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2.  Overnight Glucose Control With an Automated, Unified Safety System in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes at Diabetes Camp 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2310-2316.
OBJECTIVE
To determine the safety and efficacy of an automated unified safety system (USS) in providing overnight closed-loop (OCL) control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes attending diabetes summer camps.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Diabetes Assistant (DIAS) USS used the Dexcom G4 Platinum glucose sensor (Dexcom) and t:slim insulin pump (Tandem Diabetes Care). An initial inpatient study was completed for 12 participants to evaluate safety. For the main camp study, 20 participants with type 1 diabetes were randomized to either OCL or sensor-augmented therapy (control conditions) per night over the course of a 5- to 6-day diabetes camp.
RESULTS
Subjects completed 54 OCL nights and 52 control nights. On an intention-to-treat basis, with glucose data analyzed regardless of system status, the median percent time in range, from 70–150 mg/dL, was 62% (29, 87) for OCL nights versus 55% (25, 80) for sensor-augmented pump therapy (P = 0.233). A per-protocol analysis allowed for assessment of algorithm performance. The median percent time in range, from 70–150 mg/dL, was 73% (50, 89) for OCL nights (n = 41) versus 52% (24, 83) for control conditions (n = 39) (P = 0.037). There was less time spent in the hypoglycemic range <50, <60, and <70 mg/dL during OCL compared with the control period (P = 0.019, P = 0.009, and P = 0.023, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
The DIAS USS algorithm is effective in improving time spent in range as well as reducing nocturnal hypoglycemia during the overnight period in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in a diabetes camp setting.
doi:10.2337/dc14-0147
PMCID: PMC4179507  PMID: 24879841
3.  Characterization of Circulating and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients With Extreme-Duration Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2193-2201.
OBJECTIVE
We characterized and correlated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) with lack of vascular complications in the Joslin Medalist Study in patients with type 1 diabetes for 50 years or longer.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
EPC and CPC levels were ascertained by flow cytometry and compared among Medalists (n = 172) with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 84 of 162), neuropathy (n = 94 of 165), diabetic nephropathy (DN; n = 18 of 172), cardiovascular disease (CVD; n = 63 of 168), age-matched controls (n = 83), type 2 diabetic patients (n = 36), and younger type 1 diabetic patients (n = 31). Mitogens, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative markers were measured in blood or urine. Migration of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Medalists and age-matched controls were compared.
RESULTS
Medalists’ EPC and CPC levels equaled those of their nondiabetic age-matched controls, were 10% higher than those in younger type 1 diabetic patients, and were 20% higher than those in age-matched type 2 diabetic patients. CPC levels were 15% higher in Medalists without CVD and nephropathy than in those affected, whereas EPC levels were significantly higher in those without peripheral vascular disease (PVD) than those with PVD. Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) levels were higher in Medalists with CVD, DN, and DR than in those not affected and their controls. IGF-I levels were lower in Medalists and correlated inversely with CPC levels. Additionally, cultured PBMCs from Medalists migrated more than those from nondiabetic controls.
CONCLUSIONS
Normal levels of EPC and CPC in the Medalists, unlike other groups with diabetes, especially those without CVD, support the idea that endogenous factors exist to neutralize the adverse effects of metabolic abnormalities of diabetes on vascular tissues.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2547
PMCID: PMC4113171  PMID: 24780357
4.  Lifestyle and Metformin Interventions Have a Durable Effect to Lower CRP and tPA Levels in the Diabetes Prevention Program Except in Those Who Develop Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2253-2260.
OBJECTIVE
We evaluate whether lifestyle and metformin interventions used to prevent diabetes have durable effects on markers of inflammation and coagulation and whether the effects are influenced by the development of diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Diabetes Prevention Program was a controlled clinical trial of 3,234 subjects at high risk for diabetes who were randomized to lifestyle, metformin, or placebo interventions for 3.4 years. Diabetes was diagnosed semiannually by fasting glucose and annually by oral glucose tolerance testing. In addition to baseline testing, anthropometry was performed every 6 months; fasting insulin yearly; and hs-CRP, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and fibrinogen at 1 year and end of study (EOS).
