Although some authors suggest to use Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) sensors to evaluate brain functioning, the link between emissions of LWIR and mental effort is not established. The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether frontal LWIR emissions vary during execution of neuropsychological tasks known to differentially activate the pre-frontal cortex (simple color presentations, induction of the Stroop effect, and a gambling task with real money). Surprisingly, LWIR emissions as measured with bilateral frontal sensors in 47 participants significantly differed between tasks, in the supposed direction (Color
Long-wave; passive; infrared; brain imaging.
To characterize the progression of injured tissue resulting from a permanent focal cerebral ischemia after the acute phase, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) monitoring was performed on adult male C57BL/6J mice in the subacute stages, and correlated to histological analyses.
Material and methods:
Lesions were induced by electrocoagulation of the middle cerebral artery. Serial MRI measurements and weighted-images (T2, T1, T2* and Diffusion Tensor Imaging) were performed on a 9.4T scanner. Histological data (Cresyl-Violet staining and laminin-, Iba1- and GFAP-immunostainings) were obtained 1 and 2 weeks after the stroke.
Two days after stroke, tissues assumed to correspond to the infarct core, were detected as a hyperintensity signal area in T2-weighted images. One week later, low-intensity signal areas appeared. Longitudinal MRI study showed that these areas remained present over the following week, and was mainly linked to a drop of the T2 relaxation time value in the corresponding tissues. Correlation with histological data and immuno-histochemistry showed that these areas corresponded to microglial cells.
The present data provide, for the first time detailed MRI parameters of microglial cells dynamics, allowing its non-invasive monitoring during the chronic stages of a stroke. This could be particularly interesting in regards to emerging anti-inflammatory stroke therapies.
Mouse; permanent cerebral ischemia; stroke; microglia; NMR Imaging.
We studied the imaginary coherence (IC) of gamma frequency oscillations between brain regions of male schizophrenia patients during an auditory oddball task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG).
Subjects were 10 right-handed male schizophrenia patients, evaluated by the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS), and 10 healthy controls. Functional connectivity during the auditory oddball task was reconstructed in low (30-50 Hz) and high (50-100 Hz) gamma bands, and represented by imaginary coherence (IC) based on significant oscillatory power changes. We calculated correlations between PANSS scores and IC.
In the high gamma band, IC between left occipital and right prefrontal lobe areas during the time window 750-1000 ms from stimulus onset showed negative correlations with total negative scores, total positive scores, the sum of positive and negative scores in PANSS, conceptual disorganization, and social avoidance scores. In the low gamma band, IC between the same areas from 250-500 ms also showed a negative correlation with the conceptual disorganization score. In the same time window, IC between left occipital and right frontoparietal lobe areas in the low gamma band showed a positive correlation with hallucinatory behavior; IC between right temporal pole and left prefrontal lobe areas showed a positive correlation with delusion scores, although these ICs were decreased relative to controls.
Functional disconnection of high and low gamma bands in auditory oddball task may play an important role in the auditory processing in schizophrenia patients.
Magnetoencephalography; gamma band; functional connectivity; PANSS; schizophrenia; P300.
Previous in vivo experimental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations of the mammalian inner ear at 4.7 Tesla have indicated that intravenously injected gadolinium (Gd) penetrates the perilymphatic labyrinth, but not the endolymphatic membranous labyrinth. In the present study, high field MRI at 9.4T was used to visualize the in vivo mouse vestibulo-cochlea system, and to determine whether the endolymphatic system is permeable to a Gd complex.
A 9.4 T Varian magnet equipped with a 12 cm inner diameter gradient system with maximum gradient strength of 600 mT/m, a millipede coil (Varian design) and a Gd contrast agent were used for image acquisition in the normal C57 BL-6 mouse.
High-resolution 2D and 3D images of the mouse cochlea were acquired within 80 minutes following intravenous injection of Gd. Gd initially permeated the perilymphatic scala tympani and scala vestibuli, and permitted visualization of both cochlear turns from base to apex. The superior, inferior and lateral semicircular canals were subsequently visualized in 3 planes. The membranous endolymphatic labyrinth was impermeable to intravenously injected Gd, and thus showed no apparent uptake of Gd at 9.4T.
