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1.  Characterisation of Cancer Support and Rehabilitation Programmes: A Swedish Multiple Case Study 
Cancer support and rehabilitation are suggested to be an integral part of cancer care strategies. This study focuses on comparativeness of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to analyse available cancer support and rehabilitation programmes in Sweden presented as complementary to cancer rehabilitation at cancer clinics. A multiple case study design was chosen in order to inquire the small number of existing supportive and rehabilitative cancer programmes. Based on the structures, processes and outcomes of the nine included programmes, three types of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes were identified: multimodal rehabilitation, comprehensive cancer support and art therapy. Cancer support and rehabilitation programmes offer a variety of activities and therapies which are highly valuable and relevant for people with cancer. The typology of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes and comparability between programmes need further inquiry.
doi:10.2174/1874434601408010001
PMCID: PMC3905349  PMID: 24478809
Cancer; cancer programme; case study; rehabilitation; support.
2.  The Recovery Process of Postpartum Psychosis from Both the Woman’s and Next of Kin’s Perspective - An Interview Study in Sweden 
Objectives:
The most serious type of psychiatric disorder in connection with childbirth is postpartum psychosis. With this disorder occasionally follows emotional rejection of the infant which has serious long term effect on mother and child. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the recovery process of postpartum psychosis from the women, from the partners of the women, and their next of kin.
Methods:
Interviews were conducted with seven women, who had previously suffered postpartum psychosis, and six of their next of kin. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis.
Results:
Two categories emerged: the recovery process and the circumstances of the support provided. The women and their next of kin spoke about the turning point in the illness, their own personal as well as their social recovery, the importance of support not only from relatives and friends, but also from professionals, and the use of medication. However, the key to recovery was an internal decision by the women themselves.
Conclusion:
Conclusion is that the recovery from this severe mental disorder requires hard work and the key to their recovery was the decision made by the women. This disorder causes a mental darkness to descend, but at the start of the recovery a dim light shines in the dark tunnel. The nursing staff must be made aware that good sleep is important for the psychiatric treatment and that recovery may take a long time. The nurse needs to provide hope and encouragement, as well as help the woman to recognise the strength that exists within her. To reduce the risk of a recurrence of the disorder, the staff needs to offer follow up visits.
doi:10.2174/1874434601408010008
PMCID: PMC3960751  PMID: 24660040
Content analysis; postpartum psychosis; recovery; relatives; women.
3.  The Decision-Making and Communication Capacities of Older Adults with Dementia: A Population-Based Study 
The Open Nursing Journal  2014;8:17-24.
The present study assessed the decision-making and communication capacities of older adults with dementia who required assistance and care and measured the subsequent changes in these capacities. Of 845 older adults who received long-term care between April 2003 and December 2004, about half of them without dementia were excluded and the remaining 448 were finally included in the analyses. These individuals were completed follow-up for assessment for two years. The data were obtained from the Long-Term Care Insurance Certification Committee for Eligibility in Gujo City. A total of 73.7% of people with dementia were somewhat capable of making decisions (32.4% were reported as being “always capable”; 41.3% were reported as being “sometimes capable”). A total of 93.7% were somewhat capable of communicating with others (78.3% were reported as being “always capable”; 15.4% were reported as being “sometimes capable”). The results indicate that older adults with dementia can participate in their own care decisions, even if they require assistance and support in their daily lives. The present study shows, however, that baseline decision-making capacity declined to about half what they were after one year and to about one-third of what they were after two years, suggesting that earlier efforts are needed to ensure that the preferences of individuals with dementia are reflected in their care.
doi:10.2174/1874434620140512001
PMCID: PMC4083186
Change; communication capacity; decision-making; dementia; follow-up; older adults.
4.  Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: Problems, Needs and Support in the Initial Stage and in Subsequent Stages of Dementia: A Questionnaire Survey 
Objective:
The ageing of the population is expected to lead to an increase in the prevalence of dementia. Providing support to informal caregivers is essential to promote their wellbeing and prevent serious caregiver burden. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differences occur between the initial and later stages of dementia in terms of (1) problems experienced by informal caregivers in the provision of care, (2) use of professional support by persons with dementia, (3) informal caregivers’ needs for additional professional support.
Methods:
The data were collected within the framework of the Dutch National Dementia Program, which was instigated in 2005 by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport to improve integrated care for people with dementia and their informal caregivers. This paper is based on data of a questionnaire survey among 1494 informal caregivers, collected between September 2007 and December 2008.
Results:
Most informal caregivers (98-99%) experienced problems in caring for a person with dementia, irrespective of the stage of the illness process. In later stages, informal caregivers more often experienced problems in their social networks. Most dementia patients (87-94%) received ambulatory professional support.