RESULTS
CRP and tPA levels were unchanged in the placebo group but fell in the lifestyle and metformin groups at 1 year and remained lower at EOS. These reductions were not seen in those who developed diabetes over the course of the study despite intervention. Fibrinogen was lower at 1 year in the lifestyle group. Differences in weight and weight change explained most of the influence of diabetes on the CRP response in the lifestyle group, but only partly in the placebo and metformin groups. Weight, insulin sensitivity, and hyperglycemia differences each accounted for the influence of diabetes on the tPA response.
CONCLUSIONS
Lifestyle and metformin interventions have durable effects to lower hs-CRP and tPA. Incident diabetes prevented these improvements, and this was accounted for by differences in weight, insulin resistance, and glucose levels.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2471
PMCID: PMC4113172  PMID: 24824548
5.  Prevalence of Diabetes Among Hispanics/Latinos From Diverse Backgrounds: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2233-2239.
OBJECTIVE
We examine differences in prevalence of diabetes and rates of awareness and control among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The HCHS/SOL, a prospective, multicenter, population-based study, enrolled from four U.S. metropolitan areas from 2008 to 2011 16,415 18–74-year-old people of Hispanic/Latino descent. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance 2 h after a glucose load, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), or documented use of hypoglycemic agents (scanned medications).
RESULTS
Diabetes prevalence varied from 10.2% in South Americans and 13.4% in Cubans to 17.7% in Central Americans, 18.0% in Dominicans and Puerto Ricans, and 18.3% in Mexicans (P < 0.0001). Prevalence related positively to age (P < 0.0001), BMI (P < 0.0001), and years living in the U.S. (P = 0.0010) but was negatively related to education (P = 0.0005) and household income (P = 0.0043). Rate of diabetes awareness was 58.7%, adequate glycemic control (A1C <7%, 53 mmol/mol) was 48.0%, and having health insurance among those with diabetes was 52.4%.
CONCLUSIONS
Present findings indicate a high prevalence of diabetes but considerable diversity as a function of Hispanic background. The low rates of diabetes awareness, diabetes control, and health insurance in conjunction with the negative associations between diabetes prevalence and both household income and education among Hispanics/Latinos in the U.S. have important implications for public health policies.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2939
PMCID: PMC4113173  PMID: 25061138
7.  Depressive Symptoms, Antidepressant Use, and the Incidence of Diabetes in the Black Women’s Health Study 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2211-2217.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the relationship of depressive symptoms and use of antidepressants with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective data from a large cohort of U.S. African American women.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Black Women’s Health Study (BWHS) is an ongoing prospective cohort study. We followed 35,898 women from 1999 through 2011 who were without a diagnosis of diabetes and who had completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 1999. CES-D scores were categorized as <16, 16–22, 23–32, and ≥33, which reflected increasingly more depressive symptoms. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models. The basic multivariable model included age, time period, family history of diabetes, and education. In further models, we controlled for lifestyle factors and BMI. We also assessed the association of antidepressant use with incident diabetes.
RESULTS
Over 12 years of follow-up, there were 3,372 incident diabetes cases. Relative to CES-D score <16, IRRs (95% CI) of diabetes for CES-D scores 16–22, 23–32, and ≥33 were 1.23 (1.12–1.35), 1.26 (1.12–1.41), and 1.45 (1.24–1.69), respectively, in the basic multivariate model. Multiple adjustment for lifestyle factors and BMI attenuated the IRRs to 1.11 (1.01–1.22), 1.08 (0.96–1.22), and 1.22 (1.04–1.43). The adjusted IRR for antidepressant use was 1.26 (1.11–1.43). Results were similar among obese women.
CONCLUSIONS
Both depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with incident diabetes among African American women. These associations are mediated in part, but not entirely, through lifestyle factors and BMI.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2642
PMCID: PMC4113175  PMID: 24784829
8.  A New Era in Understanding Diabetes Disparities Among U.S. Latinos—All Are Not Equal 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2081-2083.
doi:10.2337/dc14-0923
PMCID: PMC4113176  PMID: 25061137
9.  Efficacy and Safety of Dulaglutide Versus Sitagliptin After 52 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetes in a Randomized Controlled Trial (AWARD-5) 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2149-2158.
