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1.  Omental Flap for Thoracic Aortic Graft Infection 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic41.
PMCID: PMC4518815
graft; thoracic; aorta; infection; flap; omentum; sternum
2.  Utilization of Platelet-Rich Plasma for a Fistula With Subcutaneous Cavity Following Septic Bursitis: A Case Report 
Eplasty  2015;15:e31.
In platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy, various growth factors and cytokines released the α-granules contained in platelets after activation can potentially enhance wound healing by delivering. We report a patient in whom treatment with PRP, prepared using a syringe-centrifugation-system PRP kit (KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit), for a fistula following bursitis of the lateral malleolus, which could not be healed with conventional wound therapy, led to successful healing. A 58-year-old man was on dialysis for type II diabetes and chronic renal failure. In the left lateral malleolus, septic bursitis developed, leading to a refractory fistula with a subcutaneous cavity measuring 4 × 3 cm, which persisted for more than 2 months. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared using the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit (KYOCERA Medical Corporation, Osaka, Japan) and infused into the cavity twice to close it. After this procedure, the cavity size reduced, but the orifice and subcutaneous cavity were not closed. Therefore, additional PRP therapy was conducted after 10 weeks of the first PRP session. Complete closure was achieved 13 weeks after the first PRP therapy. In the present case, PRP was prepared using the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, and wound healing of a fistula with subcutaneous cavity following bursitis of the lateral malleolus was successfully cured. The KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit was useful, because PRP could be prepared simply and inexpensively using the syringe-centrifugation system.
PMCID: PMC4516017  PMID: 26221200
platelet-rich plasma; wound healing; fistula; subcutaneous cavity; septic bursitis
3.  Evolution of a Biosynthetic Temporary Skin Substitute: A Preliminary Study 
Eplasty  2015;15:e30.
Objective: To compare PermeaDerm to first temporary biosynthetic skin substitute (Biobrane, cleared by the Food and Drug Administration in 1979). Methods: Different temporary skin substitutes (Biobrane, PermeaDerm, and PermeaDerm derivatives) were tested for physical differences, impact on healing wounds, inflammatory response, and ability to allow adequate growth of dermal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells without accumulation of excessive scar-forming myofibroblasts. Proliferation of fibroblasts and stem cells on various skin substitutes was measured, and myofibroblast marker accumulation was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin. Fibroblast migration was measured by tracking viable cells with MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] dye. Results: In vivo testing shows PermeaDerm works well as a temporary skin substitute, performing better than Biobrane with respect to inflammation and fluid accumulation. Tissue culture techniques revealed that cells on PermeaDerm grow in a more uniform fashion and migrated to a greater extent than cells on Biobrane. Furthermore, cells grown in the presence of PermeaDerm expressed lower levels of the myofibroblast markers α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin than cells grown on Biobrane. Conclusion: PermeaDerm with variable porosity possesses all attributes and properties known to be important for a successful temporary skin substitute and enables the clinician to control porosity from essentially zero to what the wound requires. The ability of the clinician to minimize wound desiccation without fluid accumulation is related to the reduction of punctate scarring.
PMCID: PMC4511025  PMID: 26229573
temporary skin substitute; wound healing; scarring; mesenchymal stem cells; variable porosity
4.  Nevus Sebaceus of Jadassohn 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic38.
PMCID: PMC4518814
nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn; basal cell carcinoma; malignant degeneration; congenital; hamartoma
5.  Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Scalp 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic39.
PMCID: PMC4518816
squamous cell carcinoma; malignancy; dura; scalp; reconstruction
6.  Complications After Primary Breast Augmentation: Capsular Contracture 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic40.
PMCID: PMC4518817
revisionary breast augmentation; complications; capsular contracture; neopectoral; biofilm
7.  Bilateral Frostbite of the Hands 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic37.
PMCID: PMC4502637  PMID: 26191335
frostbite; cold injury; amputation; digit; hypothermia
8.  Plastic Surgery of the Breast: Keeping the Nipple Sensitive 
Eplasty  2015;15:e28.
