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1.  Necrotizing Fasciitis 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic15.
PMCID: PMC4034121  PMID: 24917900
cellulitis; necrotizing fasciitis; myositis; sepsis; Streptococcus
2.  Catch 22, Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus in a Florid Keloid Former 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic14.
PMCID: PMC4022147  PMID: 24917899
giant congenital melanocytic nevus; disfiguring; malignant transformation; keloids; recurrence
3.  A Previously Discounted Flap Now Reconsidered: MatriDerm and Split-Thickness Skin Grafting for Tendon Cover Following Dorsalis Pedis Fasciocutaneous Flap in Lower Limb Trauma 
Eplasty  2014;14:e19.
Objective: The dorsalis pedis flap has reliable vascularity; however, its use is limited by reports of donor site morbidity including infection, delayed healing, exposure of tendons, and later contractures. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate its continued role in lower limb trauma when the donor site is reconstructed with MatriDerm to avoid complications. Methods: A 65-year-old man presented with a displaced, Gustilo 3b open transverse fracture of his left distal fibula. He had a 2 cm2 open wound over his lateral malleolus. Results: Following review of possible local options, a dorsalis pedis fasciocutaneous flap was deemed best for coverage, and the donor site was closed with 1-mm MatriDerm dermal matrix and a 6/1000 inch split-thickness skin graft (STSG) in a single stage. Three months postoperatively, the foot had excellent function and cosmesis, with toes in a neutral position and a full range of movement. Conclusions: The dorsalis pedis flap is a valuable reconstructive option for defects of the foot and ankle. Its major limitation donor site morbidity can be overcome by the additional application of a dermal substitute such as MatriDerm under the STSG.
PMCID: PMC4006426  PMID: 24917893
dorsalis pedis flap; reconstruction; MatriDerm; skin; lower limb trauma
4.  Application of the Single Use Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Device (PICO) on a Heterogeneous Group of Surgical and Traumatic Wounds 
Eplasty  2014;14:e20.
Objectives: Traumatic wounds and surgery inherently have their complications. Localized infections, wound dehiscence, and excessive wound leakage can be devastating to the patient with a prolonged recovery, but it is also costly to the hospital with an increased length of stay, extra workload, and dressing changes. The single use PICO (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, United Kingdom) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressing has revolutionized our management of various acute, chronic, and high output wounds. It requires fewer dressing changes than conventional practice, is used in the outpatient setting, and is a necessary adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. Aims: To observe the efficacy of the PICO vacuum-assisted healing within a cost improvement programme. Settings: Plastic surgery department, Royal London Hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with a diversity of postoperative or posttraumatic wounds were considered suitable for PICO application and treated totally on an outpatient basis once the PICO dressing was applied. All wounds were then subjected to continued PICO dressings until healed. Results: All patients tolerated the PICO well with no dressing failure or failure to comply. The number of dressings per patient ranged from 1 to 7. The cost per patient of treatment ranged from £120 to £1578. Estimated cost of all PICO dressing for 21 patients including plastic surgery dressing clinic appointments = £13,345. Median length of treatment to healing (days) = 16; standard deviation = 9.5. Eight patients would have had an inpatient bed stay with conventional therapy, total 24 bed days saved at Bartshealth @£325 per day. Conclusions: The outpatient application of a disposable NPWT can benefit a wide range of clinical wounds that optimizes patient care, promotes rapid wound healing, and importantly helps manage costs.
PMCID: PMC4006427  PMID: 24917894
plastic surgery; wound management; negative pressure wound dressing; single use device; early patient discharge
5.  Making Contact 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic13.
PMCID: PMC4034567  PMID: 24917898
electrical burn; high-voltage; hand; fasciotomy; burn
6.  Morel-Lavallée Lesion 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic12.
PMCID: PMC4005421  PMID: 24917897
Morel-Lavallée; seroma; traumatic hematoma; degloving injury; shearing injury
7.  Maffucci Syndrome 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic11.
PMCID: PMC4005419  PMID: 24917896
Maffucci syndrome; enchondroma; hemangioma; venous malformations; spindle cell hemangioma
8.  Forearm Compartment Syndrome 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic10.
PMCID: PMC4005420  PMID: 24917895
compartment syndrome; fasciotomy; forearm compartments; forearm anatomy; upper limb ischaemia
9.  Correlation Analysis of Histomorphometry and Motor Neurography in the Median Nerve Rat Model 
Eplasty  2014;14:e17.