OBJECTIVE
To compare the efficacy and safety of two doses of once-weekly dulaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, to sitagliptin in uncontrolled, metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objective was to compare (for noninferiority and then superiority) dulaglutide 1.5 mg versus sitagliptin in change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at 52 weeks.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This multicenter, adaptive, double-blind, parallel-arm study randomized patients (N = 1,098; mean baseline age 54 years; HbA1c 8.1% [65 mmol/mol]; weight 86.4 kg; diabetes duration 7 years) to dulaglutide 1.5 mg, dulaglutide 0.75 mg, sitagliptin 100 mg, or placebo (placebo-controlled period up to 26 weeks). The treatment period lasted 104 weeks, with 52-week primary end point data presented.
RESULTS
The mean HbA1c changes to 52 weeks were (least squares mean ± SE): −1.10 ± 0.06% (−12.0 ± 0.7 mmol/mol), −0.87 ± 0.06% (9.5 ± 0.7 mmol/mol), and −0.39 ± 0.06% (4.3 ± 0.7 mmol/mol) for dulaglutide 1.5 mg, dulaglutide 0.75 mg, and sitagliptin, respectively. Both dulaglutide doses were superior to sitagliptin (P < 0.001, both comparisons). No events of severe hypoglycemia were reported. Mean weight changes to 52 weeks were greater with dulaglutide 1.5 mg (−3.03 ± 0.22 kg) and dulaglutide 0.75 mg (−2.60 ± 0.23 kg) compared with sitagliptin (−1.53 ± 0.22 kg) (P < 0.001, both comparisons). The most common gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse events in dulaglutide 1.5- and 0.75-mg arms were nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting.
CONCLUSIONS
Both dulaglutide doses demonstrated superior glycemic control versus sitagliptin at 52 weeks with an acceptable tolerability and safety profile.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2761
PMCID: PMC4113177  PMID: 24742660
10.  Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 124,808 Men and Women 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2268-2275.
OBJECTIVE
The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as “job strain,” is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses.
RESULTS
There were 3,703 cases of incident diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10.3 years. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), the hazard ratio (HR) for job strain compared with no job strain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.06–1.25) with no difference between men and women (1.19 [1.06–1.34] and 1.13 [1.00–1.28], respectively). In stratified analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of diabetes among those with healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, SES, and lifestyle habits, the HR was 1.11 (1.00–1.23).
CONCLUSIONS
Findings from a large pan-European dataset suggest that job strain is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in men and women independent of lifestyle factors.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2936
PMCID: PMC4113178  PMID: 25061139
11.  Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Hispanics/Latinos of Diverse Background: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2391-2399.
OBJECTIVE
Approximately one-third of the adult U.S. population has the metabolic syndrome. Its prevalence is the highest among Hispanic adults, but variation by Hispanic/Latino background is unknown. Our objective was to quantify the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women 18–74 years of age of diverse Hispanic/Latino background.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Two-stage area probability sample of households in four U.S. locales, yielding 16,319 adults (52% women) who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, or South American. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2009 Joint Scientific Statement. The main outcome measures were age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome per the harmonized American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute definition and its component abnormalities.
RESULTS
The metabolic syndrome was present in 36% of women and 34% of men. Differences in the age-standardized prevalence were seen by age, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among those 18–44, 45–64, and 65–74 years of age was 23%, 50%, and 62%, respectively, among women; and 25%, 43%, and 55%, respectively, among men. Among women, the metabolic syndrome prevalence ranged from 27% in South Americans to 41% in Puerto Ricans. Among men, prevalences ranged from 27% in South Americans to 35% in Cubans. In those with the metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity was present in 96% of the women compared with 73% of the men; more men (73%) than women (62%) had hyperglycemia.