The 9.4T field strength MRI permitted acquisition of high resolution images of anatomical and physiological features of the normal, wild type mouse perilymphatic inner ear in vivo, and provided further evidence that the endolymphatic system is impermeable to intravenously injected Gd.
Magnetic resonance imaging; cochlea; vestibular; semicircular canals; Tesla.
In this work we combine machine learning methods and graph theoretical analysis to investigate gender associated differences in resting state brain network connectivity. The set of all correlations computed from the fMRI resting state data is used as input features for classification. Two ensemble learning methods are used to perform the detection of the set of discriminative edges between groups (males vs. females) of brain networks: 1) Random Forest and 2) an ensemble method based on least angle shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regressors. Permutation testing is used not only to assess significance of classification accuracy but also to evaluate significance of feature selection. Finally, these methods are applied to data downloaded from the Connectome Project website. Our results suggest that gender differences in brain function may be related to sexually dimorphic regional connectivity between specific critical nodes via gender-discriminative edges.
Resting state fMRI; Machine learning; Graph theory; Regularization; GLMNET; Random forest.
Certain Acute Clinical presentations are highly suggestive of stroke caused by specific mechanisms. One example of this would be the sudden onset of aphasia without hemiparesis often reflecting cerebral embolism, frequently from a cardiac source. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) describes a usually reversible neurologic syndrome with a variety of presenting symptoms from headache, altered mental status, seizures, vomiting, diminished
spontaneity and speech, abnormalities of visual perception and visual loss. We report a patient presenting with elevated blood pressure, CT characteristics of PRES but a highly circumscribed neurologic syndrome (Wernicke's Aphasia without hemiparesis) suggestive of a cardioembolic stroke affecting the left MCA territory. That is, PRES mimicked a focal stroke syndrome. The importance of recognizing this possibility is that his deficits resolved with blood pressure control, while
other treatments, such as intensifying his anticoagulation would have been inappropriate. In addition, allowing his blood pressure to remain elevated as is often done in the setting of an acute stroke might have perpetuated the underlying pathophysiology of PRES leading to a worse clinical outcome. For this reason PRES needs to be recognized quickly and treated appropriately.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; Stroke; Embolism; Wernicke's aphasia.
We report the case of an 11 year old boy who presented with nausea, vomiting and ataxia. He was evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging demonstrated minimal enhancement and hemorrhage of a cerebellar mass. Cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is extremely rare in the cerebellum at any age but especially in children. The atypical findings of minimal enhancement, cerebellar location and hemorrhagic presentation combine to make the prospective diagnosis of GBM a difficult one. This rare combination of findings has not been previously reported.
Glioblastoma multiforme; pediatric; cerebellum.
Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but the issue of causality remains unresolved. Definitive evidence would include the visualization of brain lesions resulting from hypovitaminosis D. The aim of the present article is to determine, through a literature review, the location and nature of possible brain disorders in hypovitaminosis D. We found limited brain-imaging data, which reported ischemic infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in hypovitaminosis D, though did not provide their specific location or report any focal atrophy. Based on the finding of executive dysfunctions (i.e., mental shifting and information updating impairments) in the presence of hypovitaminosis D, we suggest that hypovitaminosis D is associated with a dysfunction of the frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, particularly the dorsolateral circuit. Further imaging studies are required to corroborate this assumption and to determine whether hypovitaminosis D results in degenerative and / or vascular lesions.
Vitamin D; brain mapping; cognition; older adults.
