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1.  Purple grape juice supplementation in smokers and antioxidant status according to different types of GST polymorphisms 
DNA damages and antioxidant status was assessed after 8 weeks of purple grape juice supplementation in male smokers depending on the glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Ninety-five smokers consumed 480 ml of purple grape juice for 8 weeks. The blood samples were collected before and after supplementation to measure lymphocyte DNA damages, plasma antioxidants, conjugated diene, and the erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes. The diastolic pressure, lymphocyte DNA damage, and plasma conjugated diene were significantly decreased but the plasma γ-tocopherol was increased in GSTM1-null genotype, while increased blood glutathione and decreased lymphocyte DNA damage were observed in GSTM1-present genotype. In case of GSTT1 on the other hand, the decrease in diastolic pressure and lymphocyte DNA damage was observed in both null types and present types, but the erythrocyte catalase activity was decreased in GSTT1-null type and the plasma vitamin C level was increased in GSTT1-present type, suggesting that, the antioxidant effect of grape juice was greater in GSTT1-present type compared to GSTT1-null type. The intakes of 8-week purple grape juice affected diastolic blood pressures, DNA damage reductions and antioxidant status in smokers, mainly greater in GSTM1-null type and GSTT1-present type.
PMCID: PMC4306655
purple grape juice; antioxidant status; blood pressure; DNA damage; GST polymorphism
2.  Intestinal Peyer’s patches prevent tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice 
Peyer’s patches are nodules that play a central role in intestinal immunity. Few studies demonstrate the relationship between the number of Peyer’s patches and intestinal polyps. Here we identify a statistically significant inverse correlation between the quantity of Peyer’s patches and of the development of intestinal polyps in ApcMin/+ mice, which are a useful model to clarify the role of Peyer’s patches in intestinal tumorigenesis. Using this model, we increased the number of Peyer’s patches using 0.1% and 1% corn husk arabinoxylan through feed. Intestinal polyp formation significantly decreased, concomitant with an increase in Peyer’s patches development (n = 12/group). In Aly−/−ApcMin/+ mice (negative control; no Peyer’s patches) there was no change in the amount of intestinal polyps (n = 10/group). Immune reaction following corn husk arabinoxylan treatment was measured by cytokine array. Increasing the number of Peyer’s patches decreased interleukin-17 production, which showed a dose dependent correlation with transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor. This study identified a relationship between levels of Peyer’s patches and intestinal polyp formation, partly explained by the involvement of interleukin-17 production and β-catenin signaling in ApcMin/+ mice.
PMCID: PMC4306656
Peyer’s patch; corn husk arabinoxylan; intestinal polyp; cancer prevention; ApcMin/+ mouse
3.  Markers of malnutrition after intestinal transplantation: the role of IGF-1 and calprotectin 
The objective of this study is to valuate two biomarkers that may guide nutritional assessment during follow up after intestinal transplantation. We performed a retrospective study on prospectively collected data of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and effluent calprotectin in patients undergoing intestinal transplantation. Optimal nutritional status (ONS) was defined by using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). IGF-1 and calprotectin were correlated with ONS by Pearson correlation. Eighteen cadaveric intestinal transplants were performed over 1,650 days (median follow up 425 days, range 29–1,650 days). Mean IGF-1 and calprotectin were significantly associated with independent nutrition. Seven patients became malnourished on one or more occasions. During malnutrition the mean IGF-1 was 22 ± 14 ng/ml and calprotectin 1,597 ± 1,055 mcg/g. Mean weight during episodes of malnutrition changed from 64.77 ± 8.76 kg to 59.05 ± 8.5 kg (–8.9 ± 1.25%). Both IGF-1 and calprotectin negatively correlated with ONS (Pearson’s r, –0.612, p = 0.014). Patients broadly aligned with three groups: nutritionally replete (normal IGF-1 and normal calprotectin), nutritionally equivocal (normal or low normal IGF-1 and high calprotectin), and malnourished (low IGF-1 and high calprotectin). Patients with low IGF-1 and high calprotectin may have a benign clinical presentation. However it is in their interests to have parenteral nutrition restarted pending further investigation.
PMCID: PMC4306657
IGF-1; calprotectin; intestinal transplantation; nutritional status
4.  Hydrogen peroxide generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase system represses the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2 
The twin character of reactive oxygen species is substantiated by a growing body of evidence that reactive oxygen species within cells act as inducers and accelerators of the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, while reactive oxygen species can also induce cancer cell death and can therefore function as anti-tumorigenic species. The aim of this study was to assess a possible influence of xanthine/xanthine oxidase on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2. xanthine/xanthine oxidase (2.5 µM/0.25 mU/ml–25 µM/2.5 mU/ml) dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Experiments utilizing reactive oxygen species scavengers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol) and exogenous hydrogen peroxide revealed a major role of hydrogen peroxide in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase effect. Investigations utilizing annexin V-fluorescein/PI assay using flow cytometry, and the lactate dehydrogenase extracellular release assay indicated that hydrogen peroxide induced necrosis, but not apoptosis, in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase has the potential to suppress colorectal cancer cell proliferation.
PMCID: PMC4306658
xanthine/xanthine oxidase; hydrogen peroxide; colon cancer; proliferation; reactive oxygen species
5.  Qing Dai attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal epithelial cells 
Treatments with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have increased the number of patients with gastrointestinal complications. Qing Dai has been traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine for various inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis. We previously reported that Qing Dai suppressed inflammations by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ulcerative colitis patients. Thus, Qing Dai can attenuate the production of ROS, which play an important role in NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injuries. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether Qing Dai decreased mitochondrial ROS production in NSAID-treated gastrointestinal cells by examining cellular injury, mitochondrial membrane potentials, and ROS production with specific fluorescent indicators. We also performed electron paramagnetic resonance measurement in isolated mitochondria with a spin-trapping reagent (CYPMPO or DMPO). Treatments with indomethacin and aspirin induced cellular injury and mitochondrial impairment in the gastrointestinal cells. Under these conditions, mitochondrial alterations were observed on electron microscopy. Qing Dai prevented these complications by suppressing ROS production in gastrointestinal cells. These results indicate that Qing Dai attenuated the ROS production from the NSAID-induced mitochondrial alteration in the gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Qing Dai treatment may be considered effective for the prevention NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injury.
PMCID: PMC4306662
Qing Dai; ROS; NSAIDs; gastrointestinal injury; mitochondria
6.  Catalytic ferrous iron in amniotic fluid as a predictive marker of human maternal-fetal disorders 
Amniotic fluid contains numerous biomolecules derived from fetus and mother, thus providing precious information on pregnancy. Here, we evaluated oxidative stress of human amniotic fluid and measured the concentration of catalytic Fe(II). Amniotic fluid samples were collected with consent from a total of 89 subjects in Nagoya University Hospital, under necessary medical interventions: normal pregnancy at term, normal pregnancy at the 2nd trimester, preterm delivery with maternal disorders but without fetal disorders, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome and trisomy 18. Catalytic Fe(II) and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; dityrosine) were determined with RhoNox-1 and specific antibodies, respectively, using plate assays. Levels of 8-OHdG and dityrosine were higher in the 3rd trimester compared with the 2nd trimester in normal subjects, and the abnormal groups generally showed lower levels than the controls, thus suggesting that they represent fetal metabolic activities. In contrast, catalytic Fe(II) was higher in the 2nd trimester than the 3rd trimester in the normal subjects, and overall the abnormal groups showed higher levels than the controls, suggesting that high catalytic Fe(II) at late gestation reflects fetal pathologic alterations. Notably, products of H2O2 and catalytic Fe(II) remained almost constant in amniotic fluid.
PMCID: PMC4306665
amniotic fluid; catalytic ferrous iron; oxidative stress; pregnancy
7.  Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction 
High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.
PMCID: PMC4306666
dietary phosphorus; phosphorus spike; circadian rhythm; oxidative stress; inflammation
8.  DHA concentration of red blood cells is inversely associated with markers of lipid peroxidation in men taking DHA supplement 
An increase in the proportion of fatty acids with higher numbers of double bonds is believed to increase lipid peroxidation, which augments the risk for many chronic diseases. (n-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids provide various health benefits, but there is a concern that they might increase lipid peroxidation. We examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6 (n-3)] supplementation on lipid peroxidation markers in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) and their associations with red blood cell and plasma fatty acids. Hypertriglyceridemic men (n = 17 per group) aged 39–66 years participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study. They received no supplements for the first 8 days and then received 7.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid oil (3 g/day docosahexaenoic acid) or olive oil (placebo) for 90 days. Fasting blood samples were collected 0, 45, and 91 days after supplementation. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation did not change plasma or RBC concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers (total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, total hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, total 8-isoprostaglandin F2α, 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol) when pre- and post-supplement values were compared. However, the post-supplement docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration was inversely associated with RBC concentrations of ZE-HODE, EE-HODE, t-HODE, and total 8-isoprostaglandin F2α, (p<0.05). RBC concentration of hydroxycholesterol was also inversely associated with DHA but it did not attain significance (p = 0.07). Our results suggest that increased concentration of DHA in RBC lipids reduced lipid peroxidation. This may be another health benefit of DHA in addition to its many other health promoting effects.
PMCID: PMC4227822  PMID: 25411526
antioxidant; docosahexaenoic acid; hypertriglyceridemia; lipid peroxidation; polyunsaturated fatty acid
9.  Lack of correlation between non-labile iron parameters, total carbonyl and malondialdehyde in major thalassemia 
Thalassemia patients are at high risk of iron-induced toxicity and oxidative stress consequences. The present cross-sectional study is conducted to determine whether or not lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation is correlated with iron parameters in patients with thalassemia major. To prove this hypothesis, malondialdehyde and total carbonyl were correlated with the degree of excess iron concentration in the patients. A total of 118 Arabic Iraqi patients and 30 healthy children were participated in the present study. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum total carbonyls, malondialdehyde and the iron indices of patients as compared with the control group. Total iron binding capacity and transferrin concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.05) in patients with thalassemia compared with the control group. The results also showed a lack of a significant correlation between each serum malondialdehyde and total carbonyl with each component of iron status. In conclusion, total carbonyls and malondialdehyde were increased in thalassemia patients indicating the vulnerability of these patients to tissue injury caused by oxidative stress. The formation of total carbonyl and malondialdehyde are independent of excess non-labile iron concentration, indicating that different mechanisms are involved in injury caused by the labile iron and in the formation of oxidation end products.
PMCID: PMC4227823  PMID: 25411527
Thalassemia; non-labile iron; malondialdehyde; total carbonyl
10.  Dioscorea japonica extract down-regulates prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells 
Prostaglandin E2 plays a role in an array of pathophysiological responses, including inflammation, carcinogenesis and so on. Prostaglandin E2 is synthesized from arachidonic acid by the enzymes cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E synthase. In some pathological conditions, the isozymes cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 are transiently induced, leading to prostaglandin E2 overproduction. The present study showed that Dioscorea japonica extract suppresses mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effects of Dioscorea japonica extract on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 were confirmed by Western blotting, cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin E2 production. Dioscorea japonica extract induced the translocation of nuclear factor-κB from the nucleus to the cytosol and inhibited the activity of the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter. Furthermore Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 and enhanced apoptotic terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive intensity in A549 cells. These results suggest that Dioscorea japonica extract suppresses the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, with the regulation of the transcriptional activity of cyclooxygenase-2, and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Thus, Dioscorea japonica may contribute to the prevention of prostaglandin E2-mediated pathophysiological responses such as carcinogenesis and inflammation.
PMCID: PMC4227824  PMID: 25411520
Dioscorea japonica; cyclooxygenase-2; microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1; cancer cells; apoptosis
11.  Questionnaire survey on lifestyle of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 
Lack of exercise and excessive food intake are known to be the important causes of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To elucidate the relationship between lifestyle and NASH, we surveyed exercise and dietary habits, comparing them among 171 biopsy-proven NASH patients, 29 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients and 49 normal subjects. Dietary habits including the duration of dinner time, amount of rice at dinner, and weekly frequencies of meat, fries, Chinese noodles, sweets, and instant food consumption were significantly different in male NASH patients compared to normal male subjects. In women, differences were seen in the amount of rice at dinner, frequency of eating out, and proclivity for sweets. In male NASH patients, the frequency of physical exercise was significantly lower. The lifestyle tendencies of NASH were almost similar to those of NAFL. In the comparison between obese NASH and non-obese NASH, no clear lifestyle differences were found. In conclusion, the most striking result of this survey was that the lifestyle of males contributed significantly to the development of NASH. These results point to treatment of NASH in males. In female NASH patients, lifestyle differences were minimal, and the effects of other factors such as genetic background will need to be investigated.
