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1.  CETP polymorphisms associate with brain structure, atrophy rate, and Alzheimer’s disease risk in an APOE-dependent manner 
Brain imaging and behavior  2012;6(1):16-26.
Two alleles in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene polymorphisms have been disputably linked to enhanced cognition and decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD): the V and A alleles of I405V and C-629A. This study investigates whether these polymorphisms affect brain structure in 188 elderly controls and 318 AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort. Nominally signficant associations were dependent on APOE ε4 carrier status. In APOE ε4 carriers, the V and A alleles, both of which decrease CETP and increase HDL, associated with greater baseline cortical thickness and less 12-month atrophy in the medial temporal lobe. Conversely, in APOE ε4 non-carriers, the I allele, which increases CETP and decreases HDL, associated with greater baseline thickness, less atrophy and lower risk of dementia. These results suggest CETP may contribute to the genetic variability of brain structure and dementia susceptibility in an APOE-dependent manner.
doi:10.1007/s11682-011-9137-0
PMCID: PMC4305449  PMID: 21892657
Imaging genetics; Quantitative neuroimaging; CETP; Alzheimer’s disease; Dementia; APOE
2.  Elevated prefrontal myo-inositol and choline following breast cancer chemotherapy 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(4):10.1007/s11682-013-9228-1.
Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction, which reduces quality of life. Neuroimaging studies provide critical insights regarding the mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits as well as potential biologic targets for interventions. We measured several metabolite concentrations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as cognitive performance in 19 female breast cancer survivors and 17 age-matched female controls. Women with breast cancer were all treated with chemotherapy. Results indicated significantly increased choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mI) with correspondingly decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cho and NAA/mI ratios in the breast cancer group compared to controls. The breast cancer group reported reduced executive function and memory, and subjective memory ability was correlated with mI and Cho levels in both groups. These findings provide preliminary evidence of an altered metabolic profile that increases our understanding of neurobiologic status post-breast cancer and chemotherapy.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9228-1
PMCID: PMC3731420  PMID: 23536015
MR Spectroscopy; Breast Cancer; Cognition; Prefrontal Cortex; Chemotherapy
3.  Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea: a prospective study of brain activation changes and neurocognitive correlates 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(4):10.1007/s11682-013-9240-5.
Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) often occurs in pre- and peri-menopausal BC patients, and while cancer/chemotherapy and abrupt estrogen loss have separately been shown to affect cognition and brain function, studies of the cognitive effects of CIA are equivocal, and its effects on brain function are unknown. Functional MRI (fMRI) during a working memory task was used to prospectively assess the pattern of brain activation and deactivation prior to and one month after chemotherapy in BC patients who experienced CIA (n=9), post-menopausal BC patients undergoing chemotherapy (n=9), and pre- and post-menopausal healthy controls (n=6 each). Neurocognitive testing was also performed at both time points. Repeated measures general linear models were used to assess statistical significance, and age was a covariate in all analyses. We observed a group-by-time interaction in the combined magnitudes of brain activation and deactivation (p = 0.006): the CIA group increased in magnitude from baseline to post-treatment while other groups maintained similar levels over time. Further, the change in brain activity magnitude in CIA was strongly correlated with change in processing speed neurocognitive testing score (r=0.837 p=0.005), suggesting this increase in brain activity reflects effective cognitive compensation. Our results demonstrate prospectively that the pattern of change in brain activity from pre- to post-chemotherapy varies according to pre-treatment menopausal status. Cognitive correlates add to the potential clinical significance of these findings. These findings have implications for risk appraisal and development of prevention or treatment strategies for cognitive changes in CIA.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9240-5
PMCID: PMC3819410  PMID: 23793983
breast cancer; chemotherapy; amenorrhea; functional MRI
4.  Chemotherapy Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Women with Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(4):10.1007/s11682-013-9244-1.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improvements in long-term cancer survival. However, reports of cognitive impairment following treatment emphasize the importance of understanding the long-term effects of chemotherapy on brain functioning. Cognitive deficits found in chemotherapy patients suggest a change in brain functioning that affects specific cognitive domains such as attentional processing and executive functioning. This study examined the processes potentially underlying these changes in cognition by examining brain functional connectivity pre- and post-chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Functional connectivity examines the temporal correlation between spatially remote brain regions in an effort to understand how brain networks support specific cognitive functions. Nine women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before chemotherapy, one month after, and one year after the completion of chemotherapy. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were completed using seeds in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to examine connectivity in the dorsal anterior attention network and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to examine connectivity in the default mode network. Results showed decreased functional connectivity one month after chemotherapy that partially returned to baseline at one year in the dorsal attention network. Decreased connectivity was seen in the default mode network at one month and one year following chemotherapy. In addition, increased subjective memory complaints were noted at one month and one year post-chemotherapy. These findings suggest a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functional connectivity that is potentially related to subjective cognitive assessment.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9244-1
PMCID: PMC3852152  PMID: 23852814
breast cancer; chemotherapy; functional connectivity; fMRI
5.  Alterations in brain structure related to breast cancer and its treatment: Chemotherapy and other considerations 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(4):10.1007/s11682-013-9256-x.
