There is emerging evidence which indicates the essential role of genetic factors in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this regard it should be highlighted that genetic factors account for 25-50% of the risk of developing DR. Therefore, the use of genetic analysis to identify those diabetic patients most prone to developing DR might be useful in designing a more individualized treatment. In this regard, there are three main research strategies: candidate gene studies, linkage studies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). In the candidate gene approach, several genes encoding proteins closely related to DR development have been analyzed. The linkage studies analyze shared alleles among family members with DR under the assumption that these predispose to a more aggressive development of DR. Finally, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are a new tool involving a massive evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in large samples. In this review the available information using these three methodologies is critically analyzed. A genetic approach in order to identify new candidates in the pathogenesis of DR would permit us to design more targeted therapeutic strategies in order to decrease this devastating complication of diabetes. Basic researchers, ophthalmologists, diabetologists and geneticists should work together in order to gain new insights into this issue.
Diabetic retinopathy; Genetics; Genome-wide association studies; Linkage studies.
Migraine is a neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system causing painful attacks of headache. A genetic vulnerability and exposure to environmental triggers can influence the migraine phenotype. Migraine interferes in many facets of people’s daily life including employment commitments and their ability to look after their families resulting in a reduced quality of life. Identification of the biological processes that underlie this relatively common affliction has been difficult because migraine does not have any clearly identifiable pathology or structural lesion detectable by current medical technology. Theories to explain the symptoms of migraine have focused on the physiological mechanisms involved in the various phases of headache and include the vascular and neurogenic theories. In relation to migraine pathophysiology the trigeminovascular system and cortical spreading depression have also been implicated with supporting evidence from imaging studies and animal models. The objective of current research is to better understand the pathways and mechanisms involved in causing pain and headache to be able to target interventions. The genetic component of migraine has been teased apart using linkage studies and both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, in family and case-control cohorts. Genomic regions that increase individual risk to migraine have been identified in neurological, vascular and hormonal pathways. This review discusses knowledge of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of migraine with the latest scientific evidence from genetic studies.
Migraine; Migraine with aura; Migraine without aura; Familial hemiplegic migraine; Molecular genetics; Genes
Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas’ disease in the Southern Cone of Latin America between the latitudes 10° S and 46° S. The long-term effectiveness of the control campaigns is greatly dependent upon the vector population structure. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes have been used in a number of T. infestans population genetic analyses. However, the maternally inherited markers as well as nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed until the present exhibited low or limited levels of variation. Analyses based on microsatellite markers strongly supported the existence of some type of stratification in T. infestans populations and supported the hypothesis of vector population recovery from survivors of the insecticide-treated areas, highlighting the value of population genetic analyses in assessing the effectiveness of Chagas’ disease vector control programmes. Although phylogeographic studies have generally suggested a Bolivian Andean origin of T. infestans, they recovered two reciprocal monophyletic groups of T. infestans and Bolivian populations who were not basal as expected for an ancestral group. In addition, a non-Andean origin could not be excluded by mtDNA genealogies that included sylvatic bugs from Gran Chaco. On the other side, mitochondrial and microsatellite markers supported the hypothesis of two independent migration events of colonization and secondary contacts in southern South America. Since the phylogenetic analyses remain inconclusive, more sequences, not only from mitochondrial genes but also from nuclear genes, need to be examined.
Chagas' disease vector; DNA sequences; Genetic structure; Microsatellites; Phylogeography; Triatoma infestans
Transmembrane proteins allow cells to extensively communicate with the external world in a very accurate and specific way. They form principal nodes in several signaling pathways and attract large interest in therapeutic intervention, as the majority pharmaceutical compounds target membrane proteins. Thus, according to the current genome annotation methods, a detailed structural/functional characterization at the protein level of each of the elements codified in the genome is also required. The extreme difficulty in obtaining high-resolution three-dimensional structures, calls for computational approaches. Here we review to which extent the efforts made in the last few years, combining the structural characterization of membrane proteins with protein bioinformatics techniques, could help describing membrane proteins at a genome-wide scale. In particular we analyze the use of comparative modeling techniques as a way of overcoming the lack of high-resolution three-dimensional structures in the human membrane proteome.
