To determine continuing medical education (CME) course participants' use of social media (SM) and their attitudes about the value of SM for enhancing CME education and to examine associations between participants' characteristics and attitudes toward SM.
Participants and Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional survey and validation study of 539 participants at a Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine CME course in November 2011. The Social Media Use and Perception Instrument (SMUPI) consisted of 10 items (5-point Likert scales) and categorical response options. The main outcome measures were psychometric characteristics of the SMUPI scale, course participants' use of SM, and their attitudes regarding the importance of SM for enhancing CME.
Of 539 CME course participants, 327 (61%) responded to the SMUPI survey. Most respondents (291 [89%]) reported using SM, with the most common types being YouTube (189 of the 327 participants [58%]) and Facebook (163 of 327 [50%]). Factor analysis revealed a 2-dimensional assessment of course participants' attitudes. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach α) was excellent for factor 1 (0.94), factor 2 (0.89), and overall (0.94). The CME course participants' favorable attitudes toward SM were associated with younger age (20-29 years, mean score 3.13; 30-39 years, 3.40; 40-49 years, 3.39; 50-59 years, 3.18; 60-69 years, 2.93; and ≥70 years, 2.92; P=.02), using SM frequently (never, mean score 2.49; less than once monthly, 2.75; once monthly, 3.21; weekly, 3.31; and daily, 3.81; P<.0001), and professional degree (PhD, mean score 3.00; MD, 3.05; DO, 3.35; PA, 3.42; and NP, 3.50; P=.01).
We describe the first validated measure of CME course participants' use of and attitudes toward SM. Our results suggest that CME course directors should guide SM strategies toward more youthful, technology-savvy CME participants and that SM will become increasingly worthwhile in CME as younger learners continue to enter the profession.
CME, continuing medical education; SM, social media; SMUPI, Social Media Use and Perception Instrument
To evaluate the effect of resident physicians' distress on their personal safety.
Participants and Methods
We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of internal medicine residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Participants completed surveys quarterly from July 1, 2007, through July 31, 2011, during their training period. Frequency of self-reported blood and body fluid (BBF) exposures and motor vehicle incidents was recorded. Associations of validated measures of quality of life, burnout, symptoms of depression, fatigue, and sleepiness with a subsequently reported BBF exposure or motor vehicle incident were determined using generalized estimating equations for repeated measures.
Data were provided by 340 of 384 eligible residents (88.5%). Of the 301 participants providing BBF exposure data, 23 (7.6%) reported having at least 1 BBF exposure during the study period. Motor vehicle incidents were reported by 168 of 300 respondents (56.0%), including 34 (11.3%) reporting a motor vehicle crash and 130 (43.3%) reporting a near-miss motor vehicle crash. Other than the low personal accomplishment domain of burnout, distress and fatigue at one time point exhibited no statistically significant associations with BBF exposure in the subsequent 3 months. However, diminished quality of life, burnout, positive screening for depression, fatigue, and sleepiness were each associated with statistically significantly increased odds of reporting a motor vehicle incident in the subsequent 3 months.
Exposures to BBF are relatively uncommon among internal medicine residents in current training environments. Motor vehicle incidents, however, remain common. Our results confirm the importance of fatigue and sleepiness to resident safety concerns. In addition, higher levels of distress may be contributory factors to motor vehicle crashes and other related incidents. Interventions designed to address both fatigue and distress may be needed to optimally promote patient and resident safety.
BBF, blood and body fluid; MVC, motor vehicle crash; QOL, quality of life
The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) has maintained a comprehensive medical records linkage system for nearly half a century for almost all persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Herein, we provide a brief history of the REP before and after 1966, the year in which the REP was officially established. The key protagonists before 1966 were Henry Plummer, Mabel Root, and Joseph Berkson, who developed a medical records linkage system at Mayo Clinic. In 1966, Leonard Kurland established collaborative agreements with other local health care providers (hospitals, physician groups, and clinics [primarily Olmsted Medical Center]) to develop a medical records linkage system that covered the entire population of Olmsted County, and he obtained funding from the National Institutes of Health to support the new system. In 1997, L. Joseph Melton III addressed emerging concerns about the confidentiality of medical record information by introducing a broad patient research authorization as per Minnesota state law. We describe how the key protagonists of the REP have responded to challenges posed by evolving medical knowledge, information technology, and public expectation and policy. In addition, we provide a general description of the system; discuss issues of data quality, reliability, and validity; describe the research team structure; provide information about funding; and compare the REP with other medical information systems. The REP can serve as a model for the development of similar research infrastructures in the United States and worldwide.
