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1.  No correlation is found for vegetables between antioxidant capacity and potential benefits in improving antioxidant function in aged rats 
Vegetables vary greatly in antioxidant capacity in vitro. This study was to investigate the actions of three vegetables different remarkably in antioxidant capacity in vitro on antioxidant function in aged rats. Sixty female aged Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, lotus root, rape and cucumber (high, moderate and low in antioxidant capacity, respectively) treated groups. After 6 weeks of feeding, there were no significant differences in plasma FRAP value and contents of vitamin C, vitamin E, uric acid and total phenolics among different groups, whereas the content of reduced glutathione was significantly higher in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma superoxide dismutase activity also was significantly increased in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma contents of malondialdehyde, carbonyls and hemolysis were decreased significantly in 3 vegetable-treated groups. Meanwhile, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion was lower significantly in the rape group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length of blood mononuclear cells was decreased significantly in 3 vegetables treated groups. These results suggest that 3 vegetables tested are effective in improving antioxidant function to some extent in aged rats and no correlation is found between antioxidant capacity in vitro and improvements of antioxidant function. The benefits observed in this study may come from additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.
PMCID: PMC4039079  PMID: 24895483
lotus root; rape; cucumber; antioxidant function; aged rats
3.  Combined effect of sesamin and soybean phospholipid on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats 
We studied the combined effect of sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamine) and soybean phospholipid on lipid metabolism in rats. Male rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin, and containing 0 or 50 g/kg soybean phospholipid, for 19 days. Sesamin and soybean phospholipid decreased serum triacylglycerol concentrations and the combination of these compounds further decreased the parameter in an additive fashion. Soybean phospholipid but not sesamin reduced the hepatic concentration of triacylglycerol. The combination failed to cause a strong decrease in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration, presumably due to the up-regulation of Cd36 by sesamin. Combination of sesamin and soybean phospholipid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Sesamin strongly increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Soybean phospholipid increased hepatic activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase although it failed to affect the activity of other enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin strongly increased hepatic concentration of carnitine. Sesamin and soybean phospholipid combination further increased this parameter, accompanying a parallel increase in mRNA expression of carnitine transporter. These changes can account for the strong decrease in serum triacylglycerol in rats fed a diet containing both sesamin and soybean phospholipid.
PMCID: PMC4042142  PMID: 24894022
sesamin; soybean phospholipid; hepatic lipogenesis; hepatic fatty acid oxidation; carnitine
4.  Bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radicals generated from a low concentration hydrogen peroxide with ultrasound in endodontic treatment 
One approach to enhance the disinfection of root canals in endodontic treatment is ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, are generated by biological defense systems to kill invading bacteria. Ultrasonic irrigation with hydrogen peroxide may be a promising option to increase hydroxyl radical generation. We examined the bactericidal effects of hydroxyl radical generated from low concentration hydrogen peroxide with ultrasound in vitro. An ultrasonic tip was submerged in 0.5 or 1.0 M hydrogen peroxide in a microfuge tube. hydrogen peroxide was irradiated with the ultrasound, the tip of which was maintained centered in the tube to mimic ultrasonic irrigation. Hydroxyl radical generation was assessed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, Enterococcus faecalis suspension in hydrogen peroxide was prepared and irradiated as described above. Bactericidal effects were assessed by viable counting. Electron spin resonance measurements showed that hydroxyl radical generation increased significantly in a time- and dose-dependent manner (two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test, p<0.05). Moreover, the bactericidal effects of hydrogen peroxide against Enterococcus faecalis were enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ultrasonic irrigation in the presence of low concentration hydrogen peroxide can serve as a disinfection strategy in endodontic treatment.