CONCLUSIONS
The burden of cardiometabolic abnormalities is high in Hispanic/Latinos but varies by age, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background. Hispanics/Latinos are thus at increased, but modifiable, predicted lifetime risk of diabetes and its cardiovascular sequelae.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2505
PMCID: PMC4113166  PMID: 25061141
12.  Life’s Simple 7 and Incidence of Diabetes Among American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2240-2245.
OBJECTIVE
The American Heart Association’s recommendations for optimal health, summarized in Life’s Simple 7, have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related end points, but no studies have examined the association of these goals with incident type 2 diabetes, which is associated with high risk for CVD. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the associations of Life’s Simple 7 goals with incident diabetes among American Indians, a population at high risk of cardiometabolic diseases.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Strong Heart Family Study participants without diabetes (n = 1,639) at baseline and who participated in a follow-up examination were included in the analysis. Risk scores ranging from 0 to 7 were created using physical activity, diet, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and cholesterol metrics in accordance with Life’s Simple 7 goals. Diabetes was defined using 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria, including use of insulin or oral antidiabetes medication or a follow-up fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association of risk scores with incident diabetes.
RESULTS
During a mean 5-year follow-up (range 4–8 years), we identified 210 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Compared with participants who achieved 0–1 goals, those who achieved 2–3 or 4+ goals had lower odds of diabetes, with odds ratios = 0.40 (95% CI 0.29–0.56) and 0.11 (95% CI 0.05–0.21), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The adoption of as few as two or three Life’s Simple 7 goals is associated with a lower risk of diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2267
PMCID: PMC4113167  PMID: 24804696
13.  NIDDK International Conference Report on Diabetes and Depression: Current Understanding and Future Directions 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2067-2077.
Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2134
PMCID: PMC4113168  PMID: 25061135
14.  Psychological Distress and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk and Low-Risk Populations: The Whitehall II Cohort Study 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2091-2097.
OBJECTIVE
We examined whether psychological distress predicts incident type 2 diabetes and if the association differs between populations at higher or lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a prospective cohort of 5,932 diabetes-free adults (4,189 men and 1,743 women, mean age 54.6 years) with three 5-year data cycles (1991–2009): a total of 13,207 person-observations. Participants were classified into four groups according to their prediabetes status and Framingham Offspring Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score: normoglycemia with a risk score of 0–9, normoglycemia with a risk score of 10–19, prediabetes with a risk score of 10–19, and prediabetes with a risk score of >19. Psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained by 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, doctor diagnosis, or use of antihyperglycemic medication at the 5-year follow-up for each data cycle. Adjustments were made for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, antidepressant use, smoking, and physical activity.
RESULTS
Among participants with normoglycemia and among those with prediabetes combined with a low risk score, psychological distress did not predict type 2 diabetes. Diabetes incidence in these groups varied between 1.6 and 15.6%. Among participants with prediabetes and a high risk score, 40.9% of those with psychological distress compared with 28.5% of those without distress developed diabetes during the follow-up. The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for psychological distress was 2.07 (95% CI 1.19–3.62).
CONCLUSIONS
These data suggest that psychological distress is associated with an accelerated progression to manifest diabetes in a subpopulation with advanced prediabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2725
PMCID: PMC4113169  PMID: 24784831
15.  Metabolic Syndrome, C-Reactive Protein, and Mortality in U.S. Blacks and Whites: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(8):2284-2290.
OBJECTIVE
We evaluate associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS), C-reactive protein (CRP), and a CRP-incorporated definition of MetS (CRPMetS) with risk of all-cause mortality in a biracial population.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied 23,998 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, an observational study of black and white adults ≥45 years old across the U.S. Elevated CRP was defined as ≥3 mg/L and MetS by the revised Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III; ATP III) criteria (three of five components). CRPMetS was defined as presence of three out of six components, with elevated CRP added to ATP III criteria as a sixth component. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality, and population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated. Stratified analyses based on race and diabetes status were performed.