HIPAA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; IRB, institutional review board; NIH, National Institutes of Health; REP, Rochester Epidemiology Project
To compare the long-term results of mastoscopic axillary lymph node dissection (MALND) and conventional axillary lymph node dissection (CALND).
Patients and Methods
From January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2005, a group of 1027 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups: MALND and CALND. The median follow-up was 63 months. The primary end points of the study were operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics. The secondary end points were disease-free and overall survival.
The mean operative blood loss in the MALND group was less than in the CALND group (P<.001). The patients who underwent MALND had less axillary pain, numbness or paresthesias, and arm swelling (P<.001). The aesthetic appearance of the axilla in the MALND group was much better than that in the CALND group (P=.001 at 6 months and P=.002 at 24 months). A significant difference was found between the 2 groups in distant metastasis (P=.04). The disease-free survival rate was 64.5% in the MALND group and 60.8% in the CALND group (P=.88). The overall survival rate was 81.7% in the MALND group and 78.6% in the CALND group (P=.95).
Compared with CALND, MALND has advantages in operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics.
ALND, axillary lymph node dissection; CALND, conventional axillary lymph node dissection; MALND, mastoscopic axillary lymph node dissection
To examine the relationship between large tumor size and breast cancer–specific mortality (BCSM), especially in a subset of patients with negative lymph nodes (LNs).
Patients and Methods
We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry to identify 107,705 female patients diagnosed from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2003, as having invasive breast cancer and treated with surgery and LN dissection. Relevant issues unclear in the database were studied in an additional 335 patients with locally advanced disease treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
In the multivariable analysis, a significant interaction was found between tumor size and LN involvement (P<.001). In LN-negative diseases, the relationship between tumor size and BCSM was piecewise. Using 21- to 30-mm tumors as the reference, the hazard ratio (HR) of BCSM increased with increasing tumor size until a peak at 41 to 50 mm (HR, 1.49; P<.001), after which increasing tumor size was unexpectedly related to decreasing hazard, with a nadir at 61 to 80 mm (HR, 1.06; P=.70). The 61- to 80-mm tumors exhibited a significantly lower BCSM compared with the 41- to 50-mm (P=.02) and greater than 80-mm (P=.03) subgroups. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor status but was not observed in patients with LN-positive disease. Further analysis indicated that the survival advantage of 61- to 80-mm tumors in LN-negative disease might result from its low risk of distant metastasis.
A relatively larger tumor size without LN involvement may be a surrogate for biologically indolent disease of distant metastasis. Our findings, if validated in other large databases, may provide better understanding of breast cancer biology.
AJCC, American Joint Committee on Cancer; BCSM, breast cancer–specific mortality; DRFS, distant relapse-free survival; ER, estrogen receptor; FDSCC, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center; HR, hazard ratio; LN, lymph node; NCT, neoadjuvant chemotherapy; pCR, pathological complete remission; PR, progesterone receptor; RFS, relapse-free survival; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is defined by a heart rate increment of 30 beats/min or more within 10 minutes of standing or head-up tilt in the absence of orthostatic hypotension; the standing heart rate is often 120 beats/min or higher. POTS manifests with symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and excessive sympathoexcitation. The pathophysiology of POTS is heterogeneous and includes impaired sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, excessive sympathetic drive, volume dysregulation, and deconditioning. POTS is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of chronic unexplained symptoms, such as inappropriate sinus tachycardia, chronic fatigue, chronic dizziness, or unexplained spells in otherwise healthy young individuals. Many patients with POTS also report symptoms not attributable to orthostatic intolerance, including those of functional gastrointestinal or bladder disorders, chronic headache, fibromyalgia, and sleep disturbances. In many of these cases, cognitive and behavioral factors, somatic hypervigilance associated with anxiety, depression, and behavioral amplification contribute to symptom chronicity. The aims of evaluation in patients with POTS are to exclude cardiac causes of inappropriate tachycardia; elucidate, if possible, the most likely pathophysiologic basis of postural intolerance; assess for the presence of treatable autonomic neuropathies; exclude endocrine causes of a hyperadrenergic state; evaluate for cardiovascular deconditioning; and determine the contribution of emotional and behavioral factors to the patient's symptoms. Management of POTS includes avoidance of precipitating factors, volume expansion, physical countermaneuvers, exercise training, pharmacotherapy (fludrocortisone, midodrine, β-blockers, and/or pyridostigmine), and behavioral-cognitive therapy. A literature search of PubMed for articles published from January 1, 1990, to June 15, 2012, was performed using the following terms (or combination of terms): POTS; postural tachycardia syndrome, orthostatic; orthostatic; syncope; sympathetic; baroreceptors; vestibulosympathetic; hypovolemia; visceral pain; chronic fatigue; deconditioning; headache; Chiari malformation; Ehlers-Danlos; emotion; amygdala; insula; anterior cingulate; periaqueductal gray; fludrocortisone; midodrine; propranolol; β-adrenergic; and pyridostigmine. Studies were limited to those published in English. Other articles were identified from bibliographies of the retrieved articles.