Introduction: Since its inception, reduction mammaplasty has matured considerably. Primary evolution in clinical research and practice has focused on preserving tissue viability. Surgery involves preserving not only tissue viability but also function and sensation. The nipple serves as the sensate unit of the breast and is a valuable part of women's psychological and sexual health, making preservation of nipple sensation of utmost important. Studies regarding primary innervation to the nipple are few and often contradictory. We propose an unsafe zone in which dissection during reduction mammoplasty ought to be avoided to preserve nipple sensation. Methods: Circumareolar dissection of 22 cadaveric breasts was performed. Primary nerve branches to the nipple-areola complex were identified and dissected to their origin. Results: Three to 5 branches of the fourth intercostal nerve primarily innervated the nipple on 18 of 22 breast dissections. Two breasts received innervation from the third intercostal nerve and 2 from the fifth intercostal nerve. In half of the specimens, accessory innervation from the third and fifth intercostal nerves provided medial branches to the nipple. Conclusions: The fourth intercostal nerve provides the major innervation to the nipple-areola complex. Avoiding dissection in inferolateral quadrant “unsafe zone” of the breast during reduction mammaplasty and other breast surgical procedures can reliably spare nipple sensation and maximize patient outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4492192  PMID: 26171100
nipple innervation; reduction mammaplasty; nipple; breast reconstruction; nipple-areola complex
9.  A Translational Animal Model for Scar Compression Therapy Using an Automated Pressure Delivery System 
Eplasty  2015;15:e29.
Background: Pressure therapy has been used to prevent and treat hypertrophic scars following cutaneous injury despite the limited understanding of its mechanism of action and lack of established animal model to optimize its usage. Objectives: The aim of this work was to test and characterize a novel automated pressure delivery system designed to deliver steady and controllable pressure in a red Duroc swine hypertrophic scar model. Methods: Excisional wounds were created by dermatome on 6 red Duroc pigs and allowed to scar while assessed weekly via gross visual inspection, laser Doppler imaging, and biopsy. A portable novel automated pressure delivery system was mounted on developing scars (n = 6) for 2 weeks. Results: The device maintained a pressure range of 30 ± 4 mm Hg for more than 90% of the 2-week treatment period. Pressure readings outside this designated range were attributed to normal animal behavior and responses to healing progression. Gross scar examination by the Vancouver Scar Scale showed significant and sustained (>4 weeks) improvement in pressure-treated scars (P < .05). Histological examination of pressure-treated scars showed a significant decrease in dermal thickness compared with other groups (P < .05). Pressure-treated scars also showed increased perfusion by laser Doppler imaging during the treatment period compared with sham-treated and untreated scars (P < .05). Cellular quantification showed differential changes among treatment groups. Conclusion: These results illustrate the applications of this technology in hypertrophic scar Duroc swine model and the evaluation and optimization of pressure therapy in wound-healing and hypertrophic scar management.
PMCID: PMC4492193  PMID: 26171101
wound; pressure therapy; scar; animal model; red Duroc pig
10.  Large Neurofibroma of the Face 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic36.
PMCID: PMC4490826  PMID: 26171111
neurofibromatosis; plexiform; face; periorbital; reconstruction
11.  The Camille Bernard Flap for Lower Lip Reconstruction 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic35.
PMCID: PMC4490825  PMID: 26171110
lip reconstruction; lip defects; Camille Bernard flap; oral competence; lip tumor
12.  Free Flap Donor Site Reconstruction: A Prospective Case Series Using an Optimized Polyurethane Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix 
Eplasty  2015;15:e27.