PMCID: PMC4227825  PMID: 25411525
NASH; lifestyle; exercise; gender; dietary habit
12.  Fat-soluble vitamins and plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in chylothorax pediatric patients receiving a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet 
Post-operative chylothorax can be cured by a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-rich diet. However, there is concern that an MCT-rich diet results in clinical and biochemical deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. We compared fat-soluble vitamins status and fatty acids status before and after administration of an MCT-rich diet. Nine children with congenital heart disease developed chylothorax after cardiac surgery. Blood samples were drawn from each subject twice, first prior to administration of an MCT-rich diet and secondly when the chylothorax was clinically cured and the MCT diet discontinued. Both blood samples were analyzed for retinol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, the ratio of α-tocopherol to total lipids (α-TE/TL), coagulogram, and the fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. In spite of a decrease in the α-TE/TL ratio (3.78 ± 0.89 vs 2.36 ± 0.44 mg/g, p<0.05), this decrease did not reach the deficiency cut-off level. Linoleic acid in both plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids decreased significantly (25.25 ± 8.06 vs 14.25 ± 2.88%, and 11.19 ± 2.15 vs 6.89 ± 2.45%, respectively). Administration of an MCT-rich diet for treatment of postoperative chylothorax caused a reduction in vitamin E status and linoleic acid, but without any symptoms of deficiency.
PMCID: PMC4227826  PMID: 25411522
chylothorax; fat-soluble vitamins; fatty acids; MCT-rich diet
13.  S-allyl cysteine ameliorates the quality of sperm and provides protection from age-related sperm dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats 
Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15–75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC4227827  PMID: 25411519
sperm function; aging; S-allyl cysteine; oxidative stress; oxidized DJ-1
14.  Direct exposure of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma confers simultaneous oxidative and ultraviolet modifications in biomolecules 
Thermal plasmas and lasers are used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, little research has been done into the use of this technique for conventional free radical biology. Recently, we developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping revealed •OH as a major product. To obtain evidence of NEAPP-induced oxidative modifications in biomolecules and standardize them, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and α-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also observed after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in saline produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment.
PMCID: PMC4227828  PMID: 25411528
non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma; electron spin resonance spin-trapping; 8-OHdG; HNE-modified protein; UV
15.  Intra-gastric pH following single oral administrations of rabeprazole and esomeprazole: double-blind cross-over comparison 
Comparisons between the acid inhibitory effects of rabeprazole and esomeprazole after single oral administration with standard doses have not been previously presented. We examined intra-gastric pH after oral administrations of these two proton pump inhibitors using 24-h pH monitoring. Fifty-four normal volunteers not infected by Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Using a cross-over design, we administered 10 mg of rabeprazole or 20 mg of esomeprazole in 27 at 30 min after supper and in the remaining 27 subjects at 15 min before supper, and performed 24-h pH monitoring. Intra-gastric pH data were nearly identical when the proton pump inhibitors were taken after meals. Even if the data were compared in different CYP2C19 genotypes, rabeprazole and esomeprazole did not show the difference. In poor metabolizer, both of the drugs showed stronger acid inhibition. When taken before meals, intra-gastric pH after esomeprazole administration was slightly but not significantly higher than that observed after rabeprazole administration not only in daytime but also in nighttime period. In conclusion, rabeprazole and esomeprazole were similarly effective when administered after a meal.
PMCID: PMC4227829  PMID: 25411523
intra-gastric pH; rabeprazole; esomeprazole; double-blind; cross-over
16.  Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion 
Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction.