EDS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; HUT, head-up tilt; NE, norepinephrine; NET, norepinephrine transporter; POTS, postural tachycardia syndrome
To investigate whether treatment initiated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, or diabetes causes a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) levels.
Patients and Methods
This was a retrospective cohort analysis using the computerized database of a large health maintenance organization. Included were all adults with a first purchase of an ACE-I, an ARB, or a calcium channel blocker (CCB) between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, defined as the index date. Measures of Hb levels before and 1 year after the index date were reviewed, and the change was calculated. All the analyses were stratified by pharmaceutical class. The main exposure variables were the proportion of days covered (PDC) by these drugs and the mean enalapril dosage (for enalapril users only).
Levels of Hb before and after treatment were available for 14,754 patients taking ACE-Is, 751 taking ARBs, and 3087 taking CCBs. A high PDC was significantly associated with greater yearly reductions in Hb levels compared with a low PDC for CCB use, but was more pronounced for ACE-I and ARB use. A high PDC was also associated with a higher odds of developing anemia in ACE-I users (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; P<.001) and ARB users (OR, 2.21; P=.05). In nonanemic enalapril users, every 10-mg increment in daily dose was associated with an OR of 1.45 for the development of anemia (P<.001). The association remained after excluding nonadherent patients.
Levels of Hb are reduced during the first year of use of ACE-Is and to a lesser extent with use of ARBs. This association is dose dependent and is not explained by patient adherence.
ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; Hb, hemoglobin; IHD, ischemic heart disease; MHS, Maccabi Healthcare Services; OR, odds ratio; PDC, proportion of days covered; WHO, World Health Organization
To derive and validate a risk score for an adverse clinical outcome in adults with meningitis and a negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain.
Patients and Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of 567 adults from Houston, Texas, with meningitis evaluated between January 1, 2005, and January 1, 2010. The patients were divided into derivation (N=292) and validation (N=275) cohorts. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 or less.
Of the 567 patients, 62 (11%) had an adverse clinical outcome. A predictive model was created using 3 baseline variables that were independently associated with an adverse clinical outcome (P<.05): age greater than 60 years, abnormal findings on neurologic examination (altered mental status, focal neurologic deficits, or seizures), and CSF glucose level of less than 2.4975 mmol/L (to convert CSF glucose to mmol/L, multiply by 0.05551). The model classified patients into 2 categories of risk for an adverse clinical outcome—derivation sample: low risk, 0.6% and high risk, 32.8%; P<.001; and validation sample: low risk, 0.5% and high risk, 21.1%; P<.001.
Adults with meningitis and a negative CSF Gram stain can be accurately stratified for the risk of an adverse clinical outcome using clinical variables available at presentation.
ACO, adverse clinical outcome; CMV, cytomegalovirus; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; ED, emergency department; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; VZV, varicella zoster virus
To determine the incidence of and temporal trends in surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients underoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
A population-based cohort study was conducted to describe the epidemiologic features of SSI in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2008, using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Period-specific incidence rates (in-hospital or within 30 days outside the hospital) were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders that could affect temporal trends in SSI incidence rates.
During the 16-year study, of 1424 residents of Olmsted County who underwent CABG surgery, 1189 (83%) had isolated CABG and 235 (17%) had combined CABG and valve surgery. The overall SSI incidence rate was 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%-8.4%). The incidence rate of superficial sternal SSI was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.2%-2.7%) and of deep sternal SSI was 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.2%). The leg harvest site infection rate was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.6 %-4.5%). The incidence rate decreased over time with a statistically significant linear trend. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of SSI showed a decreasing linear trend: 0.39 (0.19-0.81) vs 0.50 (0.27-0.93) vs 0.83 (0.48-1.42) vs reference for 2005-2008 vs 2001-2004 vs 1997-2000 vs 1993-1996.
In this population-based surveillance study of patients undergoing CABG surgery, the incidence of SSI decreased markedly between 1993 and 2008 in patients in Olmsted County. The factors responsible for this decrease are the focus of ongoing investigations.
CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; LHSI, leg harvest site infection; REP, Rochester Epidemiology Project; SSI, surgical site Infection; STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons