Objective: Posterior vault remodeling by distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique used for initial correction of turribrachycephaly in children with bicoronal craniosynostosis. We present a new potential complication from this procedure; a case of pan-suture synostosis subsequent to posterior vault distraction. Methods: We report an infant girl who presented with bicoronal synostosis in the setting of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. She underwent posterior vault distraction and was distracted a total of 34 millimeters, with successful osteogenesis at the site. Results: One year postoperatively, the patient was found to have incidental, asymptomatic pan-suture synostosis on computed tomography. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of delayed craniosynostosis after posterior vault distraction in the literature. The possible pathogenesis and significance of this case are discussed with a review of the current literature.
delayed craniosynostosis; distraction osteogenesis; secondary craniosynostosis; posterior vault distraction; Saethre-Chotzen syndrome
Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) can be delivered in continuous or noncontinuous modes, while NPWT with instillation (NPWTi) couples NPWT with automated delivery and removal of topical wound treatment solutions and suspensions. This porcine study compared granulation response of NPWTi (instillation foam dressing with saline) to NPWT (standard foam dressing) in continuous and noncontinuous modes. Methods: Full-thickness dorsal excisional wounds in pigs were treated with continuous NPWT, intermittent NPWT, dynamic (controlled variable) NPWT, and NPWTi with saline (n = 10 per group). Wound dimensions were determined from 3D images collected on days 0, 2, 5, and 7. On day 7, animals were euthanized and specimens were harvested for histopathological review. Results: Average granulation thickness was not statistically different among continuous (3.29 ± 0.33 mm), intermittent (3.03 ± 0.47 mm), and dynamic (3.40 ± 0.34 mm) NPWT wounds at day 7. Average granulation thickness of NPWTi wounds (4.75 ± 0.54 mm), however, was statistically greater (P < .05) by 44%, 57%, and 40%, respectively, than that of wounds treated with continuous, intermittent, and dynamic NPWT. Analysis of 3D images revealed a greater reduction in wound area and perimeter in NPWTi wounds compared to all NPWT wounds (P < .05). In addition, the average wound fill rate for NPWTi wounds was faster than that for continuous (40%; P < .05), intermittent (25%; P > .05), and dynamic (65%; P < .05) NPWT wounds. Conclusions: Although not confirmed in humans, these porcine data suggest that NPWTi with saline may stimulate a faster rate of wound granulation than NPWT in continuous and noncontinuous modes.
dynamic NPWT; negative pressure wound therapy with instillation; preclinical model; variable NPWT; wound cleansing
Soft tissue coverage of the exposed Achilles tendon is a unique reconstructive challenge. In this report, we describe the management of a large posterior leg wound with exposed Achilles tendon using a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. A careful review of alternative reconstructive options is included, along with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A 32-year-old white man suffered a fulminant right lower extremity soft tissue infection requiring extensive debridement of the entire posterior surface of the right leg. The resulting large soft tissue defect included exposure of the Achilles tendon. Reconstruction of the defect was achieved with an ALT flap and split-thickness skin graft for coverage of the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. The patient was able to ambulate independently within 2 months of the procedure.
Achilles tendon; anterolateral thigh flap; free tissue transfer; microsurgery; surgical flap
Purpose: The application of incisional negative pressure wound therapy (INPWT) to clean, closed surgical incisions is a growing clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of INPWT on surgical sites healing by primary intention. The primary outcomes of interest are incidence of complications (infection, dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, skin necrosis, or blistering). Methods: Two independent reviewers performed a search of the Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 2006 to 2012 for published articles. Supplemental searches were performed using reference lists and conference proceedings. Studies were selected for inclusion based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction regarding study quality, demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcomes was performed independently, and data on the incidence of infection was combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis model. Results: Ten (5 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational) studies were included, which investigated the outcomes of 626 incisions on 610 patients. Six studies compared INPWT with sterile dry dressings (SDDs). The literature shows a significant decrease in rates of infection when using INPWT. Results on dehiscence do show a decrease in some studies, but results are inconsistent to make a conclusion. Because of limited studies, it is difficult to make any assertions on seroma, hematoma, and skin necrosis. Conclusions: This systematic review shows possible evidence of a decrease in the incidence of infection with application of INPWT. Looking at other variables such as dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, and skin necrosis show no consistent data and suggest further studies in order for proper recommendations for INPWT.