Introduction: We recently published a 10-patient case series where free flap donor site reconstruction was performed as a 2-stage procedure using an integrating biodegradable polyurethane matrix (to form a neodermis), followed by definitive closure with an autologous split-skin graft. Two issues were revealed by this pilot study that led to further modification of the biodegradable temporizing matrix. This involved alterations to the seal thickness and bonding to the foam matrix and the introduction of fenestrations to the seal. Objective: This article documents a second cohort of patients requiring free flap (fibular and radial forearm) donor site reconstruction with this optimized material. Methods: The biodegradable temporizing matrix was implanted when the free flap was detached from its donor site. Subsequent integration was monitored closely. Five weeks was the usual time of integration before delamination (seal removal), dermabrasion, and definitive closure with autograft. Results: Integration was complete and uncomplicated in every case, delamination occurred in 1 piece in 1 action, and subsequent graft take was 100% for every patient. Long-term scar outcomes improved compared with the pilot group. Degradation is complete by 12 months, other than occasional microscopic remnants undergoing phagocytosis. Conclusion: This study has reiterated that the biodegradable temporizing matrix can be implanted into humans, followed by neovascularization and integration. No infection was observed, and split-skin overgrafting was successful and uncomplicated.
PMCID: PMC4492216  PMID: 26171099
biodegradable polyurethane; synthetic dermal matrix; dermal scaffold; free flap donor site; reconstruction
13.  Topical R1 and R2 Prophylactic Treatment of Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck and Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy 
Eplasty  2015;15:e25.
Objective: A clinical study was conducted on the use of the topical Lactokine-based R1 and R2 system as a prophylactic treatment of acute radiation dermatitis in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck and breast cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Ninety-eight patients were studied who attended the Radiation Oncology Services, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, for treatment with chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer (n = 19) and breast cancer (n = 79). The treatment group (R1 and R2) included 51 patients; 47 control patients were given the local standard topical treatment (5% wt/wt urea lotion). At 3 postradiotherapy follow-up clinics, radiation dermatitis was graded, if present. All patients were administered with “quality-of-life” questionnaires. Results: Treatment with R1 and R2 significantly reduced the grade of radiation dermatitis in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. At the fourth (last) clinic visit, at 2 weeks following the end of radiation treatment, 66.7% of patients in the treated group (R1 and R2) were free from radiation dermatitis compared with 34% in those given the center's usual skin care (topical urea lotion). There were no reported side effects, and quality of life improved for patients treated with R1 and R2. Conclusion: Topical skin treatment with the R1 and R2 system has been shown to be effective in preventing, reducing the onset, and reducing the degree (grade) of radiation dermatitis in head and neck and breast cancer patients treated with chemoradiation.
PMCID: PMC4485614  PMID: 26171097
radiation dermatitis; chemoradiotherapy; head and neck cancer; breast cancer; prophylaxis
14.  Reconstruction With Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap After Wide Local Excision of Penoscrotal Extramammary Paget's Disease: A Case Report and Comprehensive Literature Review 
Eplasty  2015;15:e26.
Objective: The clinical characteristics, management, and prognostic indicators of penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease are not clearly defined. Surgical excision is often an effective treatment modality but results in a large wound after resection of all involved tissues. Methods: Reconstruction of large penoscrotal soft-tissue defects after wide local excision remains a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. The use of the anterolateral thigh flap for penoscrotal reconstruction after resection of extramammary Paget's disease is infrequent as a reconstruction tool throughout the literature. Results: We discuss a case where the anterolateral thigh flap was effectively used for reconstruction of a large penoscrotal defect after wide local excision of penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease and present a comprehensive literature review of extramammary Paget's disease key features, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Conclusions: The anterolateral thigh flap is a useful tool for penoscrotal defect reconstruction.
PMCID: PMC4485616  PMID: 26171098
extramammary Paget’s disease; anterolateral thigh flap; wide local excision; penoscrotal reconstruction
15.  Angiosarcoma on Untreated Facial Capillary Malformations 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic34.
PMCID: PMC4482199  PMID: 26171109
anigosarcoma; capillary malformation; bleeding; ulcer; free flap
16.  Squamoid Eccrine Ductal Carcinoma 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic33.
PMCID: PMC4482200  PMID: 26171108
eccrine carcinoma; skin cancer; squamoid ductal; perineural invasion; local recurrence
17.  Design and Focus Test of a Preconsultation Decision Aid for Breast Cancer Reconstruction Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative 
Eplasty  2015;15:e24.