PMCID: PMC4227830  PMID: 25411521
isoflavones; dry mouth; estrogen; salivary secretion; reactive oxygen species
17.  Therapeutic effect of Xue Niao An on glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate crystal deposition based on urinary metabonomics approach 
The anti-nephrolithiasis effect of Xue Niao An (XNA) capsules is explored by analyzing urine metabolic profiles in mouse models, with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). An animal model of calcium oxalate crystal renal deposition was established in mice by intra-abdominal injection of glyoxylate. Then, treatment with XNA by intra-gastric administration was performed. At the end of the study, calcium deposition in kidney was measured by Von Kossa staining under light microscopy, and the Von Kossa staining changes showed that XNA significantly alleviated the calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Meanwhile, urine samples for fifteen metabolites, including amino acids and fatty acids, with significant differences were detected in the calcium oxalate group, while XNA treatment attenuated metabolic imbalances. Our study indicated that the metabonomic strategy provided comprehensive insight on the metabolic response to XNA treatment of rodent renal calcium oxalate deposition.
PMCID: PMC4227831  PMID: 25411524
metabonomics; Xue Niao An; calcium oxalate; UPLC-Q-TOF/MS
18.  Type 2 diabetes model TSOD mouse is exposed to oxidative stress at young age 
Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mouse, a model of obese type 2 diabetes, older than around 11 weeks of age develops diabetic phenotypes. Previous studies have indicated that the development of diabetes is partly due to three loci associated with body weight and glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about the initial events triggering the development of the diabetic phenotypes in TSOD mouse. Here, we investigated the alteration of diabetes-related parameters, including the levels of blood glucose and inflammatory cytokines, and the oxidative stress status, in young TSOD mice. TSOD mice at 5 weeks of age showed increases in body weight and plasma total cholesterol level, but not hyperglycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, compared with age-matched control Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obese (TSNO) mice. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were not detected in TSOD mice at 5 weeks of age. However, plasma total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was increased in TSOD mice relative to TSNO mice at same age. The results demonstrated that young TSOD mice are exposed to oxidative stress before developing the diabetic phenotypes, and suggested that oxidative stress is an initial event triggering the development of diabetes in TSOD mice.
PMCID: PMC4227832  PMID: 25411529
type 2 diabetes; oxidative stress; hyperglycemia; inflammation; TSOD mouse
19.  Serum carnitine as an independent biomarker of malnutrition in patients with impaired oral intake 
Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound that plays important roles in fatty acid β-oxidation and the control of the mitochondrial coenzyme A/acetyl-CoA ratio. However, carnitine is not added to ordinary enteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition. In this study, we determined the serum carnitine concentrations in subjects receiving ordinary enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases to compare its levels with those of other nutritional markers. Serum samples obtained from 11 EN and 11 TPN patients and 82 healthy controls were examined. In addition, 10 Crohn’s disease and 10 ulcerative colitis patients with malnutrition who were barely able to ingest an ordinary diet were also evaluated. Carnitine and its derivatives were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The carnitine concentrations in EN and TPN subjects were significantly lower compared with those of the control subjects. Neither the serum albumin nor the total cholesterol level was correlated with the carnitine concentration, although a significant positive correlation was found between the serum albumin and total cholesterol levels. Indeed, patients with CD and UC showed significantly reduced serum albumin and/or total cholesterol levels, but their carnitine concentrations remained normal. In conclusion, only a complete blockade of an ordinary diet, such as EN or TPN, caused a reduction in the serum carnitine concentration. Serum carnitine may be an independent biomarker of malnutrition, and its supplementation is needed in EN and TPN subjects even if their serum albumin and total cholesterol levels are normal.
PMCID: PMC4227833  PMID: 25411530
carnitine; total parenteral nutrition (TPN); enteral nutrition (EN); inflammatory bowel diseases
20.  Coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive status in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes 
Depression has been reported to be more prevalent among diabetic patients than non-diabetic individuals. Although depression and diabetes are causally and bi-directionally related, the influence of food intake frequency on depressive symptoms in diabetic patients has not been fully evaluated. This cross-sectional study analyzed data obtained from 89 patients with type 2 diabetes who completed self-administered questionnaires regarding food intake frequency, diabetic variables, physical activity and depressive states. The prevalence of a “definite” depressive state was 16.9%. The duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels, diabetic microvascular complications and physical activity levels were similar between depressed and non-depressed patients. Daily intakes of total lipids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid energy ratios were significantly lower, and the carbohydrate energy ratio was significantly higher in depressed than in non-depressed patients. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but no significant association was found between tea or green tea consumption and depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis showed that coffee consumption was an independent predictor of non-depressed status in diabetic patients. This might be due to biologically active compounds containing in coffee other than caffeine.