Conclusions:
Since informal caregivers indicate a need for additional professional support in all stages of dementia, professional support should be provided during the entire illness process. Informal caregivers need advice on how to cope with symptoms of dementia, how to deal with behavior problems and receive more information about (early and advanced stages of) dementia and the supply of support.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010006
PMCID: PMC3551235  PMID: 23346266
Dementia; informal caregivers; illness stages; professional support; transition; survey.
5.  Initial Evidence of Religious Practice and Belief in Depressed African American Cancer Patients 
Objective:
This study examined spiritual coping (beliefs and practices) of depressed African American cancer patients through a comparison with depressed White cancer patients and non-depressed African American cancer patients.
Methods:
Using mixed methods, 74 breast (n=41) and prostate (n=33) cancer survivors including 34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans and 17 depressed Whites were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis identified themes that were coded. The codes were entered into SPSS software. The Fisher’s exact test was performed to examine group differences in self-reported spiritual coping.
Results:
Significantly more depressed African Americans questioned God when learning of a cancer diagnosis than the non-depressed African Americans (p=.03), but they did not differ from the depressed Whites in this regard (p=.70). Significantly more depressed African Americans reported having faith in God (p=.04), reading the bible (p=.02), and conversing with God (p=.01) than did the depressed Whites. They also reported praying alone (p=.01) more frequently than the depressed Whites who, on the other hand, reported praying with others (non-family members) together for one’s own health more frequently (p=.04).
Conclusions:
Depression is associated with a deepening need for spirituality and it affects religious beliefs and practices more in African American than White cancer patients. Given its important role in the lives of African American cancer patients, spirituality may be utilized as a reasonable, culturally-based approach to better assess and treat depression in these patients.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010001
PMCID: PMC3551236  PMID: 23346265
African American; cancer; depression; race; pray; religion; spirituality.
6.  How Death Anxiety Impacts Nurses’ Caring for Patients at the End of Life: A Review of Literature 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:14-21.
Nurses are frequently exposed to dying patients and death in the course of their work. This experience makes individuals conscious of their own mortality, often giving rise to anxiety and unease. Nurses who have a strong anxiety about death may be less comfortable providing nursing care for patients at the end of their life. This paper explores the literature on death anxiety and nurses’ attitudes to determine whether fear of death impacts on nurses’ caring for dying patients. Fifteen quantitative studies published between 1990 and 2012 exploring nurses’ own attitudes towards death were critically reviewed. Three key themes identified were: i). nurses’ level of death anxiety; ii). death anxiety and attitudes towards caring for the dying, and iii). death education was necessary for such emotional work. Based on quantitative surveys using valid instruments, results suggested that the level of death anxiety of nurses working in hospitals in general, oncology, renal, hospice care or in community services was not high. Some studies showed an inverse association between nurses’ attitude towards death and their attitude towards caring for dying patients. Younger nurses consistently reported stronger fear of death and more negative attitudes towards end-of-life patient care. Nurses need to be aware of their own beliefs. Studies from several countries showed that a worksite death education program could reduce death anxiety. This offers potential for improving nurses’ caring for patients at the end of their life.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010014
PMCID: PMC3565229  PMID: 23400515
Attitudes; death anxiety; end of life care; spirituality; thanatophobia.
7.  Use of Online Machine Translation for Nursing Literature: A Questionnaire-Based Survey 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:22-28.
Background:
The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation (MT) offers a possible solution to this problem.
Aim:
To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier.
Method:
In total, 250 randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier. The items were rated on Likert scales, and t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, and Spearman’s correlation were used for analyses.
Results:
Of the participants, 73.8% had used online MT. More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT.
Conclusion:
Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010022
PMCID: PMC3580755  PMID: 23459140
Japanese nurses; language barrier; nursing literature; online machine translation; usability; questionnaire.
8.  Evaluation of Staff’s Job Satisfaction in the Spinal Cord Unit in Italy 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:49-56.
In July 2007 a Spinal Cord Unit was set up in Turin (Italy) within the newly integrated structure of the Orthopaedic Traumatologic Centre, warranting a multidisciplinary and professional approach according to International Guidelines. This approach will be possible through experimentation of a personalized care model. To analyze job satisfaction of health care professionals operating within the Spinal Cord Unit, preliminary to organizational change. Data collection was carried out by using questionnaires, interviews, shadowing. Results from quantitative analysis on the self-filled questionnaires were integrated with results from qualitative analysis. All the health care professionals operating in the field were involved. Positive aspects were the perception of carrying out a useful job, the feeling of personal fulfilment and the wish to engage new energies and resources. Problematic aspects included role conflict among staff categories and communication with managers. The positive aspects can be exploited to create professional practices facilitating role and expertise integration, information spreading and staff identification within the organization rather than team work. Data of job satisfaction and self efficacy of health care workers can be considered basic requirement before implementing an organizational change. The main challenges is multiprofessional collaboration.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010049
PMCID: PMC3636486  PMID: 23750186
Job satisfaction; spinal cord injuries; teamwork; nursing; rehabilitation; interprofessional relations.