Objective: To design, develop, and evaluate via focus group a preconsultation decision aid to improve patient satisfaction for breast reconstruction. Methods: The design of the decision aid was based on perceived patient needs, literature, existing decision aids, and current standard of breast cancer reconstruction treatment and consultation at Stanford. Our decision aid was designed to (1) reducing fear of the unknown in patients via providing a knowledge base that they can rely on, (2) helping patients identify their key breast reconstruction concerns, (3) addressing common patient concerns, (4) providing a framework to help patients identify the treatment option that may be right for them, and (5) promoting shared decision making. Physicians were consulted on the decision aid, following which a focus group was conducted for patient feedback. Results: Interviewed patients (n = 12) were supportive of the decision aid initiative. Participants were especially pleased with the side-by-side comparison of surgical options and the parsimonious way information was represented. All patients before undergoing reconstruction (n = 3) requested the decision guide to reference at home. All interviewed patients believed information level was “about right.” Conclusions: Decision aid was well received by patients in the focus group. As the initiative is for quality improvement, we saw no need to further delay the distribution of the decision aid. A pilot study will be conducted to evaluate whether our decision aid has an effect on patients’ decision regret, stress, and anxiety.
PMCID: PMC4485615  PMID: 26171096
decision aid; breast reconstruction; patient satisfaction; clinical outcomes; regret
18.  Necessity of Distinguishing Verrucous Carcinoma From Verrucous Skin Lesion Overlaying Residual Skin Staples in an Area of Sensory Loss: A Case Report 
Eplasty  2015;15:e23.
Objective: Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is a condition usually induced by chronic mechanical stimulation of the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy and usually occurs at weight-bearing sites. We here present a rare case involving a man with verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy at an unusual, non–weight-bearing site. Methods: A 58-year-old man with diabetic neuropathy presented with a verrucous skin lesion overlaying residual skin staples and an amputation stump of the second metatarsal bone on the dorsal foot. Results: The biopsy findings were inconclusive and suggested the necessity of distinguishing the lesion from verrucous carcinoma. The lesion was resected, and the residual skin staples were simultaneously removed. Investigation of the excisional biopsy confirmed our diagnosis of verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy. Conclusions: Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to distinguish from verrucous carcinoma; in this case, the unusual location of the lesion could be attributed not only to sensory loss but also to the presence of an amputation stump and the persistence of the residual skin staples.
PMCID: PMC4473813  PMID: 26171095
diabetic foot; diabetic neuropathy; verrucous carcinoma; verrucous skin lesion; VSLDN
19.  Tessier 1-13 Atypical Craniofacial Cleft 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic32.
PMCID: PMC4473814  PMID: 26171107
atypical craniofacial cleft; craniofacial surgery; Tessier's classification; facial skeleton abnormalities; facial skeleton growth
20.  Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus of the Buttock 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic31.
PMCID: PMC4473815  PMID: 26171106
congenital melanocytic nevus; buttock; serial excision; skin graft; dermal matrix
21.  Safe Tummy Tuck: Anatomy and Strategy to Avoid Injury to the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve During Abdominoplasty 
Eplasty  2015;15:e22.
Background: Abdominoplasty is one of the most common aesthetic procedures performed in the United States. While poor contour and unsatisfactory cosmetic result have been recognized, neuropathic pain from lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injury has been poorly described. We aim to improve outcomes by using an anatomical study to develop a strategy to avoid injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in abdominoplasty. Methods: Twenty-three fresh cadaver abdomens were dissected to evaluate the course of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, using 2.5× loupe magnification. Measurements were taken from the nerve to the anterior superior iliac spine and from the pubic symphysis to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Recordings of the relationship of the nerve to the inguinal ligament and depth at scarpa's fascia were also made. Statistical analysis was performed to find average distances with a standard deviation. Results: On average, the distance from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to the anterior superior iliac spine was 3.62 (SD = 1.32) cm and 13.58 (SD = 2.41) cm from the pubic symphysis in line with the inguinal ligament. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was found at the inguinal ligament 80% of the time and 20% of the time superior to the ligament and always deep to scarpa's fascia. Conclusion: Abdominoplasty carries a high patient and surgeon satisfaction rate. The plastic surgeon is continuously challenged to identify ways to improve outcomes, efficiency, and morbidity. Minimal and careful dissection in the area around 4 cm of the anterior superior iliac spine in addition to preserving scarpa's fascia near the inguinal ligament may serve as key strategies to avoiding lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injury.