Cognitive effects of cancer and its treatment have been a topic of increasing investigation over the past ∼30 years. Recent studies have focused on better understanding the neural correlates of these effects, with an emphasis on post-chemotherapy effects in breast cancer patients. Structural MRI studies have utilized both automated and manual approaches to quantify gray and white matter characteristics (e.g., regional volume and density) in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy relative to patients who did not receive chemotherapy and/or healthy controls. While most work to date has been retrospective, a small number of baseline (pre-systemic therapy) and prospective longitudinal studies have been conducted. Data have consistently shown lower gray and white matter volume and density in patients treated with chemotherapy, particularly in frontal and temporal brain regions. Host factors and/or the cancer disease process and other therapies (e.g., antiestrogen treatment) also seem likely to contribute to the observed differences, though the relative contributions of these effects have not yet been investigated in detail. These structural abnormalities have been shown to relate to subjective and objective cognitive functioning, as well as to biological factors that may help to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s). This review examines the currently available published observations and discusses the major themes and promising directions for future studies.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9256-x
PMCID: PMC3869865  PMID: 23996156
brain; breast cancer; chemotherapy; frontal lobes; magnetic resonance imaging; neuroimaging; voxel-based morphometry
6.  Neuroimaging Biomarkers and Cognitive Function in Non-CNS Cancer and Its Treatment: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Research 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(4):363-373.
Cognitive changes in patients undergoing treatment for non-central nervous system (CNS) cancers have been recognized for several decades, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Structural, functional and molecular neuroimaging has the potential to help clarify the neural bases of these cognitive abnormalities. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET) have all been employed in the study of cognitive effects of cancer treatment, with most studies focusing on breast cancer and changes thought to be induced by chemotherapy. Articles in this special issue of Brain Imaging and Behavior are devoted to neuroimaging studies of cognitive changes in patients with non-CNS cancer and include comprehensive critical reviews and novel research findings. The broad conclusions that can be drawn from past studies and the present body of new research is that there are structural and functional changes associated with cancer and various treatments, particularly systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy, although some cognitive and fMRI studies have identified changes at pre-treatment baseline. Recommendations to accelerate progress include well-powered multicenter neuroimaging studies, a better standardized definition of the cognitive phenotype and extension to other cancers. A systems biology framework incorporating multimodality neuroimaging, genetics and other biomarkers will be highly informative regarding individual differences in risk and protective factors and disease- and treatment-related mechanisms. Studies of interventions targeting cognitive changes are also needed. These next steps are expected to identify novel protective strategies and facilitate a more personalized medicine for cancer patients.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9283-7
PMCID: PMC3909524  PMID: 24327327
Neuroimaging; MRI; PET; Cognition; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Genetics; Biomarkers; Personalized Medicine
7.  Understanding Variability in the BOLD Signal and Why it Matters for Aging 
Brain imaging and behavior  2014;8(2):274-283.