PMCID: PMC4042143  PMID: 24895478
hydroxyl radical; ultrasound; hydrogen peroxide; bactericidal effect; electron spin resonance
5.  The role of lipid peroxidation in neurological disorders 
There has been much evidence demonstrating the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathology of neurological disorders. Moreover, the vulnerability of the central nervous system to reactive oxygen species mediated injury is well established since neurons consume large amounts of oxygen, the brain has many areas containing high iron content, and neuronal mitochondria generate large amounts of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, neuronal membranes are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. Recently, the biological roles of products produced by lipid peroxidation have received much attention, not only for their pathological mechanisms associated with neurological disorders, but also for their practical clinical applications as biomarkers. Here, we discuss the production mechanisms of reactive oxygen species in some neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Down syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke. We also describe lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC4042144  PMID: 24895477
lipid peroxidation; neurological disorder; Alzheimer’s disease; Down syndrome; Parkinson’s disease; stroke
6.  β-Glucuronidase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction: the sites where flavonoid glucuronides act as anti-inflammatory agents 
Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-rich diets decreases the risk of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Although studies on the bioavailability of flavonoids have been well-characterized, the tissue and cellular localizations underlying their biological mechanisms are largely unknown. The development and application of novel monoclonal antibodies revealed that macrophages could be the major target of dietary flavonoids in vivo. Using macrophage-like cell lines in vitro, we examined the molecular basis of the interaction between the macrophages and flavonoids, especially the glucuronide metabolites. We have found that extracellular β-glucuronidase secreted from macrophages is essential for the bioactivation of the glucuronide conjugates into the aglycone, and that the enzymatic activity, which requires an acidic pH, is promoted by the increased secretion of lactate in response to the mitochondrial dysfunction. This review describes our recent findings indicating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of dietary flavonoids within the inflammation sites. We propose that the extracellular activity of β-glucuronidase associated with the status of the mitochondrial function in the target cells might be important biomarkers for the specific sites where the glucuronides of dietary flavonoids can act as anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory agents in vivo.
PMCID: PMC4042145  PMID: 24895476
flavonoid; glucuronide; macrophage;  β-glucuronidase; mitochondria
7.  The behavior of ROS-scavenging nanoparticles in blood 
Here, we report an interaction between blood and redox nanoparticles, prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers possessing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyls as a side chain of hydrophobic segment. When 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl was added to rat whole blood, its electron spin resonance signal disappeared rapidly. In contrast, the signal from redox nanoparticles remained for a long period of time, indicating that nitroxide radicals were protected in the blood by their compartmentalization in the core of nanoparticle. Although most 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyls were located in the nanoparticle core, reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity was found outside of blood cells. For example, redox nanoparticles suppressed superoxide anion-induced hemolysis effectively, while 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl did not. It was revealed that redox nanoparticles were not internalized into the healthy blood cells, which was in sharp contrast to 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl. Due to its internalization into healthy platelets, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl induced mitochondrial dysfunction, while redox nanoparticles did not. Redox nanoparticles suppressed platelet adhesion and extended blood coagulation time, in contrast to 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl. These results indicate that redox nanoparticles scavenge reactive oxygen species outside of cells, but do not interfere with normal redox reactions inside of the cell. Based on these results, we determine that an anti-oxidative strategy based on nanotechnology is a rational and safe therapeutic approach.
PMCID: PMC4042146  PMID: 24895479
reactive oxygen species; nitroxide radicals; blood activation; redox nanoparticle; mitochondrial dysfunction
8.  BRP, a polysaccharide fraction isolated from Boschniakia rossica, protects against galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide induced hepatic failure in mice 
The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of BRP, a polysaccharide fraction isolated from Boschniakia rossica, against galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were injected with a single dose of galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide with or without pretreatment of BRP. Results showed marked reduction of hepatic necrosis, serum marker enzymes and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in BRP pretreated mice when compared with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice. Mice pretreated with BRP decreased the activation of caspases-3 and caspase-8, and showed a reduced level of DNA fragmentation of liver cells. BRP also reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, increased potential of hepatic antioxidative defense system, and reduced hepatic nitric oxide level which was elevated by galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide injection. Immunoblot analysis showed down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins of liver tissues in BRP pretreated group when compared with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-challenged group. Furthermore, treatment with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide markedly increased toll-like receptor 4, nuclear level of nuclear factor-κB, and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver tissues. However, these increases were attenuated by pretreatment with BRP. The results suggest that BRP alleviates galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by enhancing antioxidative defense system, suppressing inflammatory responses and reducing apoptotic signaling.