RESULTS
There were 9,741 participants (41%) with MetS and 12,179 (51%) with CRPMetS at baseline. Over 4.8 years of follow-up, 2,050 participants died. After adjustment for multiple confounders, MetS, elevated CRP, and CRPMetS were each significantly associated with increased mortality risk (HRs 1.26 [95% CI 1.15–1.38], 1.55 [1.41–1.70], and 1.34 [1.22–1.48], respectively). The PAR was 9.5% for MetS, 18.1% for CRP, and 14.7% for CRPMetS. Associations of elevated CRP and of CRPMetS with mortality were significantly greater in whites than blacks, while no differences in associations were observed based on diabetes status.
CONCLUSIONS
By definition, CRPMetS identifies more people at risk than MetS but still maintains a similar mortality risk. Incorporating CRP into the definition for MetS may be useful in identifying additional high-risk populations to target for prevention.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2059
PMCID: PMC4113170  PMID: 24879838
16.  Pregravid Liver Enzyme Levels and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus During a Subsequent Pregnancy 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1878-1884.
OBJECTIVE
Liver enzymes are independent predictors of type 2 diabetes. Although liver fat content correlates with features of insulin resistance, a risk factor for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the relationship between liver enzymes and GDM is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess whether pregravid liver enzyme levels are associated with subsequent risk of GDM.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A nested case-control study was conducted among women who participated in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multiphasic health checkup (1984–1996) and had a subsequent pregnancy (1984–2009). Case patients were 256 women who developed GDM. Two control subjects were selected for each case patient and matched for year of blood draw, age at examination, age at pregnancy, and number of intervening pregnancies.
RESULTS
Being in the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels was associated with a twofold increased risk of subsequent GDM (odds ratio 1.97 [95% CI 1.14–3.42]), after adjusting for race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, and alcohol use. This result was attenuated after adjusting for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting status, and rate of gestational weight gain. There was significant interaction between GGT and HOMA-IR; the association with GGT was found among women in the highest tertile of HOMA-IR. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were not associated with increased GDM risk.
CONCLUSIONS
Pregravid GGT level, but not alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase level, predicted the subsequent risk of GDM. Markers of liver fat accumulation, such as GGT level, are present years before pregnancy and may help to identify women at increased risk for subsequent GDM.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2229
PMCID: PMC4067389  PMID: 24795397
17.  Prevention of Recurrent Foot Ulcers With Plantar Pressure–Based In-Shoe Orthoses: The CareFUL Prevention Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1982-1989.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the efficacy of in-shoe orthoses that were designed based on shape and barefoot plantar pressure in reducing the incidence of submetatarsal head plantar ulcers in people with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of similar prior ulceration.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Single-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized to wear shape- and pressure-based orthoses (experimental, n = 66) or standard-of-care A5513 orthoses (control, n = 64). Patients were followed for 15 months, until a study end point (forefoot plantar ulcer or nonulcerative plantar forefoot lesion) or to study termination. Proportional hazards regression was used for analysis.
RESULTS
There was a trend in the composite primary end point (both ulcers and nonulcerative lesions) across the full follow-up period (P = 0.13) in favor of the experimental orthoses. This trend was due to a marked difference in ulcer occurrence (P = 0.007) but no difference in the rate of nonulcerative lesions (P = 0.76). At 180 days, the ulcer prevention effect of the experimental orthoses was already significant (P = 0.003) when compared with control, and the benefit of the experimental orthoses with respect to the composite end point was also significant (P = 0.042). The hazard ratio was 3.4 (95% CI 1.3–8.7) for the occurrence of a submetatarsal head plantar ulcer in the control compared with experimental arm over the duration of the study.
CONCLUSIONS
We conclude that shape- and barefoot plantar pressure–based orthoses were more effective in reducing submetatarsal head plantar ulcer recurrence than current standard-of-care orthoses, but they did not significantly reduce nonulcerative lesions.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2956
PMCID: PMC4067390  PMID: 24760263
18.  Patient Preferences for Noninsulin Diabetes Medications: A Systematic Review 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):2055-2062.