The polymorphism of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene exon III has been linked to various neuro-psychiatric conditions with disinhibition/impulsivity as one of the core features. This study examined the modulatory effects of long-allele variant of DRD4 VNTR on the regional neural activity as well as inter-regional neural interactions in a young female population. Blood sample and resting state eyes-closed EEG signals were collected in 233 healthy females, stratified into two groups by polymerase chain reaction: long-allele carriers (>4- repeat) and non-carriers (<=4-repeat/<=4-repeat). The values of mean power of 18 electrodes and mutual information of 38 channel pairs across theta, alpha, and beta frequencies were analyzed. Our connectivity analysis was based on information theory, which combined Morlet wavelet transform and mutual information calculation. Between-group differences of regional power and connectivity strength were quantified by independent t-test, while between-group differences in global trends were examined by non-parametric analyses. We noticed that DRD4 VNTR long-allele was associated with decreased global connectivity strength (from non-parametric analysis), especially over bi-frontal, biparietal and right fronto-parietal and right fronto-temporal connections (from independent t-tests). The between-group differences in regional power were not robust. Our findings fit with the networks of response inhibition, providing evidence bridging DRD4 long-allele and disinhibition/impulsivity in neuropsychiatric disorders. We suggest future DRD4 studies of imaging genetics incorporate connectivity analysis to unveil its impact on cerebral network.
Electroencephalography (EEG); mutual information; connectivity; power spectrum; DRD4; polymorphism.
We studied differences in the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical oscillation across brain regions of patients with schizophrenia and normal subjects during the auditory oddball task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG).
Ten right-handed male schizophrenia patients were studied. We used a newly developed adaptive spatial filtering algorithm optimized for robust source time-frequency reconstruction of MEG and EEG data, and obtained consecutive images in functional maps of event-related desynchronization (ERD) and synchronization (ERS) in theta, lower alpha (8–10 Hz), upper alpha (10–13 Hz), and beta bands.
Beta ERD power at 750–1000 ms in patients was significantly increased in large right upper temporal and parietal regions and small upper portions of bilateral dorsal frontal and dorsal-medial parietal regions. Theta ERS power in schizophrenic patients during the oddball task was significantly increased in the left temporal pole at 250–500 ms, and was significantly increased in dorsal, medial frontal, and anterior portions of the anterior cingulate cortex in both hemispheres, and the left portion of lateral temporal regions at 500–750 ms, compared to the control group (family-wise error correction p<0.05). Lower alpha ERS power was significantly decreased in the right occipital region at 500–750 ms and in the right midline parietal and bilateral occipital regions at 750–1000 ms. Upper alpha ERS power was significantly decreased in right midline parietal and left occipital regions at 750–1000 ms.
ERD/ERS changes were noted in the left temporal pole and midline frontal and anterior cingulate cortex in theta ERS, occipital lobe in alpha ERS, and right temporal-frontal-parietal, midline frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex in beta ERD. These findings may reflect disturbances in interaction among active large neuronal groups and their communication with each other that may be related to abnormal cognitive and psychopathological function.
Study of ERD and ERS by time-frequency analyses using MEG is useful to clarify data processing dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Magnetoencephalography; event-related desynchronization; event-related synchronization; schizophrenia; oddball task; P300.
Quantifiable modification of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA-qm), which is one of the non-adaptive beamformer spatial filtering techniques, has been applied to source localization and quantification of evoked field or oscillatory changes in magnetoencephalography (MEG). Here, we extended this technique to induced oscillatory brain activity changes, so-called event-related desynchronization or event-related synchronization. For localizing of significantly activated brain areas at the whole-brain level, permutation tests and multiple comparison corrections with false discovery rate were applied. Induced β- and γ-band oscillatory changes by right hand clenching task were demonstrated as an example of simple induced brain activity.
Magnetoencephalography; sLORETA-qm; quantitative analysis; ERD/ERS; oscillatory change; induced activity.
The default mode network (DMN) has been consistently activated across a wide variety of self-related tasks, leading to a proposal of the DMN’s role in self-related processing. Indeed, there is limited fMRI evidence that the functional connectivity within the DMN may underlie a phenomenon referred to as self-awareness. At the same time, none of the known studies have explicitly investigated neuronal functional interactions among brain areas that comprise the DMN as a function of self-consciousness loss. To fill this gap, EEG operational synchrony analysis [1, 2] was performed in patients with severe brain injuries in vegetative and minimally conscious states to study the strength of DMN operational synchrony as a function of self-consciousness expression. We demonstrated that the strength of DMN EEG operational synchrony was smallest or even absent in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and highest in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. At the same time the process of ecoupling of operations performed by neuronal assemblies that comprise the DMN was highest in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and minimal in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. The DMN’s frontal EEG operational module had the strongest decrease in operational synchrony strength as a function of selfconsciousness loss, when compared with the DMN’s posterior modules. Based on these results it is suggested that the strength of DMN functional connectivity could mediate the strength of self-consciousness expression. The observed alterations similarly occurred across EEG alpha, beta1 and beta2 frequency oscillations. Presented results suggest that the EEG operational synchrony within DMN may provide an objective and accurate measure for the assessment of signs of self-(un)consciousness in these challenging patient populations. This method therefore, may complement the current diagnostic procedures for patients with severe brain injuries and, hence, the planning of a rational rehabilitation intervention.