PMCID: PMC4042147  PMID: 24895481
Boschniakia rossica; polysaccharide; hepatic failure; mice
9.  Assessment of metabolic status in young Japanese females using postprandial glucose and insulin levels 
Lifestyle-related diseases develop through the accumulation of undesirable lifestyle habits both prior to the onset of disease as well as during normal healthy life. Accordingly, early detection of, and intervention in, metabolic disorders is desirable, but is hampered by the lack of an established evaluation index for young individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a biomarker of health in young female subjects. The subjects were young healthy Japanese females in whom energy expenditure was measured for a period of 210 min after a test meal. In addition, Δplasma glucose and Δserum insulin were calculated from the fasting and 30 min values. ΔPlasma glucose and Δserum insulin levels varied widely compared to fasting levels. Both the area under the curve of carbohydrate oxidation rate and serum free fatty acid levels were higher in individuals in the high Δplasma glucose group. Moreover, Δplasma glucose was higher in individuals in the high Δserum insulin group than in the low Δserum insulin group. We conclude that nutritional balanced liquid loading test using Δplasma glucose and Δserum insulin as the evaluation index is useful for the detection of primary metabolic disorders in young females.
PMCID: PMC4042148  PMID: 24895484
lifestyle-related diseases; primary metabolic disorders; early detection; postprandial metabolic response; mixed meal
11.  The α-tocopherol status and expression of α-tocopherol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats treated with vitamin E 
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disorder in developed countries, and its incidence is increasing in all population groups. As an antioxidant, vitamin E is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although the mechanism is still unclear. Methionine-choline deficient Wistar rats (n = 5) used as an experimental model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were fed a vitamin E-enriched diet (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The effects were assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, α-tocopherol levels, and the expression of α-tocopherol-related proteins in the liver. In vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats, lipid peroxidation was reduced, but liver histopathological changes were not improved. Hepatic α-tocopherol levels in these rats were significantly elevated compared to normal rats treated with vitamin E. Expression of liver α-tocopherol transfer protein in vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats was significantly repressed compared to methionine-choline deficient rats. The expression of liver cytochrome P450 4F2 and ATP-binding cassette transporter protein 1, involved in metabolism and transport of α-tocopherol, respectively, was significantly repressed in vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats. In methionine-choline deficient rats, vitamin E treatment altered the hepatic α-tocopherol-related protein expression, which may affect α-tocopherol status in the liver, leading to reduced lipid peroxidation.
PMCID: PMC4042150  PMID: 24895482
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; α-tocopherol;  α-tocopherol transfer protein; antioxidant
12.  Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men 
So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (p<0.001) with those of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoA1 in HDL2, respectively. Age correlated positively with sdLDL while increasing BMI correlated with an atherogenic shift of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB from large, buoyant LDL (lbLDL) to sdLDL and decreasing concentrations of HDL2 constituents. Physical activity and alcohol intake correlated negatively with sdLDL constituents and positively with HDL2 components. Consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) correlated with a lower ratio of sdLDL to HDL2 cholesterol. A favorable lipoprotein subfraction profile linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in men was associated with physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and dietary intake of MUFA, which might be exploited in future interventions for prevention of age- and BMI-associated atherogenic shifts of lipoprotein subfractions.
PMCID: PMC4042151  PMID: 24895480
lipoprotein subfractions; small dense lipoprotein particles; atherogenic shift; nutrition; body-mass index
13.  Oxidized DJ-1 as a possible biomarker of Parkinson’s disease 
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, age-related, neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress is an important mediator in its pathogenesis. DJ-1 is a causative gene of a familial form of Parkinson’s disease, namely PARK7, and plays a significant role in antioxidative defense to protect the cells from oxidative stress. DJ-1 undergoes preferential oxidation at the cysteine residue at position 106, Cys-106, under oxidative stress. The critical role of Cys-106 in the biological function of DJ-1 has been demonstrated, and recent studies indicate that DJ-1 acts as a sensor of oxidative stress by regulating the gene expression of antioxidative defense. Specific antibodies against Cys-106-oxidized DJ-1 have been developed, and the generation of oxidized DJ-1 in cellular and animal models of Parkinson’s disease has been investigated. This review focuses on the role of DJ-1 in antioxidative defense and the importance of oxidizable Cys-106 in its function. The significance of the identification of early-phase Parkinson’s disease biomarkers and the nature of oxidized DJ-1 as a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease are discussed here.