OBJECTIVE
An evidence-based synthesis of patient preferences for management of hyperglycemia is needed. Our objective was to systematically review patient preferences for noninsulin diabetes medications in adults with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We searched the PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit databases for articles published on or before 23 January 2013. We included English-language studies of adult patients with type 2 diabetes that assessed patient preferences for diabetes medication treatment. Titles, abstracts, and articles were reviewed by at least two independent reviewers. Study data and quality were abstracted with standard protocols.
RESULTS
Of 2,811 titles identified in our original search, 10 articles met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Studies were conducted from 2007 to 2012 among diverse patient populations in the U.S., Sweden, Denmark, and the U.K. Methods used to assess patient preferences included discrete choice experiments (e.g., conjoint analysis), time tradeoff exercises, standard gamble, and patient surveys. Key attributes of diabetes medication associated with patient preferences included treatment benefits (e.g., glycemic control and weight loss/control), treatment burden (e.g., administration, frequency, and cost), and side effects (e.g., weight gain, gastrointestinal effects, and hypoglycemia).
CONCLUSIONS
Various clinical and quality of life–related factors influence patient preferences for noninsulin diabetes medications. Treatment efficacy with regard to glycemic control and weight loss/control and the risk of treatment-related hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal effects are reported to be important drivers of patient treatment selections. Future work is needed to identify practical methods for incorporating patient preferences into treatment decision making and patient-centered care.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2527
PMCID: PMC4067391  PMID: 24963113
19.  Effect of Salsalate on Insulin Action, Secretion, and Clearance in Nondiabetic, Insulin-Resistant Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1944-1950.
OBJECTIVE
Salsalate treatment has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salsalate treatment on insulin action, secretion, and clearance rate in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a randomized (2:1), single-blind, placebo-controlled study of salsalate (3.5 g daily for 4 weeks) in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. All individuals had measurement of glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test), steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG; insulin suppression test), and insulin secretion and clearance rate (graded-glucose infusion test) before and after treatment.
RESULTS
Forty-one individuals were randomized to salsalate (n = 27) and placebo (n = 14). One individual from each group discontinued the study. Salsalate improved fasting (% mean change −7% [95% CI −10 to −14] vs. 1% [−3 to 5], P = 0.005) but not postprandial glucose concentration compared with placebo. Salsalate also lowered fasting triglyceride concentration (−25% [−34 to −15] vs. −6% [−26 to 14], P = 0.04). Salsalate had no effect on SSPG concentration or insulin secretion rate but significantly decreased insulin clearance rate compared with placebo (−23% [−30 to −16] vs. 3% [−10 to 15], P < 0.001). Salsalate was well tolerated, but four individuals needed a dose reduction due to symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS
Salsalate treatment in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals improved fasting, but not postprandial, glucose and triglyceride concentration. These improvements were associated with a decrease in insulin clearance rate without change in insulin action or insulin secretion.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2977
PMCID: PMC4067392  PMID: 24963111
20.  A Randomized Trial of a Home System to Reduce Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1885-1891.
OBJECTIVE
Overnight hypoglycemia occurs frequently in individuals with type 1 diabetes and can result in loss of consciousness, seizure, or even death. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia could be safely reduced by temporarily suspending pump insulin delivery when hypoglycemia was predicted by an algorithm based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Following an initial run-in phase, a 42-night trial was conducted in 45 individuals aged 15–45 years with type 1 diabetes in which each night was assigned randomly to either having the predictive low-glucose suspend system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was the proportion of nights in which ≥1 CGM glucose values ≤60 mg/dL occurred.
RESULTS
Overnight hypoglycemia with at least one CGM value ≤60 mg/dL occurred on 196 of 942 (21%) intervention nights versus 322 of 970 (33%) control nights (odds ratio 0.52 [95% CI 0.43–0.64]; P < 0.001). Median hypoglycemia area under the curve was reduced by 81%, and hypoglycemia lasting >2 h was reduced by 74%. Overnight sensor glucose was >180 mg/dL during 57% of control nights and 59% of intervention nights (P = 0.17), while morning blood glucose was >180 mg/dL following 21% and 27% of nights, respectively (P < 0.001), and >250 mg/dL following 6% and 6%, respectively. Morning ketosis was present <1% of the time in each arm.