Genome-wide scale analysis; Homology modeling; Human membrane proteome; Multitasking approach; Protein structural bioinformatics; Membrane protein.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease that dramatically decreases the lifespan and abilities of affected young people. The primary molecular cause of the disease is the absence of functional dystrophin protein, which is critical to proper muscle function. Those with DMD vary in disease presentation and dystrophin mutation; the same causal mutation may be associated with drastically different levels of disease severity. Also contributing to this variation are the influences of additional modifying genes and/or changes in functional elements governing such modifiers. This genetic heterogeneity complicates the efficacy of treatment methods and to date medical interventions are limited to treating symptoms. Animal models of DMD have been instrumental in teasing out the intricacies of DMD disease and hold great promise for advancing knowledge of its variable presentation and treatment. This review addresses the utility of comparative genomics in elucidating the complex background behind phenotypic variation in a canine model of DMD, Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD). This knowledge can be exploited in the development of improved, more personalized treatments for DMD patients, such as therapies that can be tailor-matched to the disease course and genomic background of individual patients.
Genomics; Comparative genomics; Golden retriever muscular dystrophy; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Animal models of DMD; Canine dystrophin
Most traits of biological importance, including traits for human complex diseases (e.g., obesity and diabetes), are continuously distributed. These complex or quantitative traits are controlled by multiple genetic loci called QTLs (quantitative trait loci), environments and their interactions. The laboratory mouse has long been used as a pilot animal model for understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. Next-generation sequencing analyses and genome-wide SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analyses of mouse genomes have revealed that classical inbred strains commonly used throughout the world are derived from a few fancy mice with limited and non-randomly distributed genetic diversity that occurs in nature and also indicated that their genomes are predominantly Mus musculus domesticus in origin. Many QTLs for a huge variety of traits have so far been discovered from a very limited gene pool of classical inbred strains. However, wild M. musculus mice consisting of five subspecies widely inhabit areas all over the world, and hence a number of novel QTLs may still lie undiscovered in gene pools of the wild mice. Some of the QTLs are expected to improve our understanding of human complex diseases. Using wild M. musculus subspecies in Asia as examples, this review illustrates that wild mice are untapped natural resources for valuable QTL discovery.
Classical inbred strain; Genetic resources; Natural variation; Quantitative trait; QTL; Wild mice.
Research on regulation of cellulases and hemicellulases gene expression may be very useful for increasing the production of these enzymes in their native producers. Mechanisms of gene regulation of cellulase and hemicellulase expression in filamentous fungi have been studied, mainly in Aspergillus and Trichoderma. The production of these extracellular enzymes is an energy-consuming process, so the enzymes are produced only under conditions in which the fungus needs to use plant polymers as an energy and carbon source. Moreover, production of many of these enzymes is coordinately regulated, and induced in the presence of the substrate polymers. In addition to induction by mono- and oligo-saccharides, genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction in filamentous fungi can be repressed during growth in the presence of easily metabolizable carbon sources, such as glucose. Carbon catabolite repression is an important mechanism to repress the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes during growth on preferred carbon sources. This manuscript reviews the recent advancements in elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for regulation of expression of cellulase and hemicellulase genes in fungi.
Cellulase; Cellulose; CRE1; Hemicellulase; Sophorose; Xylan; XYR1.
The study of gene-based genetic associations has gained conceptual popularity recently. Biologic insight into the etiology of a complex disease can be gained by focusing on genes as testing units. Several gene-based methods (e.g., minimum p-value (or maximum test statistic) or entropy-based method) have been developed and have more power than a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based analysis. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the entropy-based method with the minimum p-value and single SNP–based analysis and to explore their strengths and weaknesses. Simulation studies show that: 1) all three methods can reasonably control the false-positive rate; 2) the minimum p-value method outperforms the entropy-based and the single SNP–based method when only one disease-related SNP occurs within the gene; 3) the entropy-based method outperforms the other methods when there are more than two disease-related SNPs in the gene; and 4) the entropy-based method is computationally more efficient than the minimum p-value method. Application to a real data set shows that more significant genes were identified by the entropy-based method than by the other two methods.
Gene-centric; Genome-wide association study; Monte carlo; Entropy; Minimum p-value method.