PMCID: PMC4042152  PMID: 24894116
DJ-1; Parkinson’s disease; oxidative stress; cysteine; sulfonic acid
14.  Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice 
Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis.
PMCID: PMC3947966  PMID: 24688219
fibroblast growth factor 15; gene regulation analysis; inorganic phosphate; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; mice
15.  The astaxanthin-induced improvement in lipid metabolism during exercise is mediated by a PGC-1α increase in skeletal muscle 
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, accelerates lipid utilization during aerobic exercise, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. The present study investigated the effect of astaxanthin intake on lipid metabolism associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups: sedentary, sedentary and astaxanthin-treated, exercised, and exercised and astaxanthin-treated. After 2 weeks of treatment, the exercise groups performed treadmill running at 25 m/min for 30 min. Immediately after running, intermuscular pH was measured in hind limb muscles, and blood was collected for measurements. Proteins were extracted from the muscle samples and PGC-1α and its downstream proteins were measured by western blotting. Levels of plasma fatty acids were significantly decreased after exercise in the astaxanthin-fed mice compared with those fed a normal diet. Intermuscular pH was significantly decreased by exercise, and this decrease was inhibited by intake of astaxanthin. Levels of PGC-1α and its downstream proteins were significantly elevated in astaxanthin-fed mice compared with mice fed a normal diet. Astaxanthin intake resulted in a PGC-1α elevation in skeletal muscle, which can lead to acceleration of lipid utilization through activation of mitochondrial aerobic metabolism.
PMCID: PMC3947967  PMID: 24688216
astaxanthin; skeletal muscle; lipid metabolism; running exercise; PGC-1α
16.  The involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury 
Secondary bile acids produced by enteric bacteria accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury. Relative hydrophobicity has been suggested to be an important determinant of the biological properties of these compounds, although the mechanism by which bile acids induce pathogenesis is not fully understood. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum stress has been shown to be involved in the induction and development of various pathogenic conditions. In this report, we demonstrated that the intensities of cytotoxicity and endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells triggered by the bile acids tested were largely dependent on their hydrophobicity. The activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid showed the contribution of apoptosis to cytotoxicity. Increases in intracellular calcium levels and the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid contributed to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bile acids also induced transforming growth factor-β, a potent profibrogenic factor, which is known to induce hepatocyte apoptosis and ultimately liver fibrosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that bile acids induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which in turn stimulated apoptosis in HepG2 cells, in a hydrophobicity-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC3947968  PMID: 24688223
bile acid; endoplasmic reticulum stress; apoptosis; transforming growth factor-β; hydrophobicity
17.  Scavenging rate constants of hydrophilic antioxidants against multiple reactive oxygen species 
Scavenging rate constants of eight hydrophilic antioxidants, including caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, genistein, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, rutin, trolox, and uric acid against multiple ROS, namely superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and alkoxyl radical were determined with the electron spin resonance method. Direct flash photolysis measurement of the second-order rate constant in the reaction of alkoxyl radical plus the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide made it possible to evaluate scavenging rate constants in antioxidants. The magnitudes of scavenging rate constants were notably dependent on the character of each ROS and the overall rate constants were highest in hydroxyl radical scavenging and the lowest in superoxide anion. The highest scavenging rate constant against superoxide anion was obtained by chlorogenic acid (2.9 × 105 M−1 s−1) and the lowest was by N-acetylcysteine (5.0 × 102 M−1 s−1). For singlet oxygen, the highest was by glutathione (9.4 × 108 M−1 s−1) and the lowest was by uric acid (2.3 × 106 M−1 s−1). All other numbers are listed and illustrated. Redox potential measurements of the antioxidants indicated that the antioxidants are likely to react with superoxide anion and singlet oxygen through electron transfer processes.