incisional wound therapy; INPWT; negative pressure wound therapy; NPWT; surgical site complications; topical negative pressure
gigantomastia; inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty; large volume breast reduction; macromastia; wise pattern mammaplasty
Background: The purpose of this article was to report our experience in achieving satisfactory breast shape and volume using dual pedicle mastopexy technique after subglandular and submuscular breast implant removal. Methods: Breast implant-related problems in 51 breasts included capsular contracture (Baker grade III-IV), 76%; implant rupture/bleed, 41%; breasts undergoing repeat surgery more than once, 22%. The size of the breast implants removed ranged from 240 to 525 cc (average size: 320 ± 65 cc) (saline-filled, 40%; silicone-filled, 60%; subglandular, 40%; submuscular, 60%). Capsulectomy, implant removal, and dual pedicle mastopexy were performed for reconfiguration of breast shape and reorientation of volume. Results: Mean follow-up was 14.5 months. On average, 65.0% of breast implant volume was achieved. There was 1-cup reduction in brassiere size in 21 patients, and the cup size remained the same in 5 patients. Postoperative pain scores were no pain or mild pain in 26 patients who initially in the preoperative evaluation reported having mild pain (11), moderate pain (12), and severe pain (3). Overall patient satisfaction scores were 3 (neutral) in 1 patient, 4 (satisfied) in 12 patients, and 5 (very satisfied) in 13 patients. Conclusion: The dual pedicle mastopexytechnique provided a reliable way of reorienting breast volume and configuring breast shape in patients who opted to have implants removed without replacement. The results demonstrated that a pleasing outcome could be obtained using the described technique with additional benefits of elimination of breast tenderness and discomfort secondary to implant removal and/or capsulectomy.
breast implant; capsule formation; dermaglandular pedicle; implant removal
Objectives: The components separation technique (CST) is a widely described abdominal wall reconstructive technique. There have, however, been no UK reports of its use, prompting the present review. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, 13 patients who underwent this procedure by a single plastic surgeon (C.M.M.) were retrospectively evaluated. The indications, operative details, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: There were 7 women and 6 men in the series with a mean age of 53 years (range: 30-80). Patients were referred from a variety of specialties, often as a last resort. The commonest indication for CST was herniation following abdominal surgery. All operations except 1 were jointly performed with general surgeons (for bowel resection, stoma reversal, and hernia dissection). The operations lasted a mean of 5 hours (range: 3-8 hours). There were no major intra- and postoperative problems, except in 1 patient who developed intra-abdominal compartment syndrome, secondary to massive hemorrhage. All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic improvement in their abdominal contours. None of the patients have developed a clinical recurrence after a mean follow-up of 16 months (range: 3-38 months). Conclusions: The components separation technique is an effective method of treating large recalcitrant hernias but appears to be underutilized in the United Kingdom. The management of large abdominal wall defects requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input across a variety of specialities. Liaison with plastic surgery teams should be encouraged at an early stage and the CST should be more widely considered when presented with seemingly intractable abdominal wall defects.
abdominoplasty; components separation; incisional hernias; laparotomy wound dehiscence; mesh inlay/onlay
Objective: The Dabska tumor is a rare low-grade angiosarcoma first described in 1969 by Maria Dabska. Approximately 30 cases of varying presentations have been reported since its initial description. Methods: We describe a case of a 23-year-old woman presenting with a massive recurrent left flank hemangioendothelioma, at final resection diagnosed to be an endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (Dabska tumor). The sheer size of the tumor necessitated reconstructive surgery. Results: Successful abdominal reconstruction after radical resection of a Dabska tumor was achieved using local fasciocutaneous-type flaps. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing reconstructive surgery following resection of an abdominal Dabska tumor.
Dabska; tumor; abdominal; reconstruction; resection
Raynaud's; sympathectomy; systemic sclerosis; angiography; digital ischemia
allergic contact dermatitis; burn; chemical burn; limes; phytophotodermatitis
Objective: To determine if the experimental (keratin-based) dressing accelerates epithelialization rates during healing of partial-thickness wounds, relative to a Standard Care dressing. Method: A randomized control trial was conducted using a Standard Care dressing side by side with the experimental dressing on a sample (n=26) of partial-thickness donor site wounds. The proximal/distal placement of the control and treatment was randomized. Percentage epithelialization after approximately 7 days was estimated from which time to fully epithelialize can be inferred. Patients were grouped into “young” (≤50 y/o) and “old” (>50 y/o). Results: For the “old” patients (n=15), the median epithelialization percentage at 7 days is 5% and was significantly (P=.023) greater for the experimental dressing. For the “young” patients (n=11), the median epithelialization percentage at 7 days was 80% and there is no significant difference between the experimental and Standard Care control dressings. Conclusions: The experimental dressing significantly increases the rate of epithelialization of acute, traumatic partial-thickness wounds in older patients. We suggest that the dressing may be clinically useful in similar situations where epithelialization may be delayed because of patient or wound characteristics.