Skeletal muscle is a post-mitotic tissue maintained by repair and regeneration through a population of stem cell-like satellite cells. Following muscle injury, satellite cell proliferation is mediated by local signals ensuring sufficient progeny for tissue repair. Age–related changes in satellite cells as well as to the local and systemic environment potentially impact on the capacity of satellite cells to generate sufficient progeny in an ageing organism resulting in diminished regeneration. ‘Rejuvenation’ of satellite cell progeny and regenerative capacity by environmental stimuli effectors suggest that a subset of age-dependent satellite cell changes may be reversible. Epigenetic regulation of satellite stem cells that include DNA methylation and histone modifications which regulate gene expression are potential mechanisms for such reversible changes and have been shown to control organismal longevity. The area of health and ageing that is likely to benefit soonest from advances in the biology of adult stem cells is the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which epigenetic modifications regulate satellite stem cell function and will require an increased understanding of stem-cell biology, the environment of the aged tissue and the interaction between the two.
Epigenetics; Ageing; Satellite cells; Skeletal muscle; Methylation; Acetylation.
Zinc finger proteins containing the Kruppel associated box (KRAB-ZFPs) constitute the largest individual family of transcriptional repressors encoded by the genomes of higher organisms. KRAB domain, positioned at the NH2 terminus of the KRAB-ZFPs, interacts with a scaffold protein, KAP-1, which is able to recruit various transcriptional factors causing repression of genes to which KRAB ZFPs bind. The relevance of such repression is reflected in the large number of the KRAB zinc finger protein genes in the human genome. However, in spite of their numerical abundance little is currently known about the gene targets and the physiological functions of KRAB- ZFPs. However, emerging evidence links the transcriptional repression mediated by the KRAB-ZFPs to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cancer. Moreover, the fact that KRAB containing proteins are vertebrate-specific suggests that they have evolved recently, and that their key roles lie in some aspects of vertebrate development. In this review, we will briefly discuss some regulatory functions of the KRAB-ZFPs in different physiological and pathological states, thus contributing to better understand their biological roles.
Apoptosis; Evolution; KAP-1 corepressor; KRAB domain; Metabolism; Transcriptional repression; Zinc finger.
The Hox gene collinearity enigma has often been approached using models based on biomolecular mechanisms. The biophysical model is an alternative approach based on the hypothesis that collinearity is caused by physical forces pulling the Hox genes from a territory where they are inactive to a distinct spatial domain where they are activated in a step by step manner. Such Hox gene translocations have recently been observed in support of the biophysical model. Genetic engineering experiments, performed on embryonic mice, gave rise to several unexpected mutant expressions that the biomolecular models cannot predict. On the contrary, the biophysical model offers convincing explanation. Evolutionary constraints consolidate the Hox clusters and as a result, denser and well organized clusters may create more efficient physical forces and a more emphatic manifestation of gene collinearity. This is demonstrated by stochastic modeling with white noise perturbing the expression of Hox genes. As study cases the genomes of mouse and amphioxus are used. The results support the working hypothesis that vertebrates have adopted their comparably more compact Hox clustering as a tool needed to develop more complex body structures. Several experiments are proposed in order to test further the physical forces hypothesis.
Chromatin; Hox collinearity; Limb bud; Invertebrate-vertebrate evolution.
Abiotic stresses collectively are responsible for crop losses worldwide. Among these, drought and salinity are the most destructive. Different strategies have been proposed for management of these stresses. Being a complex trait, conventional breeding approaches have resulted in less success. Biotechnology has emerged as an additional and novel tool for deciphering the mechanism behind these stresses. The role of compatible solutes in abiotic stress tolerance has been studied extensively. Osmotic adjustment, at the physiological level, is an adaptive mechanism involved in drought or salinity tolerance, which permits the maintenance of turgor under conditions of water deficit, as it can counteract the effects of a rapid decline in leaf water potential. Increasing evidence from a series of in vivo and in vitro studies of the physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology of plants suggest strongly that Glycine Betaine (GB) performs an important function in plants subjected to environmental stresses. It plays an adaptive role in mediating osmotic adjustment and protecting the sub-cellular structures in stressed plants, protection of the transcriptional and translational machineries and intervention as a molecular chaperone in the refolding of enzymes. Many important crops like rice do not accumulate glycinebetaine under stress conditions. Both the exogenous application of GB and the genetically engineered biosynthesis of GB in such crops is a promising strategy to increase stress tolerance. In this review we will discuss the importance of GB for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Further, strategies like exogenic application and transgenic development of plants accumulating GB will be also be discussed. Work done on exogenic application and genetically engineered biosynthesis of GB will be listed and its advantages and limitations will be described.