9.  Nurse-Driven Training Courses: Impact on Implementation of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:35-40.
Background:
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) predicts cardiovascular risk and identifies white-coat and masked hypertension, efficacy of treatment and the circadian cycle of hypertensive patients.
Objective:
To analyze the effectiveness of ABPM implementation thoughtout a nurse-driven training program.
Materials and Methodology:
Twenty eight professionals were involved in the study carried out in the primary care center of the metropolitan area of Barcelona that serves 34,289 inhabitants. The ABPM implementation program was driven by two nurses that held four education sessions. After a 2-year follow-up period, we assessed the outcome of attendance at the educational sessions. First, we evaluated whether the program increased the number of orders of ABPM. Second, we used a survey to evaluate to what extent the input of our educational sessions was understood by attendants. Third, we analyzed the effect ABPM results had on the treatment of patients with a bad control of their hypertension.
Results:
After the training sessions we found a 6-fold increase in the number of patients undergoing ABPM. We analyzed 204 hypertensive individuals: 41% dippers, 34% were non-dippers, 20% were risers and 5% were extremely dippers. According to our survey, 100% of attendants had a good practice regarding ABPM management. However only 27% of riser patients were studied with a second ABPM.
Conclusions:
Specific training processes are needed for implementation of ABPM and an even more concentrated effort should be focused on training in the correct interpretation of ABPM results.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010035
PMCID: PMC3636488  PMID: 23750185
Ambulatory; blood pressure; cardiovascular morbidity; educational program; essential hypertension; primary care.
10.  Kangaroo Care in a Neonatal Context: Parents’ Experiences of Information and Communication of Nurse-Parents 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:41-48.
Objective:
Kangaroo Care (KC) is an evidence-based nursing practice with many benefits for infants and parents. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experience of information and communication mediated by staff nurses before and during KC at neonatal wards.
Methodology and Participants:
A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was performed. The sample consisted of 20 parents.
Results:
The results show that the information and communication were experienced as both optimal and suboptimal including following categories: initially conflicting emotions in relation to KC, participation and confidence in KC is evolving, strengthening preparation and context is decisive as well as parental sense and caution. The overall theme was that good preparation will contribute to a positive experience of KC.
Conclusion:
The conclusion is that most of the parents had positive experiences of KC. The information and communication from the staff nurses encouraged and motivated the parents to practice KC, in a sense that it was a natural way to get to know the infant, when the staff nurses were well versed in the method and coherent and supportive. Conflicting emotions emerged when staff nurses practised KC as a routine without deeper knowledge and skills of the method and its advantages as well as without sensitivity to parents’ vulnerable situation.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010041
PMCID: PMC3680980  PMID: 23802029
Communication; information; Kangaroo Care (KC); neonatal; parents experience.
11.  Can Participation in Documentation Influence Experiences of Involvement in Care Decision-Making? 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:66-72.
Introduction:
Patients have the right to influence the care they receive, but their wish to participate in care decision-making is unclear.
Aim:
This study investigates whether participation in nursing documentation influences patient participation in care decision-making, mastery, self-esteem, empowerment and depressive feelings among adult in-patients with chronic disease.
Materials and Methodology:
Adult patients (n=39) with chronic diseases were randomized. The intervention group participated in nursing documentation. Upon departure, patients filled in questionnaires about participation in care decision-making, mastery, self-esteem, empowerment and depressive feelings.
Results:
The majority of the patients preferred a collaborative or passive role regarding care decision-making. Lack of knowledge was one reason for non-participation. Having been diagnosed more than five years previously meant stronger empowerment.
Conclusion:
It is a challenge for nurses to find strategies to assess patients’ wishes regarding participation in care decision-making. Nurses must support patients’ knowledge of their disease and empowerment.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130516002
PMCID: PMC3680981  PMID: 23802031
Care decision-making; empowerment; knowledge; nursing documentation; participation; well-being.
12.  Beliefs About Health and Illness in Latin-American Migrants with Diabetes Living in Sweden 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:57-65.
The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: ‘freedom from disease or feeling of well-being’, and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual’s beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010057
PMCID: PMC3680992  PMID: 23802030
Beliefs about health/illness; Care-seeking behaviour; Diabetes mellitus; Latin Americans; migrants; self-care.
13.  The Differentiation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease from Asthma: A Review of Current Diagnostic and Treatment Recommendations 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:29-34.
Aim:
Global and regional data have shown that chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are increasing in incidence and prevalence, with detrimental consequences to healthcare resources and the quality of life of patients. A firm diagnosis of COPD or asthma is important because the natural history, treatment, and outcomes differ between the two respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with the requisite facts to understand and improve the diagnosis and treatment of affected individuals.