Recent work in neuroscience supports the idea that variability in brain function is necessary for optimal brain responsivity to a changing environment. In this review, we discuss a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in younger and older adults to assess age-related differences in variability of the fMRI signal. This work shows that moment-to-moment brain variability represents an important “signal” within what is typically considered measurement-related “noise” in fMRI. This accumulation of evidence suggests that moving beyond the mean will provide a complementary window into aging-related neural processes.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9253-0
PMCID: PMC3922711  PMID: 24008589 CAMSID: cams3544
8.  MTHFR 677C>T effects on anterior cingulate structure and function during response monitoring in schizophrenia: a preliminary study 
Brain imaging and behavior  2011;5(1):65-75.
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficient response monitoring as indexed by blunted activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and functionally related regions during error commission. This pattern may reflect heritable alterations of dACC function. We examined whether the hypofunctional 677C>T variant in MTHFR, a candidate schizophrenia risk gene, contributed to our previous findings of blunted error-related dACC activation and reduced microstructural integrity of dACC white matter. Eighteen medicated outpatients with schizophrenia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and performed an antisaccade paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). T allele carriers exhibited significantly less error-related activation than C/C patients in bilateral dACC and substantia nigra, regions that are thought to mediate dopamine-dependent error-based reinforcement learning. T carrier patients also showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in bilateral dACC. These findings suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele blunts response monitoring in schizophrenia, presumably via effects on dopamine signaling and dACC white matter microstructural integrity.
doi:10.1007/s11682-010-9111-2
PMCID: PMC4229496  PMID: 21190096
Schizophrenia; Functional MRI; Genetics; Executive function; Anterior cingulate cortex; Diffusion tensor imaging
9.  Early Metabolic Crisis-Related Brain Atrophy and Cognition in Traumatic Brain Injury 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):307-315.
Traumatic brain injury often results in acute metabolic crisis. We recently demonstrated that this is associated with chronic brain atrophy, which is most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Interestingly, the neuropsychological profile of traumatic brain injury is often characterized as ‘frontal-temporal’ in nature, suggesting a possible link between acute metabolic crisis related-brain atrophy and neurocognitive impairment in this population. While focal lesions and diffuse axonal injury have a well-established role in the neuropsychological deficits observed following traumatic brain injury, no studies to date have examined the possible contribution of acute metabolic crisis-related atrophy in the neuropsychological sequelae of traumatic brain injury. In the current study we employed positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neuropsychological assessments to ascertain the relationship between acute metabolic crisis related-brain atrophy and neurocognitive outcome in a sample of 14 right-handed traumatic brain injury survivors. We found that acute metabolic crisis related-atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes was associated with poorer attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities at 12 months post-injury. Furthermore, participants with gross frontal and/or temporal lobe atrophy exhibited numerous clinically significant neuropsychological deficits in contrast to participants with other patterns of brain atrophy. Our findings suggest that interventions that reduce acute metabolic crisis may lead to improved functional outcomes for traumatic brain injury survivors.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9231-6
PMCID: PMC4172457  PMID: 23636971
traumatic brain injury; metabolic crisis; neuropsychology; brain atrophy; neuroimaging
10.  MRI Volume of the Medial Frontal Cortex Predicts Financial Capacity in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9226-3.
Persons with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have significant deficits in financial abilities. This study examined the relationship between brain structure volumes, cognition, and financial capacity in patients with mild AD. Sixteen mild AD patients and 16 older adult comparisons completed the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI), a psychometric measure of financial abilities, and also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain volumes of the bilateral hippocampi, angular gyri, precunei, and medial and dorsolateral frontal cortices. Mild AD patients performed significantly below comparisons on the FCI and had significantly smaller hippocampi. Among mild AD patients, FCI performance was moderately correlated with frontal (medial and dorsolateral frontal cortex) and posterior (angular gyri and precunei) cortical volumes. Stepwise regression demonstrated that medial frontal cortex volume predicted FCI score. The relationship between medial frontal cortex volume and overall FCI score was partially mediated by two measures of simple attention (DRS Attention, DRS Construction). The findings suggest that medial frontal cortex atrophy and associated declines in simple attention play an increasingly important role in declining financial skills in patients with mild AD.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9226-3
PMCID: PMC3716854  PMID: 23504597
Alzheimer’s disease; financial capacity; magnetic resonance imaging; frontal cortex; precuneus; angular gyrus
11.  Neuronal fiber bundle lengths in healthy adult carriers of the ApoE4 allele: A quantitative tractography DTI study 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9225-4.