PMCID: PMC4473816  PMID: 26171094
abdominoplasty; safety; lateral femoral cutaneous nerve; plastic surgery; tummy tuck
22.  Omentum Free Flap Anastomosed to Arterial Bypass in Open Knee Dislocation: Case Report and Discussion 
Eplasty  2015;15:e21.
Objective: To report on the original surgical management of a patient with severe trauma of both legs involving anastomosis of an omentum free flap with an emergency vascular bypass. Methods: After stabilization of the knee with an external fixator, a femoral-tibial bypass graft was performed to revascularize the leg with the contralateral great saphenous vein. Ten days later, an omentum free flap was used with an end-to-side arterial anastomosis between the right gastroepiploic artery and bypass graft to cover the loss of leg substance. Discussion: Anastomosis of a free flap with a single axis exposes the patient to risks of thrombosis and amputation. Lengthening of the arterial pedicle of the flap by venous graft or vascular loop might have allowed for avoidance of connection to the bypass. Nevertheless, the saphenous vein, generally used in these indications, was already harvested. The transitional anastomosis of the flap to the contralateral leg could not be considered because of the leg amputation. End-to-side anastomosis to the bypass presents many advantages: anastomosis with a healthy vessel without posttraumatic vascular disease, the superficial characteristics of the bypass, and lower incongruence of the thickness between the vessels compared with an anastomosis performed directly on the superficial femoral artery. Conclusion: A free flap anastomosed to an emergency arterial bypass is a rare situation, which is not without risk, but it is an option that is justified by its technical simplicity. However, it should only be considered in exceptional circumstances.
PMCID: PMC4468957  PMID: 26171093
knee dislocation; omentum; free flap; vascular bypass; microsurgery
23.  Chondroid Syringoma: A Case Report 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic30.
PMCID: PMC4470423  PMID: 26171105
chondroid syringoma; mixed tumor; sweat glands; skin tumor; scalp
24.  Cranial and Cervical Muscular Weakness in Mitochondrial Myopathy Is Associated With Resolution of Migraine Headaches: Further Evidence That Muscular Compression of Cranial and Peripheral Nerves Is a Cause of Headache in a Subset of Patients With Migraine 
Eplasty  2015;15:e20.
Objective: A significant subset of patients with migraine headaches has pain relief after neuroplasty/muscular decompression of select cranial and cervical nerves. In the majority of cases, compression occurs secondary to compression of the nerves by adjacent muscles. Previous studies have shown that both surgical decompression and chemical denervation (eg, botulinum toxin) provide relief of migraine headaches; however, controversy remains. If some migraine headaches are caused by muscular compression, then paresis of the compressing muscles by underlying myopathic/metabolic disease should result in migraine relief in some patients. Methods: We report a case of mitochondrial myopathy causing weakness primarily of the muscles of facial expression and the neck in the context of chronic migraine headaches (>20-year history). Muscle biopsy was obtained to confirm the myopathic diagnosis. Results: There was complete resolution of the patient's migraine headaches that occurred simultaneously with the onset of symptomatic paresis of the muscles of facial expression and the neck. The relief has persisted for more than 10 months. Neurologic evaluation and muscle biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy. Conclusions: Pathologic paresis/paralysis of facial and/or cervical muscles can result in persistent resolution of migraine headache pain, giving further evidence to the concept that peripheral and/or cranial nerve compression causes migraine headache pain in a subset of patients with a diagnosis of migraine.
PMCID: PMC4462834  PMID: 26171092
migraine; peripheral nerve; cranial nerve; trigeminal; mitochondrial myopathy
25.  “Gangrenous Finger” Proven to be Acute Gout 
Eplasty  2015;15:ic29.
PMCID: PMC4468956  PMID: 26171104
gout; uric acid; hyperuricemia; treatment; arthritis

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