Glyicine betaine; Abiotic stress; Osmoprotectants; Salinity; Compatible solute; Genetic engineering; Choline.
Epigenetics pertains to heritable alterations in gene expression that do not involve modification of the underlying genomic DNA sequence. Historically, the study of epigenetic mechanisms has focused on DNA methylation and histone modifications, but the concept of epigenetics has been more recently extended to include microRNAs as well. Epigenetic patterning is modified by environmental exposures and may be a mechanistic link between environmental risk factors and the development of disease. Epigenetic dysregulation has been associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we consider the role of epigenetics in common ocular diseases, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and microRNAs. DNA methylation is a critical regulator of gene expression in the eye and is necessary for the proper development and postmitotic survival of retinal neurons. Aberrant methylation patterns have been associated with age-related macular degeneration, susceptibility to oxidative stress, cataract, pterygium, and retinoblastoma. Changes in histone modifications have also been observed in experimental models of diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. The expression levels of specific microRNAs have also been found to be altered in the context of ocular inflammation, retinal degeneration, pathological angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, and ocular neoplasms. Although the complete spectrum of epigenetic modifications remains to be more fully explored, it is clear that epigenetic dysregulation is an important contributor to common ocular diseases and may be a relevant therapeutic target.
Age-related macular generation; Cataract; Diabetic retinopathy; Epigenetics; DNA methylation; microRNA.
RNA-Seq is a recently developed sequencing technology, that through the analysis of cDNA allows for unique insights into the transcriptome of a cell. The data generated by RNA-Seq provides information on gene expression, alternative splicing events and the presence of non-coding RNAs. It has been realised non-coding RNAs are more then just artefacts of erroneous transcription and play vital regulatory roles at the genomic, transcriptional and translational level. Transcription of the DNA sense strand produces antisense transcripts. This is known as antisense transcription and often results in the production of non-coding RNAs that are complementary to their associated sense transcripts. Antisense tran-scription has been identified in bacteria, fungi, protozoa, plants, invertebrates and mammals. It seems that antisense tran-scriptional ‘hot spots’ are located around nucleosome-free regions such as those associated with promoters, indicating that it is likely that antisense transcripts carry out important regulatory functions. This underlines the importance of identifying the presence and understanding the function of these antisense non-coding RNAs. The information concerning strand ori-gin is often lost during conventional RNA-Seq; capturing this information would substantially increase the worth of any RNA-Seq experiment. By manipulating the input cDNA during the template preparation stage it is possible to retain this vital information. This forms the basis of strand-specific RNA-Seq. With an ability to unlock immense portions of new in-formation surrounding the transcriptome, this cutting edge technology may hold the key to developing a greater under-standing of the transcriptome.
Antisense RNA; Next-generation sequencing; Non-coding; RNA; Transcriptome; Pervasive transcription.
Prior to the completion of the human genome project, the human genome was thought to have a greater number of genes as it seemed structurally and functionally more complex than other simpler organisms. This along with the belief of “one gene, one protein”, were demonstrated to be incorrect. The inequality in the ratio of gene to protein formation gave rise to the theory of alternative splicing (AS). AS is a mechanism by which one gene gives rise to multiple protein products. Numerous databases and online bioinformatic tools are available for the detection and analysis of AS. Bioinformatics provides an important approach to study mRNA and protein diversity by various tools such as expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences obtained from completely processed mRNA. Microarrays and deep sequencing approaches also aid in the detection of splicing events. Initially it was postulated that AS occurred only in about 5% of all genes but was later found to be more abundant. Using bioinformatic approaches, the level of AS in human genes was found to be fairly high with 35-59% of genes having at least one AS form. Our ability to determine and predict AS is important as disorders in splicing patterns may lead to abnormal splice variants resulting in genetic diseases. In addition, the diversity of proteins produced by AS poses a challenge for successful drug discovery and therefore a greater understanding of AS would be beneficial.
Alternative splicing (AS); Bioinformatics; Database; Expressed sequence tags (ESTs); Microarray; mRNA; Protein; Splice variants.
Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breast cancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breast cancer has been focused on.
Mitochondrial DNA; Hereditary breast cancer; DNA variations; Polymorphism; Mitochondrial haplogroup.