The epsilon 4 (e4) isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a known genetic risk factor for suboptimal brain health. Morphometry studies of brains with Alzheimer’s disease have reported significant alterations in temporal lobe brain structure of e4 carriers, yet it remains unclear if the presence of an e4 allele is associated with alterations in the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles in healthy populations. The present study used quantitative tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (qtDTI) to examine the influence of the e4 allele on temporal lobe fiber bundle lengths (FBLs) in 64 healthy older adults with at least one e4 allele (carriers, N=23) versus no e4 allele (non-carriers, N=41). Subtests from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) were also analyzed to examine memory performance between groups. Analyses revealed shorter FBLs in the left uncinate fasciculus (UF) (p=.038) of e4 carriers compared to non-carriers. By contrast, neither FBLs specific to the temporal lobe nor memory performances differed significantly between groups. Increased age correlated significantly with shorter FBL in the temporal lobe and UF, and with decreased performance on tests of memory. This is the first study to utilize qtDTI to examine relationships between FBL and ApoE genotype. Results suggest that FBL in the UF is influenced by the presence of an ApoE e4 allele (ApoE4) in healthy older adults. Temporal lobe FBLs, however, are more vulnerable to aging than the presence of an e4 allele.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9225-4
PMCID: PMC3726531  PMID: 23475756
ApoE; ApoE4; Tractography; DTI; White matter; Fiber bundle lengths; Aging
12.  The role of top-down control in different phases of a sensorimotor timing task: a DCM study of adults and adolescents 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9224-5.
The ability to precisely coordinate motor control to regularly-paced sensory stimuli requires an ability often called ‘mental timekeeping’, a distinct form of cognitive function. A consistent feature among conceptual models of the internal clock mechanism is an element of ‘top-down’ cognitive control. Although lesion and fMRI studies have provided indirect evidence supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex in exerting top-down influence over lower-level sensory and motor regions, little direct evidence exists. We investigated changes in Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM)-measured top-down control of sensorimotor timing during different phases of a unimanual, auditory-paced finger-tapping task in a cohort of healthy adults and adolescents. The brain regions examined were organized into a network of excitatory connections between bilateral dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and motor and auditory cortices. This baseline connectivity changed depending on whether participants listened passively to the pacing cue, synchronized their regular interval finger tapping with the cue, or continued tapping in absence of the cue. Subjects who performed better at maintaining the prescribed tapping pace in the absence of the auditory cue relied more on top-down control of the motor and sensory regions, while those with less accurate performance relied more on sensory driven, bottom-up control of the motor cortex. No significant maturational effects were observed in either the behavioral or DCM path weight data. Both right and left prefrontal cortex were found exert control over timing behavioral accuracy, but there were distinctly lateralized roles with respect to optimal performance.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9224-5
PMCID: PMC3743949  PMID: 23475755
fMRI; dynamic causal modeling; development; mental timekeeping; sensorimotor timing; connectivity
13.  EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON D2/D3 STRIATAL RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN ALCOHOLICS AND SOCIAL DRINKERS 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9233-4.
Objective
Studies have reported lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in both alcoholics and cigarette smokers relative to healthy controls. These substances are commonly co-abused, yet the relationship between comorbid alcohol/tobacco abuse and striatal D2/D3 receptor availability has not been examined. We sought to determine the degree to which dual abuse of alcohol and tobacco is associated with lower D2/D3 receptor availability.