acute wounds; donor site; epithelialization; keratin; partial thickness wounds
Objective: Sebaceous Carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor. We present a case report of a large truncal tumor with multicentricity and aggressive locoregional recurrence that required trapezius myocutaneous flap reconstruction. Examining patterns of multicentricity, metastasis, and recurrence of sebaceous carcinoma in the literature we sought to explore potential reasons behind the aggressive behavior. Methods: Retrospective chart review was used to analyze the case in detail. Preoperative workup, intraoperative details, pathology, and follow-up visits were reviewed. Selected literature was considered with series of 5 or more patients. Results: The recurrent tumor was resected with negative margins leaving a defect of 14 × 7 cm2 that was covered with a trapezius myocutaneous flap. Postoperative hospital course was uneventful with no further local recurrence. On follow-up visits, tumors at other sites have been discovered. Reported rates of multicentricity, metastasis, and recurrence vary widely in the literature, but both subtypes of sebaceous carcinoma behave aggressively. Conclusions: A combination of genetic predisposition, delayed definitive care, and inherent tumor biology led to the aggressive locoregional disease in this case.
Objective: To describe a novel method to reconstruct, with a vascularized rotational tibiaplasty, a complex femoral defect in an adolescent. Methods: After a femoral osteosarcoma resection, allograft reconstruction, and chemotherapy, an 11-year-old girl developed recurrent thigh wound infections and femoral allograft osteomyelitis despite multiple operative interventions. At the age of 13, she presented to our center with a complex right thigh wound and an unstable lower extremity secondary to a segmental femoral loss. To reestablish thigh stability and function and to avoid amputation at the hip, the authors performed a rotational vascularized tibiaplasty. The tibia was rotated 180° with the pivot at the knee. The distal tibia was internally stabilized to the residual proximal femur. Results: Ten years later, the patient had a stable thigh, a functional hip, no evidence of infection or sarcoma, and a Toronto Extremity Salvage Score of 92.5 (minimal disability). Conclusions: In this patient, the tibial rotationplasty provided a vascularized bone strut mimicking the resected femur; saved the hip; obviated an allograft bone; and created a functional, biologic, stable, and durable thigh that allowed full weight bearing on a prosthesis, with a low physical disability level. We conclude that, for patients with complex femoral defects, a vascularized rotational tibiaplasty should be considered a feasible option before amputation.
fat grafting; breast augmentation; aesthetic surgery
body contouring; high intensity focused ultrasound; noninvasive body sculpting; aesthetic surgery
Objective: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can be used to obtain 3-dimensional vascular images and soft-tissue definition. The goal of this study was to evaluate the reliability, usefulness, and pitfalls of CTA in preoperative planning of microvascular reconstructive surgery. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who obtained preoperative CTA in preparation for planned microvascular reconstruction was performed over a 5-year period (2001–2005). The influence of CTA on the original operative plan was assessed for each patient, and CTA results were correlated to the operative findings. Results: Computed tomographic angiography was performed on 94 patients in preparation for microvascular reconstruction. In 48 patients (51%), vascular abnormalities were noted on CTA. Intraoperative findings correlated with CTA results in 97% of cases. In 42 patients (45%), abnormal CTA findings influenced the original operative plan, such as the choice of vessels, side of harvest, or nature of the reconstruction (local flap instead of free tissue transfer). Technical difficulties in performing CTA were encountered in 5 patients (5%) in whom interference from external fixation devices was the main cause. Conclusions: This large study of CTA obtained for preoperative planning of reconstructive microsurgery at both donor and recipient sites study demonstrates that CTA is safe and highly accurate. Computed tomographic angiography can alter the surgeon's reconstructive plan when abnormalities are noted preoperatively and consequently improve results by decreasing vascular complication rates. The use of CTA should be considered for cases of microsurgical reconstruction where the vascular anatomy may be questionable.
Objective: We present a very rare case of penetrating injury into the orbit by a needlefish. The patient underwent extirpation twice at another hospital. Methods: We performed foreign body removal from a right subbrow incision under general anesthesia. Results: The foreign body was successfully removed and the patient's diplopia recovered gradually after surgery. Conclusions: Treatment was similar to that used for penetrating injury. As there is a risk of secondary infection, it is important to completely remove the fish body, followed by vigorous irrigation and debridement.