PMCID: PMC3947969  PMID: 24688213
reactive oxygen species (ROS); hydrophilic antioxidant; radical scavenging; spin trapping; redox potential
18.  Scavenging of reactive oxygen species induced by hyperthermia in biological fluid 
The scavenging activity of rat plasma against hyperthermia-induced reactive oxygen species was tested. The glutathione-dependent reduction of a nitroxyl radical, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, which was restricted by adding superoxide dismutase or by deoxygenating the reaction mixture, was applied to an index of superoxide (O2•−) generation. A reaction mixture containing 0.1 mM 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl and 1 mM glutathione was prepared using 100 mM phosphate buffer containing 0.05 mM diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The reaction mixture was kept in a screw-top vial and incubated in a water bath at 37 or 44°C. The time course of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl in the reaction mixture was measured by an X-band EPR spectrometer (JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). When the same experiment was performed using rat plasma instead of 100 mM PB, the glutathione-dependent reduction of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, i.e., generation of O2•−, was not obtained. Only the first-order decay reduction of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, which indicates direct reduction of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, was obtained in rat plasma. Adding 0.5% albumin to the phosphate buffer reaction mixture could almost completely inhibit O2•− generation at 37°C. However, addition of 0.5% albumin could not inhibit O2•− generation at 44°C, i.e., hyperthermic temperature. Ascorbic acid also showed inhibition of O2•− generation by 0.01 mM at 37°C, but 0.02 mM or more could inhibit O2•− generation at 44°C. A higher concentration of ascorbic acid showed first-order reduction, i.e., direct one-electron reduction, of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl. Hyperthermia-induced O2•− generation in rat plasma can be mostly inhibited by albumin and ascorbic acid in the plasma.
PMCID: PMC3947970  PMID: 24688214
hyperthermia; reactive oxygen species; superoxide; electron paramagnetic resonance; nitroxyl redox probe
19.  Relationship between blood levels of methyl donor and folate and mild cognitive impairment in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a case-control study 
Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Folate insufficiency fosters a decline in the sole methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine, and decreases methylation potential, which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease in non-diabetic patients. However, little is known in diabetic patients. We analyzed plasma levels of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and serum level of folate in 100 elderly type 2 diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment. S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio was used to reflect the methylation potential. Patients with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower levels of S-adenosylmethionine, folate and S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteineratios. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis indicated the plasma S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio and serum folate (OR, 0.96, 0.698, 0.72, respectively; p<0.05) were negatively associated with risk of mild cognitive impairment, even after adjusting for related covariates. In addition, folate level was positively correlated with S-adenosylmethionine and the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio (r = 0.38, 0.46, respectively; p<0.05) among patients within the middle tertile of folate levels (6.3–9.1 µg/L). These findings indicate mild cognitive impairment is associated with lower levels of S-adenosylmethionine, folate and weakened methylation potential; plasma S-adenosylmethionine and methylation potential may be predicted by serum folate within a suitable range of folate concentrations in diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC3947971  PMID: 24688222
methyl donor; folate; mild cognitive impairment; type 2 diabetes
20.  Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model 
Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids.
PMCID: PMC3947972  PMID: 24688221
omega-3 fatty acids; nutritional support; acute lung injury; rat model; fish oil
21.  Sesamol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in colon cancer cells and modifies intestinal polyp development in ApcMin/+ mice 
Excessive prostaglandin production by cyclooxygenase-2 in stromal and epithelial cells is a causative factor of colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, compounds which inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in colon epithelial cells could be candidates for anti-carcinogenic agents. A cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in the human colon cancer cell line DLD-1 has been measured using a β-galactosidase reporter gene system. Using this system, we demonstrated that the decrease in basal cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activities at 100 µM sesamol, one of the lignans in sesame seeds, was 50%. Other compounds in sesame seeds such as sesamin, sesamolin, ferulic acid, and syringic acid did not exhibit significant suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity at up to 100 µM. In a following experiment, 6-week-old male Min mice, Apc-deficient mice, were divided into a non-treated and 500 ppm sesamol groups. At the age of 15 weeks, it was found that treatment with sesamol decreased the number of polyps in the middle part of small intestine to 66.1% of the untreated value. Moreover, sesamol suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 and cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase mRNA in the polyp parts. The present findings may demonstrate the novel anti-carcinogenetic property of sesamol, and imply that agents that can suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression may be useful cancer chemopreventive agents.