PMCID: PMC4164615  PMID: 25320461
depression; diabetes mellitus; food intake; coffee consumption
21.  Antidiabetic effect of the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex 
In recent years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide. In particular, type 2 diabetes mellitus, a lifestyle-related disease, is recognized as a serious disease with various complications. Many types of pharmaceutics or specific health foods have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus. At the same time, the relationship between diabetes mellitus and α-lipoic acid has been recognized for many years. In this study, we found that the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex exhibited an HbA1c lowering effect for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus in animal models. Moreover, in this study, we investigated the activation of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, in the liver of KKAy mice by using α-lipoic acid and the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex. Our results show that the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex strongly induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Thus, we concluded that intake of the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex exerted an antidiabetic effect by suppressing the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia as well as doing exercise.
PMCID: PMC4186374  PMID: 25320456
α-lipoic acid; γCD complex; antidiabetic effect; type 2 diabetes mellitus
22.  Prosaposin regulates coenzyme Q10 levels in HepG2 cells, especially those in mitochondria 
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a key component of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and is one of the most important cellular antioxidants. We previously reported that glycoprotein saposin B (SapB) binds CoQ10 in human cells. To elucidate the physiological role of SapB and its precursor, prosaposin (Psap), we prepared stable transfectants of HepG2 that overexpress wild-type human Psap (Wt-Tf). We also established a SapB domain mutated Psap (Mt-Tf) in which cysteine198 was replaced with serine to disrupt three dimensional protein structure by the loss of S-S bridging. Psap knockdown (KD) strains were also examined. Western blotting analysis confirmed overexpression or knockdown of Psap in these HepG2 cells. The cellular ratios of CoQ10 to free cholesterol (FC) significantly decreased in the order of Wt-Tf>parental>Mt-Tf>KD. Additionally, the ratios of CoQ10/FC in mitochondrial fractions decreased in the order of Wt-Tf>parental>KD. These data indicate that Psap and/or SapB regulate CoQ10 levels in HepG2 cells, especially in their mitochondria.
PMCID: PMC4186375  PMID: 25320454
coenzyme Q10; prosaposin; saposin B; mitochondria; HepG2
23.  Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo 
Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage.
PMCID: PMC4186376  PMID: 25320458
antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; peach; protective effect
24.  Structural specificity of electric potentials in the coulometric-array analysis of catechins and theaflavins 
We have established a novel method to evaluate the redox properties of tea polyphenols by HPLC-coulometric-array analysis. We plotted the quantity of electricity (µC) on the vertical axis and the electric potential (mV), adjusted with the associated palladium reference electrode, on the horizontal axis to provide “quantity versus potential (QP) plot”. The patterns of the plots correspond to the derivative of a hydrodynamic voltammogram or a current-voltage curve, with the electric potentials of the peaks in the QP plot corresponding to the half-wave potentials in the current-voltage curve. We confirmed that catechins and theaflavins are oxidized depending on the electric potentials of their partial structures, and found that all compounds showing a peak at 0 mV in the QP plots produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during the autoxidation process.
PMCID: PMC4186377  PMID: 25320457
catechins; coulometric-array analysis; electric potentials; hydrogen peroxide; theaflavins
25.  Identification of novel omega-3 fatty acid-derived bioactive metabolites based on a targeted lipidomics approach 
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have beneficial effects in many inflammatory disorders. Although the mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid action is still not fully defined in molecular terms, recent studies have revealed that, during the course of acute inflammation, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediators including resolvins and protectins are produced. This review presents recent advances in understanding the formation and action of these mediators, especially focusing on the LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach and recently identified bioactive products with potent anti-inflammatory property.
PMCID: PMC4186379  PMID: 25320453
omega-3 fatty acid; anti-inflammation; metabolomics; lipid mediator

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