Objective: Rhinoplasty started as a closed technique and then the open technique gained popularity. Open technique gave surgeons the opportunity to visualize and manipulate the cartilaginous skeleton at the tip of the nose precisely. The dissection planes in open rhinoplasty technique may be subcutaneous, submuscular (under the superficial musculoaponeurotic system), or subpericondrial subperiosteal. Each plane has advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to combine planes to get the maximal benefit of each plane. Method: The study was performed on 38 Middle Eastern patients, among whom 23 were females and 15 were males. All patients presented for primary rhinoplasty. They were divided into 5 groups on the basis of their skin thickness. Dissection started subcutaneous at the area of the lower lateral cartilages and then shifted subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system over the upper lateral cartilages and ended subperiosteal over the bony skeleton. Results: This triple plane of dissection gave acceptable results without any complication. Subcutaneous dissection allowed thinning of the thick sebaceous skin at the tip and alar region, subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system dissection allowed direct exposure of the upper lateral cartilage without thinning skin at an area where it is thin, and subperiosteal dissection helped masking any bony irregularities resulted from osteotomies. Conclusion: The triple plane dissection in open primary rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern patients maximized the advantages of each plane and minimized the disadvantages and resulted in safe cosmetic results.
facial nerve; SMAS; temporoparietal fascia; stylomastoid foramen; temporal branch
Objective: Anthropological studies divided the Japanese into the Yayoi migrants, who had narrow eye, no visible superior palpebral crease, and high-positioned round supraorbital margins for cold tolerance, and the Jomon natives, who had wide eye, visible superior palpebral crease, and low-positioned straight supraorbital margins, thus suggesting an anatomical discrepancy between the vertical palpebral fissure and the height of the supraorbital margin. Because Japanese subjects without visible superior palpebral crease open their eyelids by lifting the eyebrows with the anterior lamella owing to increased tonic contraction of the frontalis muscle, we hypothesized that persistently lifting the eyebrows in primary gaze mechanically remodels the supraorbital margin to be high positioned and round. Method: We evaluated whether subjects without visible superior palpebral crease persistently lifted their eyelids more than subjects with visible superior palpebral crease, whether the presence of persistently lifted eyebrow in primary gaze affected the relative height of the supraorbital margin in coronal view 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging, and whether the shape of the supraorbital margin in the coronal view affected that in the sagittal view 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging. Results: Eyebrow height in subjects without visible superior palpebral crease was significantly larger than that in subjects with visible superior palpebral crease. The supraorbital margin of subjects without visible superior palpebral crease who persistently lifted the eyebrows in primary gaze was higher (rounder) and more obtuse than that of Japanese subjects with visible superior palpebral crease who did not. Conclusions: The mechanical pressure applied to the supraorbital margin by persistently lifting the eyebrows appears to functionally, rather than genetically, create the high (round) and obtuse supraorbital margin.
Scalp reconstruction; Head and neck reconstruction; Calvarium Reconstruction
Objective: Upper extremity (UE) transplantation is the most commonly performed composite tissue allotransplantation worldwide. However, there is a lack of imaging standards for pre- and posttransplant evaluation. This study highlights the protocols and findings of UE allotransplantation toward standardization and implementation for clinical trials. Methods: Multimodality imaging protocols for a unilateral hand transplant candidate and a bilateral mid-forearm level UE transplant recipient include radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, catheter angiography, and vascular ultrasonography. Pre- and posttransplant findings, including dynamic CT and MR performed for assessment of motor activity of transplanted hands, are assessed, and image quality of vessels and bones on CT and MR evaluated. Results: Preoperative imaging demonstrates extensive skeletal deformity and variation in vascular anatomy and vessel patency. Posttransplant images confirm bony union in anatomical alignment and patency of vascular anastomoses. Mild differences in rate of vascular enhancement and extent of vascular networks are noted between the 2 transplanted limbs. Dynamic CT and MR demonstrate a 15° to 30° range of motion at metacarpophalangeal joints and 90° to 110° at proximal interphalangeal joints of both transplanted hands at 8 months posttransplant. Image quality was slightly better for CT than for MR in the first subject, while MR was slightly better in the second subject. Conclusion: Advanced vascular and musculoskeletal imaging play an important role in surgical planning and can provide novel posttransplantation data to monitor the success of the procedure. Implementation of more standardized protocols should enable a more comprehensive assessment to evaluate the efficacy in clinical trials.
De Quervain Disease; Stenosing Tenosynovitis; Tendon Entrapment; Tendinopathy
hidradenitis suppurativa; dissecting cellulitis; follicular occlusive disease; acne conglobata