Objective: Standard methods to evaluate the functional regeneration after injury of the rat median nerve are insufficient to identify any further differences of axonal nerve regeneration after restitution of motor recovery is completed. An important complementary method for assessing such differences is a histomorphometric analysis of the distal to lesion nerve fibers. Recently, an electrophysiological method has been proposed as a sensitive method to examine the quality of axonal nerve regeneration. Methods: A linear regression analysis has been performed to correlate histomorphometric and neurographic data originating from 31 rats subjected to neurotmesis and immediate reconstruction of their right median nerve. Results: A significant linear correlation between the velocity of neuromuscular conduction and the total number of nerve fibers (P = .037) as well as between the amplitude of compound muscle action potential and the total number of nerve fibers (P = .026) has been identified. Interestingly, a significant correlation between the velocity of neuromuscular conduction and the square root of the cross-sectional area of the nerve could be found (P = .008). This corresponds to a linear correlation between the velocity of neuromuscular conduction and the radius of the nerve. Conclusion: These results contribute in a better interpretation of morphological predictors of nerve regeneration and verify the previously described electrophysiological assessment in the median nerve rat model as a valid method.
PMCID: PMC3984537  PMID: 24904711
neurography; electrophysiology; morphometry; nerve regeneration; median nerve
10.  Exposure of a Microvascular Anastomotic Coupler in Head and Neck Reconstruction: A Case Report 
Eplasty  2014;14:e18.
Objective: We present a case of exposure of a microvascular anastomotic coupler. Methods: We performed venous anastomoses using microvascular anastomotic couplers in head and neck reconstruction. Results: A microvascular anastomotic coupler was exposed in the seventh month postoperation, and an anastomosed vein was disrupted. Conclusions: Although the usefulness of the microvascular anastomotic coupler in microsurgical flap reconstruction is not in doubt, as described previously, we believe that it is necessary to remember that use of a microvascular anastomotic coupler involves potential risks of exposure and anastomosed vessel disruption.
PMCID: PMC3984538  PMID: 24904712
microvascular anastomotic coupler; venous anastomosis; complications; exposure; head and neck reconstruction
11.  The Duration of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Can Be Reduced Using the HeartShield Device in Patients With Deep Sternal Wound Infection 
Eplasty  2014;14:e16.
Background: Heart rupture resulting in lethal bleeding is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). We have previously reported that the use of a protective HeartShield device in combination with NPWT decreases the risk of damage to the heart. This article presents a retrospective analysis of NPWT duration with and without the HeartShield device. Subjects and patients: The study included 6 patients treated with the HeartShield device in combination with NPWT and 6 patients treated with conventional NPWT during the same time period. The duration of active treatment time was measured. Results: The median duration of NPWT was 8 days (range: 6-14 days) in the HeartShield device NPWT group and 14 days in the conventional group (range: 10-18 days). The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusions: It appears that the treatment of patients with DSWI with the HeartShield device reduces the duration of NPWT.
PMCID: PMC3977590  PMID: 24741387
Wound; heart; sternotomy; NPWT; vacuum
12.  Genital Reconstruction After Weight Loss in Adipose Male Patients: A Case report 
Eplasty  2014;14:e14.