EEG alpha and beta rhythms; brain operations; metastability; neurophysiological pattern; resting state; default mode; DMN; synchronization; functional connectivity; (un)consciousness of self.
While the neural network encompassing the processing of the mother tongue (L1) is well defined and has revealed the existence of a bilateral ventral pathway and a left dorsal pathway in which 3 loops have been defined, the question of the processing of a second language (L2) is still a matter of debate. Among variables accounting for the discrepancies in results, the degree of L2 proficiency appears to be one of the main factors. The present study aimed at assessing both pathways in L2, making it possible to determine the degree of mastery of the different speech components (prosody, phonology, semantics and syntax) that are intrinsically embedded within connected speech and that vary according to the degree of proficiency using high degrees of prosodic information. Two groups of high and moderate proficiency in L2 performed an fMRI comprehension task in L1 and L2. The modifications in brain activity observed within the dorsal and the ventral pathways according to L2 proficiency suggest that different processes of L2 are supported by differences in the integrated activity within distributed networks that included the left STSp, the left Spt and the left pars triangularis.
Bilingualism; connected speech perception; degree of proficiency; ventral and dorsal pathways; fMRI.
1 Hz repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is considered to have an inhibitory effect in
healthy people because it suppresses the excitability of the motor or visual cortex that is expressed as an increase in
the motor or the phosphene threshold (PT), respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms and the brain structures
involved in the action of rTMS are still unknown. In this study we used two sessions of simultaneous TMS-functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), one before and one after, 15 minutes of 1Hz rTMS to map changes in
brain function associated with the reduction in cortical excitability of the primary visual cortex induced by 1 Hz
rTMS, when TMS was applied on the occipital area of healthy volunteers. Two groups were evaluated, one group
composed of people that can see phosphenes, and another of those lacking this perception. The inhibitory effect, induced
by the 1 Hz rTMS, was observed through the increase of the PT, in the first group, but did not lead to a global
reduction in brain activation, instead, showed change in the activation pattern before and after rTMS. Conversely, for
the second group, changes in brain activation were observed just in few brain areas, suggesting that the effect of 1 Hz
rTMS might not be inhibitory for everyone and that the concept of inhibitory/excitatory effect of rTMS may need to be
TMS-functional magnetic resonance imaging; phosphene threshold.
We report the case of a 24 year old male who had a retained bullet within his thoracic spine from a gunshot
wound resulting in paraplegia. After 7 months he began experiencing painful dysesthesias at his sensory level. Repeat
imaging demonstrated migration of the bullet as well as the development of intramedullary dystrophic calcification
associated with the bullet. This case demonstrates not only the ability for retained bullets to migrate within the spinal
canal but also demonstrates they can lead to remote symptoms due to the development of dystrophic calcification.
Bullet; dystrophic calcification; spinal cord trauma.
Inner speech involvement in self-reflection was examined by reviewing 130 studies assessing brain activation during self-referential processing in key self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, and miscellaneous (e.g., prospection, judgments). The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown to be reliably recruited during inner speech production. The percentage of studies reporting LIFG activity for each self-dimension was calculated. Fifty five percent of all studies reviewed indicated LIFG (and presumably inner speech) activity during self-reflection tasks; on average LIFG activation is observed 16% of the time during completion of non-self tasks (e.g., attention, perception). The highest LIFG activation rate was observed during retrieval of autobiographical information. The LIFG was significantly more recruited during conceptual tasks (e.g., prospection, traits) than during perceptual tasks (agency and self-recognition). This constitutes additional evidence supporting the idea of a participation of inner speech in self-related thinking.