CONCLUSIONS
Use of a nocturnal low-glucose suspend system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2159
PMCID: PMC4067393  PMID: 24804697
21.  Distribution of C-Peptide and Its Determinants in North American Children at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1959-1965.
OBJECTIVE
To determine basal and stimulated C-peptide percentiles in North American children and adolescents at risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to examine factors associated with this distribution in the Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 (DPT-1).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We included 582 subjects aged 4–18 years at randomization in the DPT-1 trials. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at baseline and every 6 months during the 5-year follow-up period. The percentile values of C-peptide after baseline OGTT were estimated according to age, BMI Z score (BMIZ), and/or sex categories. Conditional quantile regression was used to examine the relationship between C-peptide percentiles and various independent variables.
RESULTS
The basal and stimulated C-peptide levels increased significantly as age and BMIZ increased (P < 0.05). Both age and BMIZ had a stronger impact on the upper quartile of C-peptide distributions than the lower quartile. Sex was only significantly associated with stimulated C-peptide. Higher stimulated C-peptide levels were generally observed in girls compared with boys at the same age and BMIZ (P < 0.05). HLA type and number of positive antibodies and antibody titers (islet cell antibody [ICA], insulin autoantibody, GAD65A, and ICA512A) were not significantly associated with C-peptide distribution after adjustment for age, BMIZ, and sex.
CONCLUSIONS
Age-, sex-, and BMIZ-specific C-peptide percentiles can be estimated for North American children and adolescents at risk for T1D. They can be used as an assessment tool that could impact the recommendations in T1D prevention trials.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2603
PMCID: PMC4067394  PMID: 24760262
22.  Adipose and Muscle Tissue Profile of CD36 Transcripts in Obese Subjects Highlights the Role of CD36 in Fatty Acid Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1990-1997.
OBJECTIVE
Fatty acid (FA) metabolism is tightly regulated across several tissues and impacts insulin sensitivity. CD36 facilitates cellular FA uptake, and CD36 genetic variants associate with lipid abnormalities and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to gain insight regarding the in vivo metabolic influence of muscle and adipose tissue CD36. For this, we determined the relationships between CD36 alternative transcripts, which can reflect tissue-specific CD36 regulation, and measures of FA metabolism and insulin resistance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The relative abundance of alternative CD36 transcripts in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from 53 nondiabetic obese subjects was measured and related to insulin sensitivity and FA metabolism assessed by hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamps and isotopic tracers for glucose and FA.
RESULTS
Transcript 1C, one of two major transcripts in adipose tissue, that is restricted to adipocytes predicted systemic and tissue (adipose, liver, and muscle) insulin sensitivity, suggesting adipocyte CD36 protects against insulin resistance. Transcripts 1B and 1A, the major transcripts in skeletal muscle, correlated with FA disposal rate and triglyceride clearance, supporting importance of muscle CD36 in clearance of circulating FA. Additionally, the common CD36 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1761667 selectively influenced CD36 transcripts and exacerbated insulin resistance of glucose disposal by muscle.
CONCLUSIONS
Alternative CD36 transcripts differentially influence tissue CD36 and consequently FA homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Adipocyte CD36 appears to be metabolically protective, and its selective upregulation might have therapeutic potential in insulin resistance.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2835
PMCID: PMC4067395  PMID: 24784828
23.  Incidence of Bladder Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Metformin or Sulfonylureas 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1910-1917.
OBJECTIVE
Previous studies evaluating the effect of metformin on cancer risk have been impacted by time-related biases. To avoid these biases, we examined the incidence of bladder cancer in new users of metformin and sulfonylureas (SUs).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This cohort study included 87,600 patients with type 2 diabetes in The Health Improvement Network database. Use of metformin or an SU was treated as a time-dependent variable. Cox regression–generated hazard ratios (HRs) compared metformin use with SU use, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, obesity, and HbA1c level.