Objective: We introduce our surgical technique in two male genital reconstruction cases out of 15 post-bariatric patients. Methods: At our Department for Plastic Surgery at the University Hospital Magdeburg, 15 patients, 6 male and 9 female, underwent a surgical abdominoplasty after weight loss in 2009. Results: The average weight of the 15 patients was preoperatively 197.2 kg and the average hospital stay was of 14 days. In 2 cases, a second procedure for male genital reconstruction was necessary. After primary dietary measures and weight loss, we performed genital reconstruction in a second step with a sleeve-, Z-, VY-plasty and a “bilobed flap” to restore function and appearance of the male genitalia. In these patients, the average weight was 207.5 kg and hospital stay lasted 32 days. Conclusion: The increase of patients with obesity-related genital deformities will be expected in the future. Therefore, more controlled long-term studies should be published to develop guidelines for genital reconstruction techniques in plastic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3977591  PMID: 24741385
obesity; genital reconstruction; pendulous abdomen; abdominoplasty; penis reconstruction
13.  Biological Effects of a Disposable, Canisterless Negative Pressure Wound Therapy System 
Eplasty  2014;14:e15.
Objective: Recent developments of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) systems have focused on making pumps smaller, lighter, and more portable. The recently introduced PICO system manages wound fluid through a highly breathable film within the dressing, thereby negating the need for a canister, which allows greater mobility and patient concordance. The aim of this study is to compare the biological effects of this system compared to a traditional NPWT system. Methods: Laboratory tests were carried out to demonstrate the fluid handling properties of the PICO™ system. Porcine full thickness defect wounds and sutured incisional wounds were used to compare the biological effects. Wounds were treated with PICO dressings or traditional NPWT dressings and connected to either a PICO device or a traditional NPWT device. Results: The PICO dressing manages exudate predominantly through evaporative loss (up to 85% of all fluid entering the dressing). Both traditional NPWT and the PICO system maintained therapeutic levels of negative pressure in all wounds. Both NPWT systems produced similar effects on wound edge contraction and microvascular blood flow in defect wounds. No significant changes in blood flow or wound contraction were noted in incision wounds for any NPWT combinations tested. Conclusions: The disposable, canisterless PICO NPWT system functions in the same manner as the traditional NPWT systems with regard to fluid handling, pressure transmission to the wound bed, tissue contraction, and changes in blood flow.
PMCID: PMC3977592  PMID: 24741386
Blood flow; dressing; wound; NPWT; vacuum
14.  Sequelae Following Radical Parotidectomy: The Role of the Reconstructive Surgeon 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic9.
PMCID: PMC3977589  PMID: 24741392
facial nerve; parotidectomy; nerve graft; regional muscle transfers; free tissue transfer
15.  Diagnosis: Chronic Osteomyelitis 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic8.
PMCID: PMC3975947  PMID: 24741391
chronic wounds; chronic infections; diagnosis of osteomyelitis; pathological changes in osteomyelitis; classification of osteomyelitis
16.  Treatment of Dupuytren Disease With Injectable Collagenase in a Veteran Population: A Case Series at the Department of Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System 
Eplasty  2014;14:e13.
Introduction: Clinical trials seeking to establish long-term efficacy of injectable collagenase clostridium histolyticum for treatment of Dupuytren disease are ongoing. In this quality improvement study, the efficacy, recurrence rate, and complications of collagenase injection for Dupuytren disease are reviewed in a population of Veteran patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent treatment with injectable collagenase for Dupuytren disease from 2010 to 2013 at our regional Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Data points of interest included the degree of joint contracture preoperatively, immediately after treatment, and at follow-up, complications, and patient satisfaction. Results: Sixteen patients received 27 injections (18 metacarpophalangeal and 9 proximal interphalangeal injections). The mean time of follow-up was 12.3 months. There was a 50% or greater reduction of the original extension deficit in 74.1% (n = 27) of the joints treated. Metacarpophalangeal joint recurrence was “high” (≥50°) in 0% (n = 18) of joints, and “low” (5°-50°) in 33.3% (n = 18) of joints with a mean follow-up of 12 months. Proximal interphalangeal joint recurrence was “high” (≥40°) in 18.5% (n = 9) of joints and “low” (5°-40°) in 7.4% (n = 9) of joints with a mean follow-up of 12.9 months. Minor complications were experienced in 93.8% (n = 16) of patients who underwent collagenase injection and included ecchymosis, skin laceration, injection-site swelling, injection-site hemorrhage, tenderness, and pruritus. Seventy-five percent (n = 12) of patients in our study reported they would undergo treatment with collagenase again. Conclusions: The case series presented demonstrates that injectable collagenase clostridium histolyticum produced a clinical success rate of 74.1% and is a safe method to treat Dupuytren disease.