The COPD has been an important respiratory condition that affects people worldwide and its incidence has been alarming. The increasing incidence of this disorder has been attributed to global industrialization and environmental pollution. Although the exposures to environmental pollutants and smoking have been important triggers, the genetic component of individuals has been shown to be important for development and progression of COPD. Recent literature reported that protease-antiprotease imbalance to be important in etiopathogenesis of COPD. The enzymes namely neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloprotienases are considered to be foremost proteolytic molecules released by neutrophils and macrophages during inflammatory events in COPD. Normally, the lungs remain protected from the destructive effect of these two antiproteases by α1-antitrypsin (α1AT) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) respectively. In this review, we are trying to highlight the work by various research groups in exploring the SNPs of various genes of inflammatory pathways and the protease-antiprotease pathway, which may have some degree of association with COPD.
Antiprotease; COPD; Inflammation; Metalloprotienases; SNP; TIMP.
The MATH (meprin and TRAF-C homology) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel β-helices involved in protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 90 MATH-domain proteins from the Brassica rapa genome. By sequence analysis together with MATH-domain proteins from other species, the B. rapa MATH-domain proteins can be grouped into 6 classes. Class-I protein has one or several MATH domains without any other recognizable domain; Class-II protein contains a MATH domain together with a conserved BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-Brac ) domain; Class-III protein belongs to the MATH/Filament domain family; Class-IV protein contains a MATH domain frequently combined with some other domains; Class-V protein has a relative long sequence but contains only one MATH domain; Class-VI protein is characterized by the presence of Peptidase and UBQ (Ubiquitinylation) domains together with one MATH domain. As part of our study regarding seed development of B. rapa, six genes are screened by SSH (Suppression Subtractive Hybridization) and their expression levels are analyzed in combination with seed developmental stages, and expression patterns suggested that Bra001786, Bra03578 and Bra036572 may be seed development specific genes, while Bra001787, Bra020541 and Bra040904 may be involved in seed and flower organ development. This study provides the first characterization of the MATH domain proteins in B. rapa
Brassica rapa; Phylogenetic analysis; MATH domain protein; Protein domain organization; Gene expression; Seed development.
Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, continues to cause severe damage worldwide. Durable resistance is necessary for sustainable control of the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance, which expresses when the weather becomes warm and plants grow older, has been demonstrated to be durable. We conducted numerous studies to understand the molecular mechanisms of different types of stripe rust resistance using a transcriptomics approach. Through comparing gene expression patterns with race-specific, all-stage resistance controlled by various genes, we found that a greater diversity of genes is involved in HTAP resistance than in all-stage resistance. The genes involved in HTAP resistance are induced more slowly and their expression induction is less dramatic than genes involved in all-stage resistance. The high diversity of genes and less dramatic induction may explain durability and the incomplete expression level of HTAP resistance. Identification of transcripts may be helpful in identifying resistance controlled by different genes and in selecting better combinations of genes to combine for achieving adequate and durable resistance.
Durable resistance; Genechips; Gene expression; Microarray; Puccinia striiformis; Yellow rust.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a recently discovered class of small, non-coding RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides in length that regulate the gene expression by base-pairing with the transcripts of their targets i.e. protein-coding genes, leading to down-regulation or repression of the target genes. However, target gene activation has also been described. miRNAs are involved in diverse regulatory pathways, including control of developmental timing, apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, modulation of immune response to macrophages, and organ development and are associated with many diseases, such as cancer. Computational prediction of miRNA targets is much more challenging in animals than in plants, because animal miRNAs often perform imperfect base-pairing with their target sites, unlike plant miRNAs which almost always bind their targets with near perfect complementarity. In the past years, a large number of target prediction programs and databases on experimentally validated information have been developed for animal miRNAs to fulfil the need of experimental scientists conducting miRNA research. In this review we first succinctly describe the prediction criteria (rules or principles) adapted by prediction algorithms to generate possible miRNA binding site interactions and introduce most relevant algorithms, and databases. We then summarize their applications with the help of some previously published studies. We further provide experimentally validated functional binding sites outside 3’-UTR region of target mRNAs and the resources which offer such predictions. Finally, the issue of experimental validation of miRNA binding sites will be briefly discussed.
microRNAs; miRWalk; Target prediction; Promoter; CDS; UTR; Prediction algorithm; Database.
