging description and detail in the literature that describes these findings. Imaging characteristics of cocaine-induced mesenteric ischemia on CT examination include bowel edema, mucosal enhancement, venous engorgement, mesenteric free fluid, and dilatation of the small bowel lumen. A thorough history, physical examination, and laboratory testing are critical for the diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention may be necessary. We present a case of cocaine-induced mesenteric ischemia in a 49 year old male which resolved within 24 hours of supportive therapy.
Cocaine Enteritis; Cocaine Enteropathy; Enteritis; Enteropathy; Mesenteric Ischemia
Complete agenesis of urinary bladder is an extremely rare anomaly with only a few live cases reported so far. In most of the instances death occurs early as it may be incompatible with life. Here we report a case of adolescent female with urinary bladder and unilateral renal agenesis, who presented with a rather unusual presentation of incontinence, for a computed tomography (CT) examination. Other congenital abnormalities visualised in the CT abdomen are also discussed.
Urinary bladder agenesis; computed tomography; urinary incontinence
Pancreatic tuberculosis is rare and can occur in the absence of evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. Here we review the radiological appearance of pancreatic tuberculosis and compare it with other cystic pancreatic lesions, including common lesions (pseudocysts, serous or mucinous cystadenomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm) and rare lesions such as solid pseudopapillary tumors, etc. Their typical localizations within the pancreas and their malignant potential are presented. Knowledge of these can assist radiologists and clinicians in selecting the best approach towards making the correct diagnosis.
Pancreas; pancreatic tuberculosis; cystic pancreatic lesion; ultrasound; CT; MRI; EUS
Myxomas of bone in the head and neck are rare tumors. We present a 68 year old female with pain and epistaxis who was found to have the first reported case of a myxoma arising within the vomer bone. Some atypical magnetic resonance imaging features are described, however, myxoma imaging features are often non-specific and typically evoke a benign differential diagnosis. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice.
Vomer; Myxoma; Nasal Septum
We report a rare case of a patient with colorectal cancer with chest wall metastases. The development of bleeding at the site of the metastasis ultimately resulted in the development of a hematoma, necessitating resection of the tumor along with part of the chest wall. Literature on chest wall metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma is reviewed and discussed. The teaching point is that a chest wall mass seen on imaging should prompt consideration of metastatic cancer in the differential diagnosis. The colon is a rare though reported primary site.
Colorectal Cancer; Chest Wall; Metastatic