Method
Eighty-one subjects (34 nontreatment-seeking alcoholic smokers [NTS-S], 21 social-drinking smokers [SD-S], and 26 social-drinking non-smokers [SD-NS]) received baseline [11C]raclopride scans. D2/D3 binding potential (BPND ≡ Bavail/KD) was estimated for ten anatomically defined striatal regions of interest (ROIs).
Results
Significant group effects were detected in bilateral pre-commissural dorsal putamen, bilateral pre-commissural dorsal caudate; and bilateral post-commissural dorsal putamen. Post-hoc testing revealed that, regardless of drinking status, smokers had lower D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smoking controls.
Conclusions
Chronic tobacco smokers have lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smokers, independent of alcohol use. Additional studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which chronic tobacco smoking is associated with striatal dopamine receptor availability.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9233-4
PMCID: PMC3818334  PMID: 23649848
dopamine; raclopride; positron emission tomography; cigarette smoking; D2 receptor
14.  Human middle longitudinal fascicle: Segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9235-2.
The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9235-2
PMCID: PMC3830590  PMID: 23686576
High-angular resolution diffusion imaging; Middle longitudinal fascicle; Middle longitudinal fasciculus; Angular gyrus; Superior parietal lobule; Primary progressive aphasia; Neurodegenerative disorders
15.  Impact of body mass index on neuronal fiber bundle lengths among healthy older adults 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9230-7.
Increased body mass index (BMI) has been linked to various detrimental health outcomes, including cognitive dysfunction. Recent work investigating associations between obesity and the brain has revealed decreased white matter microstructural integrity in individuals with elevated BMI, independent of age or comorbid health conditions. However, the relationship between high BMI and white matter fiber bundle length (FBL), which represents a novel metric of microstructural brain integrity, remains unknown. The present study utilized quantitative tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the relationship between BMI and FBL in 72 otherwise healthy older adults (24 males, 48 females). All participants were between 51 and 85 years of age (M = 63.26, SD = 8.76). Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with shorter FBL in the temporal lobe, independent of age (p < .01). In addition, increased age was associated with shorter frontal, temporal, and whole brain FBL (all p values < .01). These findings indicate that, while increased age is an important factor associated with reduced FBL, high BMI is uniquely associated with reduced FBL in the temporal lobe. These data offer evidence for additive adverse effects of high BMI on the brain, especially in areas already vulnerable to aging processes and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Further research is necessary to determine the physiological mechanisms associated with the shortening of FBL in individuals with high BMI.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9230-7
PMCID: PMC3830712  PMID: 23564371
Tractography; BMI; DTI; White Matter; Fiber Bundle Length; Aging
16.  Genetic Contributions to Changes of Fiber Tracts of Ventral Visual Stream in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(3):10.1007/s11682-013-9232-5.
Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) represent a population at high risk for developing schizophrenia, as well as learning disabilities. Deficits in visuo-spatial memory are thought to underlie some of the cognitive disabilities. Neuronal substrates of visuo-spatial memory include the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), two tracts that comprise the ventral visual stream. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) is an established method to evaluate white matter (WM) connections in vivo.
DT-MRI scans of nine 22q11.2DS young adults and nine matched healthy subjects were acquired. Tractography of the IFOF and the ILF was performed. DT-MRI indices, including Fractional anisotropy (FA) (measure of WM changes), axial diffusivity (AD, measure of axonal changes) and radial diffusivity (RD, measure of myelin changes) of each of the tracts and each group were measured and compared.
The 22q11.2DS group showed statistically significant reductions of FA in IFOF in the left hemisphere. Additionally, reductions of AD were found in the IFOF and the ILF in both hemispheres. These findings might be the consequence of axonal changes, which is possibly due to fewer, thinner, or less organized fibers. No changes in RD were detected in any of the tracts delineated, which is in contrast to findings in schizophrenia patients where increases in RD are believed to be indicative of demyelination.