Self-awareness; self-reflection; self-referential activity; inner speech; self-talk; verbal labeling; left inferior frontal gyrus; language; conceptual self-domains; perceptual self-domains; brain-imaging.
We report the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with recurrent sinus infections and frequent nasal
irrigation. He was found at nasal endoscopy to have multiple outgrowths along his ethmoid and maxillary sinuses.
Computed tomography (CT) showed multiple bony exostoses along these sinuses. We report the imaging findings of
exostoses associated with sinonasal irrigation.
Exostoses; paranasal sinuses.
Targeting in deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies heavily on the ability to accurately localize particular anatomic brain structures. Direct targeting of subcortical structures has been limited by the ability to visualize relevant DBS targets.
Methods and Results:
In this work, we describe the development and implementation, of a methodology utilized to create a three dimensional deformable atlas for DBS surgery. This atlas was designed to correspond to the print version of the Schaltenbrand-Bailey atlas structural contours. We employed a smoothing technique to reduce artifacts inherent in the print version.
We present the methodology used to create a three dimensional patient specific DBS atlas which may in the future be tested for clinical utility.
Deep brain stimulation; Targeting; deep brain stimulation; atlas.
Intraosseous lipoma is a rare benign tumor, mostly occurring in lower limb especially in os calcis and the metaphyses of long bones. Intraosseous lipoma of the skull is even rarer, with 12 cases having been reported to involve the sphenoid bone in the literature. We present the third reported case of sphenoclival intraosseous lipoma in a 43-year-old man with headache, hyperprolactinemia and visual disturbance. Performed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed pituitary macroadenoma as well as a mildly expansile lesion with high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences within the left greater wing of the sphenoid and the clivus. The patient refused to undergo surgical removal of pituitary macroadenoma and medical treatment was initiated instead; thereafter, follow up Computed Tomography (CT) and MRI scans revealed regression of the pituitary macroadenoma whereas the sphenoclival lesion was depicted as a welldefined fat-containing intraosseous lesion which showed no perceptible growth, 17 months later.
Intraosseous lipoma; Sphenoclival; Magnetic resonance imaging; Computed tomography.
Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process
both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of
structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the
developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other
hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions
show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at
similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple,
affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future
Development; Children; Gray matter; White matter; Voxel-based morphometry; Diffusion tensor imaging; Magnetic resonance imaging; Arterial spin labeling.
Pain modulation is an integral function of the nervous system. It is needed to adapt to chronic stimuli. To gain insights into pain suppression mechanisms, two studies concerning the suppression of the feeling of pain with different stimulation modalities (heat vs. electrical stimuli) but using the same stimulation paradigms were compared: 15 subjects each had been stimulated on both hands under the instruction to suppress the feeling of pain.
Anterior insula and DLPFC activation was seen in both single modality studies and seems to be a common feature of pain suppression, as it is absent in the interaction analyses presented here.
During the task to suppress the feeling of pain, there were no consistent activations stronger under thermostimulation. But during electrostimulation, there was significantly stronger activation than during thermal stimulation in the caudate nucleus bilaterally and in the contralateral posterior insula. This may be attributed to the higher sensory-discriminative content and more demand on subjective rating and suppression of the painful electrical stimulus, compared to thermostimulation. The caudate nucleus seems to play an important role not only in the motor system but also in the modulation of the pain experience.
Functional MRI; pain; caudate; insula; electrical; thermal.