Over the two past decades, a significant number of studies have observed animal growth traits to examine animal genetic mechanisms due to their ease of measurement and high heritability. Chicken which has a significant impact on fundamental biology is a major source of protein worldwide, making it an ideal model for examining animal growth trait development. The genetic mechanisms of chicken growth traits have been studied using quantitative trait loci mapping through genome-scan and candidate gene approaches, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), comparative genomic strategies, microRNA (miRNA) regulation of growth development analysis, and epigenomic analysis. This review focuses on chicken GWAS and miRNA regulation of growth traits. Several recently published GWAS reports showed that most genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms are located on chromosomes 1 and 4 in chickens. Chicken growth, particularly skeletal muscle growth and development, is greatly regulated by miRNA. Using dwarf and normal chickens, let-7b was found to be involved in determining chicken dwarf phenotypes by regulating growth hormone receptor gene expression.
Chicken; Genome-wide association study (GWAS); Growth traits; microRNA (miRNA) regulation; Quantitative trait loci (QTL); Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. LOAD has a complex and largely unknown etiology with strong genetic determinants. Genetics of LOAD is known to involve several genetic risk factors among which the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene seems to be the major recognized genetic determinant. Recent efforts have been made to identify other genetic factors involved in the pathophysiology of LOAD such as genes associated with a deficit of neurotrophic factors in the AD brain. Genetic variations of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and transforming-growth-factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are known to increase the risk to develop LOAD and have also been related to depression susceptibility in LOAD. Transforming-Growth-Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a neurotrophic factor that exerts neuroprotective effects against ß-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration. Recent evidence suggests that a specific impairment in the signaling of TGF-β is an early event in the pathogenesis of AD. TGF-β1 protein levels are predominantly under genetic control, and the TGF-β1 gene, located on chromosome 19q13.1–3, con-tains several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream and in the transcript region, such as the SNP at codon +10 (T/C) and +25 (G/C), which is known to influence the level of expression of TGF-β1. In the present review, we summarize the current literature on genetic risk factors for LOAD, focusing on the role of the TGF-β1 gene, finally discussing the possible implications of these genetic studies for the selection of patients eligible for neuroprotective strategies in AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; Depression; Drugs; Genetic polymorphism; Risk factor; Transforming-growth-factor-β1.
The prominence of the human mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is clearly reflected by the causal link between MMR gene mutations and the occurrence of Lynch syndrome (or HNPCC). The MMR family of proteins also carries out a plethora of diverse cellular functions beyond its primary role in MMR and homologous recombination. In fact, members of the MMR family of proteins are being increasingly recognized as critical mediators between DNA damage repair and cell survival. Thus, a better functional understanding of MMR proteins will undoubtedly aid the development of strategies to effectively enhance apoptotic signaling in response to DNA damage induced by anti-cancer therapeutics. Among the five known human MutS homologs, hMSH4 and hMSH5 form a unique heterocomplex. However, the expression profiles of the two genes are not correlated in a number of cell types, suggesting that they may function independently as well. Consistent with this, these two proteins are promiscuous and thought to play distinct roles through interacting with different binding partners. Here, we describe the gene and protein structures of eukaryotic MSH4 and MSH5 with a particular emphasis on their human homologues, and we discuss recent findings of the roles of these two genes in DNA damage response and repair. Finally, we delineate the potential links of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci of these two genes with several human diseases.
DNA damage response; Double-strand break (DSB); DNA mismatch repair (MMR); Homologous recombination (HR); MSH4; MSH5; MutS homologues; Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).
Until recently, understanding the regulatory behavior of cells has been pursued through independent analysis of the transcriptome or the proteome. Based on the central dogma, it was generally assumed that there exist a direct correspondence between mRNA transcripts and generated protein expressions. However, recent studies have shown that the correlation between mRNA and Protein expressions can be low due to various factors such as different half lives and post transcription machinery. Thus, a joint analysis of the transcriptomic and proteomic data can provide useful insights that may not be deciphered from individual analysis of mRNA or protein expressions. This article reviews the existing major approaches for joint analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data. We categorize the different approaches into eight main categories based on the initial algorithm and final analysis goal. We further present analogies with other domains and discuss the existing research problems in this area.
Integrated omics; Data fusion approaches; Transcriptome; Proteome; Joint modeling; Combined analysis review.