PMCID: PMC3947973  PMID: 24688218
cyclooxygenase-2; reporter gene assay; sesame; sesamol; Min mice
22.  Role of Nrf2 in the alteration of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-related gene expression by dietary cholesterol in high fat-fed mice 
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a regulator of lipid metabolism as well as various cytoprotective enzymes and may be involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Although, bile acids affect lipid metabolism, the role of Nrf2 in bile acid metabolism remains unclear. In this study, it was tested how Nrf2 modulates lipid and bile acid homeostasis in liver in response to changes of cholesterol absorption under high-fat diet using Nrf2-null mice. Eight-week-old male wild-type and Nrf2-null mice (n = 6/group) were divided into three groups fed the following diets: 1) control diet containing 4% soybean oil and 16% lard, 2) control diet plus ezetimibe, 3) control diet plus cholesterol. Blood and livers were removed after 4 weeks feeding. High cholesterol diet increased hepatic expression of liver X receptor α target genes related to fatty acid metabolism (FAS, ACC1, SREBP-1c, SCD-1c and CD36), cholesterol transport (Abcg5/abcg8) and bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1) in wild type mice. However, these genes were not induced in Nrf2-null mice. These findings suggest that Nrf2 has a relation to liver X receptor α and controls the regulation of gene expressions related to lipid and bile acid metabolism.
PMCID: PMC3947974  PMID: 24688217
nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cholesterol metabolism; bile acid metabolism; liver X receptor α
23.  Cooperative effects of soy isoflavones and carotenoids on osteoclast formation 
Osteoclasts play a major role in bone resorption. Several functional food components, such as soy isoflavones and carotenoids, are reported to inhibit osteoclast formation. However, the cooperative effect of functional foods or their constituents on bone metabolism has not been clarified. This study aimed to investigate the cooperative effect of soy isoflavones and carotenoids on osteoclast formation in vitro using cultures of RAW264 and bone marrow cells in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand. In RAW264 cells, treatment with soy isoflavones (genistein or equol) or carotenoids (β-carotene) suppressed osteoclast formation. At 10 µM, genistein and equol inhibited RAW264 cell proliferation but did not affect cell viability. When 10 µM genistein or equol was combined with 0.1 µM β-carotene, we observed an additive suppressive effect on osteoclast differentiation. Similar results were observed with bone marrow cell cultures. We found that 10 µM of zeaxanthin or lutein suppressed osteoclast formation singly, and further enhanced the suppressive effects of daidzein or genistein when administered in combination. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavones and carotenoids have an enhanced suppressive effect on osteoclast formation. This knowledge might be important in planning diet for bone health.
PMCID: PMC3947975  PMID: 24688220
soy isoflavones; carotenoids; osteoclast formation; bone
24.  Reactive oxygen species involved cancer cellular specific 5-aminolevulinic acid uptake in gastric epithelial cells 
Photodynamic therapy and photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are clinically useful for cancer treatments. Cancer cells have been reported that 5-aminolevulinic acid is incorporated via peptide transporter 1, which is one of the membrane transport proteins, and has been reported to be significantly expressed in various gastrointestinal cancer cells such as Caco-2. However, the mechanism of this protein expression has not been elucidated. Concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is higher in cancer cells in comparison with that of normal cells. We have previously reported that ROS derived from mitochondria is likely related to invasions and proliferations of cancer cells. Since 5-aminolevulinic acid is the most important precursor of heme which is necessary protein for cellular proliferations, mitochondrial ROS (mitROS) may be also related to peptide transporter 1 expressions. In this study, we used a rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM1 and its cancer-like mutated cell line RGK1, and we clarified the ALA uptake mechanism and its relations between mitROS and peptide transporter 1 expression in RGK1. We also used our self-established stable clone of cell which over-expresses manganese superoxide dismutase, a mitROS scavenger. We studied differences of the photodynamic therapy effects in these cells after ALA administrations to clear the influence of mitROS.
PMCID: PMC3947976  PMID: 24688215
aminolevulinic acid; reactive oxygen species; gastric epithelial cell; porphyrin; photodynamic therapy; mitROS
25.  As a host society to SFRRI 2014 in Kyoto 
PMCID: PMC3882492  PMID: 24426182

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