RESULTS
We identified 196 incident bladder cancers in the metformin cohort and 66 cancers in the SU cohort. Use of metformin was not associated with decreased bladder cancer risk (HR 0.81 [95% CI 0.60–1.09]). This association did not differ by sex (P for interaction = 0.20). We observed no association with duration of metformin relative to SU use (3 to <4 years of use: 0.57 [0.25–1.34]; 4 to <5 years of use: 0.93 [0.30–2.85; ≥5 years of use: 1.18 [0.44–3.19]; P for trend = 0.26).
CONCLUSIONS
Use of metformin is not associated with a decreased incidence of bladder cancer. Similar methods should be used to study other cancers that have previously been identified as potentially preventable with metformin.
doi:10.2337/dc13-1489
PMCID: PMC4067396  PMID: 24496803
24.  Safety of Outpatient Closed-Loop Control: First Randomized Crossover Trials of a Wearable Artificial Pancreas 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1789-1796.
OBJECTIVE
We estimate the effect size of hypoglycemia risk reduction on closed-loop control (CLC) versus open-loop (OL) sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy in supervised outpatient setting.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes initiated the study at the Universities of Virginia, Padova, and Montpellier and Sansum Diabetes Research Institute; 18 completed the entire protocol. Each patient participated in two 40-h outpatient sessions, CLC versus OL, in randomized order. Sensor (Dexcom G4) and insulin pump (Tandem t:slim) were connected to Diabetes Assistant (DiAs)—a smartphone artificial pancreas platform. The patient operated the system through the DiAs user interface during both CLC and OL; study personnel supervised on site and monitored DiAs remotely. There were no dietary restrictions; 45-min walks in town and restaurant dinners were included in both CLC and OL; alcohol was permitted.
RESULTS
The primary outcome—reduction in risk for hypoglycemia as measured by the low blood glucose (BG) index (LGBI)—resulted in an effect size of 0.64, P = 0.003, with a twofold reduction of hypoglycemia requiring carbohydrate treatment: 1.2 vs. 2.4 episodes/session on CLC versus OL (P = 0.02). This was accompanied by a slight decrease in percentage of time in the target range of 3.9–10 mmol/L (66.1 vs. 70.7%) and increase in mean BG (8.9 vs. 8.4 mmol/L; P = 0.04) on CLC versus OL.
CONCLUSIONS
CLC running on a smartphone (DiAs) in outpatient conditions reduced hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia treatments when compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy. This was accompanied by marginal increase in average glycemia resulting from a possible overemphasis on hypoglycemia safety.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2076
PMCID: PMC4067397  PMID: 24929429
25.  Musculoskeletal Complications in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2014;37(7):1863-1869.
OBJECTIVE
The development of periarticular thickening of skin on the hands and limited joint mobility (cheiroarthropathy) is associated with diabetes and can lead to significant disability. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of cheiroarthropathy in the well-characterized Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort and examine associated risk factors, microvascular complications, and the effect of former DCCT therapy (intensive [INT] vs. conventional [CONV]) on its development.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This cross-sectional analysis was performed in 1,217 participants (95% of the active cohort) in EDIC years 18/19 after an average of 24 years of follow-up. Cheiroarthropathy—defined as the presence of any one of the following: adhesive capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, flexor tenosynovitis, Dupuytren's contracture, or a positive prayer sign—was assessed using a targeted medical history and standardized physical examination. A self-administered questionnaire (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [DASH]) assessed functional disability.
RESULTS
Cheiroarthropathy was present in 66% of subjects (64% of the INT group and 68% of the CONV group; P = 0.1640) and was associated with age, sex, diabetes duration, skin intrinsic fluorescence, HbA1c, neuropathy, and retinopathy (P < 0.005 for each). DASH functional disability scores were worse among subjects with cheiroarthropathy (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS
Cheiroarthropathy is common in people with type 1 diabetes of long duration (∼30 years) and is related to longer duration and higher levels of glycemia. Clinicians should include cheiroarthropathy in their routine history and physical examination of patients with type 1 diabetes because it causes clinically significant functional disability.
doi:10.2337/dc13-2361
PMCID: PMC4067398  PMID: 24722493

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