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that brain regions activated during retrieval of autobiographical memory (ABM) overlap with the default mode network (DMN), which shows greater activation during rest than cognitively demanding tasks and is considered to be involved in self-referential processing. However, detailed overlap and segregation between ABM and DMN remain unclear. This fMRI study focuses first on revealing components of the DMN which are related to ABM and those which are unrelated to ABM, and second on extracting the neural bases which are specifically devoted to ABM. Brain activities relative to rest during three tasks matched in task difficulty assessed by reaction time were investigated by fMRI; category cued recall from ABM, category cued recall from semantic memory, and number counting task. We delineated the overlap between the regions that showed less activation during semantic memory and number counting relative to rest, which correspond to the DMN, and the areas that showed greater or less activation during ABM relative to rest. ABM-specific activation was defined as the overlap between the contrast of ABM versus rest and the contrast of ABM versus semantic memory. The fMRI results showed that greater activation as well as less activation during ABM relative to rest overlapped considerably with the DMN, indicating that the DMN is segregated to the regions which are functionally related to ABM and the regions which are unrelated to ABM. ABM-specific activation was observed in the left-lateralized brain regions and most of them fell within the DMN.
Autobiographical memory; semantic memory; default mode network; functional MRI.
We describe a case of schwannomatosis presenting as radicular pain and numbness in multiple radicular nerve distributions. There were multiple peripheral nerve tumors detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the left vestibular nerve, cauda equina, right radial nerve, thoracic paraspinal nerve, and brachial plexi. Several resected tumors have features of schwannomas, including hypercellular Antoni A areas, hypocellular Antoni B areas, Verocay bodies, and hyalinized blood vessels. The specimens are also positive for immunohistochemical staining for INI1 with diffuse nuclear staining. The findings are consistent with sporadic form of schwannomatosis. This case highlights the importance of using MRI and INI1 immunohistochemistry to differentiate familial schwannomatosis, neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)-associated schwannomatosis, and sporadic schwannomatosis.
Schwannomatosis; polyradiculopathies; INI1 immunohistochemistry.
The limbic system and especially the amygdala have been identified as key structures in emotion induction and regulation. Recently research has additionally focused on the influence of prefrontal areas on emotion processing in the limbic system and the amygdala. Results from fMRI studies indicate that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved not only in emotion induction but also in emotion regulation. However, studies using fNIRS only report prefrontal brain activation during emotion induction. So far it lacks the attempt to compare emotion induction and emotion regulation with regard to prefrontal activation measured with fNIRS, to exclude the possibility that the reported prefrontal brain activation in fNIRS studies are mainly caused by automatic emotion regulation processes. Therefore this work tried to distinguish emotion induction from regulation via fNIRS of the prefrontal cortex. 20 healthy women viewed neutral pictures as a baseline condition, fearful pictures as induction condition and reappraised fearful pictures as regulation condition in randomized order. As predicted, the view-fearful condition led to higher arousal ratings than the view-neutral condition with the reappraise-fearful condition in between. For the fNIRS results the induction condition showed an activation of the bilateral PFC compared to the baseline condition (viewing neutral). The regulation condition showed an activation only of the left PFC compared to the baseline condition, although the direct comparison between induction and regulation condition revealed no significant difference in brain activation. Therefore our study underscores the results of previous fNIRS studies showing prefrontal brain activation during emotion induction and rejects the hypothesis that this prefrontal brain activation might only be a result of automatic emotion regulation processes.
fNIRS; Emotional processing; emotional regulation.
The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) haemodynamic response function (HDR) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a delayed and indirect marker of brain activity. In this single case study a small BOLD response synchronised with the stimulus paradigm is found globally, i.e. in all areas outside those of expected activation in a single subject study. The nature of the global response has similar shape properties to the archetypal BOLD HDR, with an early positive signal and a late negative response typical of the negative overshoot. Fitting Poisson curves to these responses showed that voxels were potentially split into two sets: one with dominantly positive signal and the other predominantly negative. A description, quantification and mapping of the global BOLD response is provided along with a 2 × 2 classification table test to demonstrate existence with very high statistical confidence. Potential explanations of the global response are proposed in terms of 1) global HDR balancing; 2) resting state network modulation; and 3) biological systems synchronised with the stimulus cycle. Whilst these widespread and low-level patterns seem unlikely to provide additional information for determining activation in functional neuroimaging studies as conceived in the last 15 years, knowledge of their properties may assist more comprehensive accounts of brain connectivity in the future.
Blood oxygenation level dependency; functional MRI; global haemodynamic effect; haemodynamic parameters; haemodynamic response function; least squares estimation; negative-responding voxels; parameter estimation; Poisson curve; variable haemodynamic delay.