We conclude that reduced axonal changes may be key to understanding the underlying pathology of WM leading to the visuo-spatial phenotype in 22q11.2DS.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9232-5
PMCID: PMC3796180  PMID: 23612843
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS,CFS); Diffusion Tensor MRI (DT-MRI); fractional anisotropy (FA); axial diffusivity (AD); inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF); inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF); high-risk schizophrenia
17.  Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule in Schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor Tractography Study 
Brain imaging and behavior  2012;6(3):417-425.
Thalamo-cortical feedback loops play a key role in the processing and coordination of processing and integration of perceptual inputs and outputs, and disruption in this connection has long been hypothesized to contribute significantly to neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, we applied diffusion tensor tractography on eighteen patients suffering schizophrenia and 20 control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was evaluated in the bilateral anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and correlated with clinical and neurocognitive measures. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced FA bilaterally in the anterior but not the posterior limb of the internal capsule, compared with healthy control subjects. Lower FA correlated with lower scores on tests of declarative episodic memory in the patient group only. These findings suggest that disruptions, bilaterally, in thalamo-cortical connections in schizophrenia may contribute to disease-related impairment in the coordination of mnemonic processes of encoding and retrieval that are vital for efficient learning of new information.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9152-9
PMCID: PMC4128025  PMID: 22415192
Schizophrenia; Disconnection; MRI; Cognitive Neuropsychology
18.  DTI Tractography and White Matter Fiber Tract Characteristics in Euthymic Bipolar I Patients and Healthy Control Subjects 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(2):129-139.
With the introduction of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), structural differences in white matter (WM) architecture between psychiatric populations and healthy controls can be systematically observed and measured. In particular, DTI-tractography can be used to assess WM characteristics over the entire extent of WM tracts and aggregated fiber bundles. Using 64-direction DTI scanning in 27 participants with bipolar disorder (BD) and 26 age-and-gender-matched healthy control subjects, we compared relative length, density, and fractional anisotrophy (FA) of WM tracts involved in emotion regulation or theorized to be important neural components in BD neuropathology. We interactively isolated 22 known white matter tracts using region-of-interest placement (TrackVis software program) and then computed relative tract length, density, and integrity. BD subjects demonstrated significantly shorter WM tracts in the genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum compared to healthy controls. Additionally, bipolar subjects exhibited reduced fiber density in the genu and body of the corpus callosum, and in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally. In the left uncinate fasciculus, however, BD subjects exhibited significantly greater fiber density than healthy controls. There were no significant differences between groups in WM tract FA for those tracts that began and ended in the brain. The significance of differences in tract length and fiber density in BD is discussed.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9202-3
PMCID: PMC3572298  PMID: 23070746
19.  Volunteerism and Self-Selection Bias in Human Positron Emission Tomography Neuroimaging Research 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(2):163-176.
Scientists have known for decades that persons who volunteer for behavioral research may be different from those who decline participation and that characteristics differentiating volunteers from non-volunteers may vary depending on the nature of the research. There is evidence that volunteer self-selection can impact representativeness of samples in studies involving physically or psychologically stressful procedures, such as electric shocks, sensory isolation, or drug effects. However, the degree to which self-selection influences sample characteristics in “stressful” studies involving positron emission tomography (PET) has not been evaluated. Since estimation of population parameters, robustness of findings, and validity of inferred relationships can all be impacted by volunteer bias, it is important to determine if self-selection may act as an unrecognized confound in such studies. In the present investigation, we obtained baseline data on 114 M, F subjects who participated in a study involving completion of several self-report questionnaires and behavioral performance tasks. Participants were later given the opportunity to enroll in an [11C]raclopride PET study involving intravenous amphetamine (AMPH) administration. Demographic characteristics, personality traits, and task performance of subjects who consented to the latter study were compared with those who declined participation. Findings showed that the principal personality trait that distinguished the two groups was sensation-seeking; volunteers scored significantly higher on this dimension than non-volunteers. Males were more likely to volunteer than females. However, results of mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between gender and volunteer status was mediated by greater sensation-seeking traits in the males. Implications of these findings are discussed.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9210-3
PMCID: PMC3594082  PMID: 23196924
Positron emission tomography (PET); Human; Volunteerism; Personality; Sensation-Seeking; Gender
20.  Early Life Stress is Associated with Greater Default Network Deactivation During Working Memory in Healthy Controls: A Preliminary Report 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(2):204-212.