PMCID: PMC3977593  PMID: 24741384
collagenase; Dupuytren disease; Xiaflex; palmar aponeurosis; flexion contracture
17.  Split Hemianterior Tibialis Turndown Muscle Flap for Coverage of Distal Leg Wounds With Preservation of Function 
Eplasty  2014;14:e12.
Objective: A hemisplit turndown tibialis anterior muscle flap is described for coverage of distal leg wounds with preservation of active extensor function for open wounds of the distal ankle is presented. This is a new flap not previously described and is another local option for coverage of selected distal leg wounds. Methods: A description of the operative procedure and a clinical successful example is presented. Results: The split hemitibialis anterior turndown muscle flap was successful and preserved function of the muscle and tendon. Conclusions: This is another option for coverage of difficult wounds of the lower extremity without sacrifice of function of the donor muscle.
PMCID: PMC3964920  PMID: 24741383
muscle flap; tibialis anterior muscle; lower extremity wound; split muscle; tibialis anterior tendon
18.  Pai Syndrome: Median Cleft Lip, Corpus Callosum Lipoma, and Fibroepithelial Skin Tag 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic7.
PMCID: PMC3961995  PMID: 24741390
Pai syndrome; median clef t lip; corpus callosum dysgenesis; Fibroepithelial skin polyps; lipoma
19.  Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic6.
PMCID: PMC3962031  PMID: 24741389
toxic epidermal necrolysis; Lyell's syndrome; stevens-johnson syndrome; TEN; drug reaction
20.  Debulking Surgery for Elephantiasis Nostras With Large Ectatic Podoplanin-Negative Lymphatic Vessels in Patients With Lipo-Lymphedema 
Eplasty  2014;14:e11.
Objective: Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo-lymphedema. While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery. Methods: We present 2 cases of advanced lipo-lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed. Results: The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed. It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Conclusions: Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo-lymphedema. Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing. Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas.
PMCID: PMC3944717  PMID: 24741382
lipo-lymphedema; decongestive lymphatic therapy; tumescent liposuction; adjuvant debulking surgery; elephantiasis nostras
21.  A Fungal Burn Infection 
Eplasty  2014;14:ic5.
PMCID: PMC3938088  PMID: 24741388
Aspergillus; burn; fungus; mold; pulse lavage
22.  Evaluation of Options for Large Scalp Defect Reconstruction: A 12-Year Experience 
Eplasty  2014;14:e10.
Objective: Multiple options for reconstruction of scalp defects exist with local tissue advancement and free tissue transfer the mainstay of reconstruction. Over the last 12 years, our tertiary referral hospital has performed more than 150 scalp reconstructions. We reviewed our experience with large scalp defects and evaluated whether free tissue transfer is a viable first option for reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of all scalp reconstructions from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2011. A cohort of patients with defects greater than 50 cm2 were identified for a total of 64 operations; 10 free flaps, 28 local advancement flaps, and 26 skin grafts. Reoperation rates and complications were compared between groups. Results: Reoperation rate in the free flap group was 20% (2/10). Both reoperations were within the immediate postoperative period, one for microvascular thrombotic occlusion and the other for postoperative hematoma. The local tissue transfer group had a 14% reoperation rate (4/28), all for debridement of partial flap loss. The skin graft cohort had a 12% reoperation rate (3/26) for 1 complete and 2 partial skin graft failures; all required repeat grafting. Reoperation for free-flap complications did not require rehospitalization. In contrast, the skin graft and non–free flap reoperations frequently required rehospitalization. Conclusion: Though free tissue transfer has a higher occurrence of reoperation within the immediate postoperative period, completion of reconstruction usually occurs within a single hospitalization. Free tissue transfer is a feasible option, and we advocate for its use as a primary method for repairing large scalp defects.
PMCID: PMC3931441  PMID: 24567771
free flap; local tissue flap; microsurgery; scalp defects; scalp reconstruction
23.  Anatomic Evaluation of the Internal Mammary Vessels Using Multidetector CT Angiography Images in 100 Asian Patients 
Eplasty  2014;14:e9.
PMCID: PMC3923255  PMID: 24570770
anatomical variations; internal mammary vessels; breast reconstruction; multidetector computed tomography; Asian patients
24.  A Simple and Safe Technique for Manipulation of Retrosternal Dissection in the Nuss Procedure 
Eplasty  2014;14:e8.
Objective: The Nuss procedure has become the first choice for repairing the pectus excavatum because of the advantages of the technique including minimal invasiveness and short operative duration. Although this technique appears simple and easy, life-threatening complications during dissection such as intraoperative cardiac perforation have been reported. We developed a new approach for safer dissection of retrosternal space. Methods: We use a dissector that is commonly used for laparoscopic operation, instead of the Nuss introducer. The dissector goes through the same skin incision where the Nuss bar will be inserted. The major difference is the position of dissector insertion, which is set up more dorsally than usual, and the use of a laparoscopic dissector instead of the Nuss introducer. In this new approach, the direction of dissection is from dorsal toward the anterior thoracic wall, which allows us to visually follow the tip of the dissector throughout the surgery. Moreover using the dissector that has better manipulation capability enables us the fine dissection and also is able to precisely determine both the layer and the area of the dissection level. Results: We have treated more than 150 patients using this technique without any complications since 2008. In all the cases, safer dissection of the retrosternal space was performed with good results. Conclusion: We believe every surgeon can easily apply this procedure to patients with pectus excavatum, and this procedure can reduce the stress during the dissection.
PMCID: PMC3919108  PMID: 24570769
Nuss procedure; pectus excavatum; prevent life-threatening complication; safe dissection; the layer of the dissection level
25.  Comparative Host Response of 2 Human Acellular Dermal Matrices in a Primate Implant Model 
Eplasty  2014;14:e7.
Objective: We examined the differences in capsule formation between 2 commercially available human acellular dermal matrices in a nonhuman primate model. Methods: Primates were implanted dorsally with a subcutaneously placed tissue expander and randomized into 3 groups, receiving skin coverage only, coverage with non-irradiated freeze-dried human acellular dermal matrix, or coverage with gamma-irradiated human acellular dermal matrix. After 9 weeks, soft tissue around the tissue expander was excised and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to assess extent of inflammation (CD68 antibodies and interleukin-6 levels), degradation and fibrosis (matrix metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen-1 staining), and mechanical (tensile) strength. Results: Histological evaluation of tissue around the tissue expander indicated differences in host response, suggesting capsule presence in the gamma-irradiated matrix group but not the freeze-dried matrix group. The extent of local inflammation was much higher in the gamma-irradiated matrix group which demonstrated mean (standard deviation) localized interleukin-6 concentration of 67.3 (53.6) vs 16.3 (6.7) pg/mg protein in the non-irradiated matrix group. There was robust degradation and fibrotic response in the gamma-irradiated matrix group versus the freeze-dried matrix group. Mechanical testing indicated mean (standard deviation) ultimate tensile strength of 12.0 (7.1) N in the gamma-irradiated matrix group versus 99.3 (48.8) N in the freeze-dried matrix group. Conclusions: Enclosure of a tissue expander with human acellular dermal matrix untreated by gamma irradiation led to minimal inflammation and minimal evidence of fibrosis/capsule around the tissue expander compared with robust capsule formation around the tissue expander that was covered by a gamma-irradiated human acellular dermal matrix.
PMCID: PMC3914385  PMID: 24570768
acellular dermal matrix; AlloDerm; animals; breast implants; foreign-body reaction; tissue expanders

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