Early life stress (ELS) is a common risk factor for psychopathology, but there are few functional neuroimaging studies investigating its effects. In this preliminary study, we investigated the correlates of ELS exposure on the default network (DN) through measurements of task-associated DN deactivation. Data were analyzed from 19 subjects without psychiatric illness (10 with ELS). Subjects performed the working memory (WM) N-back task (including a 2-back WM and 0-back control condition) while undergoing functional MRI. We compared brain responses in the two groups across 5 bilateral DN regions using an a priori region of interest (ROI) analysis. The ELS group demonstrated significantly greater DN deactivation, observed in the right posterior cingulate cortex PCC, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, left middle/superior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal region. These preliminary results indicate subjects with ELS demonstrate greater DN deactivations to WM challenges compared to non-ELS controls, potentially reflecting a biomarker of long-term effects of ELS exposure.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9216-x
PMCID: PMC3632656  PMID: 23269472
Early Life Stress; Default Network; Working Memory; Medial Prefrontal Cortex; FMRI
21.  Greater Impulsivity is Associated with Decreased Brain Activation in Obese Women during a Delay Discounting Task 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(2):116-128.
Impulsivity and poor inhibitory control are associated with higher rates of delay discounting (DD) or a greater preference for smaller, more immediate rewards at the expense of larger, but delayed rewards. Of the many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of DD, few have investigated the correlation between individual differences in DD rate and brain activation related to DD trial difficulty, with difficult DD trials expected to activate putative executive function brain areas involved in impulse control. In the current study, we correlated patterns of brain activation as measured by fMRI during difficult vs. easy trials of a DD task with DD rate (k) in obese women. Difficulty was defined by how much a reward choice deviated from an individual’s ‘indifference point’, or the point where the subjective preference for an immediate and a delayed reward was approximately equivalent. We found that greater delay discounting was correlated with less modulation of activation in putative executive function brain areas, such as the middle and superior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobule, in response to difficult compared to easy DD trials. These results support the suggestion that increased impulsivity is associated with deficient functioning of executive function areas of the brain.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9201-4
PMCID: PMC3561478  PMID: 22948956
impulsivity; inhibitory control; executive function; delay discounting; intertemporal
22.  Genome-wide association identifies genetic variants associated with lentiform nucleus volume in N=1345 young and elderly subjects 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(2):102-115.
Deficits in lentiform nucleus volume and morphometry are implicated in a number of genetically influenced disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Here we performed genome-wide searches to discover common genetic variants associated with differences in lentiform nucleus volume in human populations. We assessed structural MRI scans of the brain in two large genotyped samples: the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; N=706) and the Queensland Twin Imaging Study (QTIM; N=639). Statistics of association from each cohort were combined meta-analytically using a fixed-effects model to boost power and to reduce the prevalence of false positive findings. We identified a number of associations in and around the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene cluster. The most highly associated SNP, rs1795240, was located in the FMO3 gene; after meta-analysis, it showed genome-wide significant evidence of association with lentiform nucleus volume (PMA=4.79×10−8). This commonly-carried genetic variant accounted for 2.68 % and 0.84 % of the trait variability in the ADNI and QTIM samples, respectively, even though the QTIM sample was on average 50 years younger. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed significant contributions of this gene to the cytochrome P450 pathway, which is involved in metabolizing numerous therapeutic drugs for pain, seizures, mania, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. The genetic variants we identified provide replicated, genome-wide significant evidence for the FMO gene cluster’s involvement in lentiform nucleus volume differences in human populations.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9199-7
PMCID: PMC3779070  PMID: 22903471
Basal ganglia; Genome-wide association study (GWAS); MRI; Replication; Morphometry; Drug metabolism
23.  Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Phenotypes in AD and MCI: Imaging, Cognition and Biomarkers 
Brain imaging and behavior  2014;8(2):183-207.
The Genetics Core of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), formally established in 2009, aims to provide resources and facilitate research related to genetic predictors of multidimensional Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related phenotypes. Here, we provide a systematic review of genetic studies published between 2009 and 2012 where either ADNI APOE genotype or genome-wide association study (GWAS) data were used. We review and synthesize ADNI genetic associations with disease status or quantitative disease endophenotypes including structural and functional neuroimaging, fluid biomarker assays, and cognitive performance. We also discuss the diverse analytical strategies used in these studies, including univariate and multivariate analysis, meta-analysis, pathway analysis, and interaction and network analysis. Finally, we perform pathway and network enrichment analyses of these ADNI genetic associations to highlight key mechanisms that may drive disease onset and trajectory. Major ADNI findings included all the top 10 AD genes and several of these (e.g. APOE, BIN1, CLU, CR1, and PICALM) were corroborated by ADNI imaging, fluid and cognitive phenotypes. ADNI imaging genetics studies discovered novel findings (e.g. FRMD6) that were later replicated on different data sets. Several other genes (e.g. APOC1, FTO, GRIN2B, MAGI2, and TOMM40) were associated with multiple ADNI phenotypes, warranting further investigation on other data sets. The broad availability and wide scope of ADNI genetic and phenotypic data has advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of AD and has nominated novel targets for future studies employing next-generation sequencing and convergent multi-omics approaches, and for clinical drug and biomarker development.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9262-z
PMCID: PMC3976843  PMID: 24092460
Alzheimer’s disease; genetic association study; quantitative traits; neuroimaging; biomarker; cognition
24.  Human Neuroimaging as a “Big Data” Science 
Brain imaging and behavior  2014;8(2):323-331.
The maturation of in vivo neuroimaging has lead to incredible quantities of digital information about the human brain. While much is made of the data deluge in science, neuroimaging represents the leading edge of this onslaught of “big data”. A range of neuroimaging databasing approaches has streamlined the transmission, storage, and dissemination of data from such brain imaging studies. Yet few, if any, common solutions exist to support the science of neuroimaging. In this article, we discuss how modern neuroimaging research represents a mutifactorial and broad ranging data challenge, involving the growing size of the data being acquired; sociologial and logistical sharing issues; infrastructural challenges for multi-site, multi-datatype archiving; and the means by which to explore and mine these data. As neuroimaging advances further, e.g. aging, genetics, and age-related disease, new vision is needed to manage and process this information while marshalling of these resources into novel results. Thus, “big data” can become “big” brain science.
doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9255-y
PMCID: PMC3983169  PMID: 24113873
25.  Judgment in Older Adults with Normal Cognition, Cognitive Complaints, MCI, and Mild AD: Relation to Regional Frontal Gray Matter 
Brain imaging and behavior  2009;3(2):212-219.
Abstract We investigated regional gray matter (GM) reduction as a predictor of judgment ability in 120 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and/or impairment (including those with MCI and mild AD). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment, including the Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J), a recently developed instrument that evaluates judgment and problem solving related to safety, medical, social/ethical, and financial issues. Structural MR scanning included T1-weighted SPGR volumes acquired at 1.5 Tesla. We used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the relationship between GM density and TOP-J scores, controlling for age, education, gender, intracranial volume, verbal memory, and crystallized knowledge. Consistent with our hypothesis, judgment ability correlated with GM density in prefrontal regions (left inferior and superior frontal gyri). Findings extend previous observations of frontal involvement in higher-order cognitive abilities/executive functions and provide initial validation of the TOP-J’s sensitivity to the integrity of these brain regions in individuals at risk for dementia.
doi:10.1007/s11682-009-9063-6
PMCID: PMC3986267  PMID: 24741381
Judgment; Frontal lobe; Aging; Dementia; Voxel-based morphometry

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