Methods:
Articles on the differential diagnosis, treatment, and management of COPD and asthma published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from PubMed. Evidence-based respiratory guidelines, World Health Organization disease-related data, and US prescribing information for different respiratory medications served as additional data sources.
Conclusions:
NPs, along with other primary care professionals, form the frontline in diagnosing, treating, and managing COPD and asthma. Differentiating COPD from asthma has prognostic as well as significant therapeutic implications. Since NPs play a key role in diagnosing and managing patients with COPD and asthma, those with a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic differences between the two diseases can help to lower the risks of exacerbations and hospitalizations, and improve the quality of life of these patients.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010029
PMCID: PMC3680994  PMID: 23802028
Asthma; bronchodilators; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; inhaled corticosteroids; United States.
14.  Encounters in Home-Based Nursing Care - Registered Nurses’ Experiences 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:73-81.
The encounter between registered nurses and persons in need of healthcare has been described as fundamental in nursing care. This encounter can take place face-to-face in physical meetings and through meetings via distance-spanning technology. A strong view expressed in the literature is that the face-to-face encounter is important and cannot entirely be replaced by remote encounters. The encounter has been studied in various healthcare contexts but there is a lack of studies with specific focus on the encounter in home-based nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the encounter in home-based nursing care based on registered nurses’ experiences. Individual interviews were performed with 24 nurses working in home-based nursing care. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and six themes were identified: Follows special rules, Needs some doing, Provides unique information and understanding, Facilitates by being known, Brings energy and relieves anxiety, and Can reach a spirit of community. The encounter includes dimensions of being private, being personal and being professional. A good encounter contains dimensions of being personal and being professional and that there is a good balance between these. This is an encounter between two human beings, where the nurse faces the person with herself and the profession steadily and securely in the back. Being personal and professional at the same time could encourage nurses to focus on doing and being during the encounter in home-based nursing care.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130419001
PMCID: PMC3706799  PMID: 23847697
Encounters face-to-face; remote encounters; home-based nursing care; nurses; thematic content analysis.
15.  Risk Assessment in Mental Health: Introducing a Traffic Light System in a Community Mental Health Team 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:82-88.
Aims:
To reports a study in which action research approach was utilised to introduce a new system of risk assessment, based on traffic lights, into a community mental health team.
Background:
Risk management is a serious concern in community mental healthcare where there is less direct, real-time supervision of clients than in other settings, and because inadequate management of risk can have fatal consequences when service users are a risk to themselves and/or others.
Design:
An action research design was undertaken, using three phases of Look, Think and Act.
Methods:
Data were collected between January and March of 2012. In the action research phases, qualitative data were collected in focus groups with the team’s multi-disciplinary mental health professionals. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, which involved agreement of themes and interpretations by two researchers. The Look, Think and Act phases guided the development of the project; team members worked collaboratively on the traffic light system, implemented and evaluated it.
Findings:
Themes were constructed that were discussed across the focus groups. These themes were: Ease of use; Risk identification and management; Legal status; Different teams’ views of risk; Post-implementation evaluation.
Conclusion:
Action research has been used to implement change in mental health risk management. Others internationally would benefit from considering a Traffic Light System, and in using action research to implement it.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130529004
PMCID: PMC3715756  PMID: 23878620
Risk management; risk assessment; community mental health; action research; traffic light system; qualitative research, focus groups.
16.  Caring Relationships in Home-Based Nursing Care - Registered Nurses’ Experiences 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:89-95.
The caring relationship between the nurse and the person in need of nursing care has been described as a key concept in nursing and could facilitate health and healing by involving the person’s genuine needs. The aim of this study was to explore registered nurses’ experiences of their relationships with persons in need of home-based nursing care. Individual interviews with nurses (n=13 registered nurses and 11 district nurses) working in home-based nursing care were performed. A thematic content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews and resulted in the main theme Good nursing care is built on trusting relationship and five sub-themes, Establishing the relationship in home-based nursing care, Conscious efforts maintains the relationship, Reciprocity is a requirement in the relationship, Working in different levels of relationships and Limitations and boundaries in the relationship. A trusting relationship between the nurse and the person in need of healthcare is a prerequisite for good home-based nursing care whether it is based on face-to-face encounters or remote encounters through distance-spanning technology. A trusting relationship could reduce the asymmetry of the caring relationship which could strengthen the person’s position. The relationship requires conscious efforts from the nurse and a choice of level of the relationship. The trusting relationship was reciprocal and meant that the nurse had to communicate something about themself as the person needs to know who is entering the home and who is communicating through distance-spanning technology.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130516003
PMCID: PMC3722540  PMID: 23894261
Relationship; home-based nursing care; registered nurses; experiences; distance-spanning technology; interviews; thematic content analysis.
17.  Nurses’ Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization in Mainland China: A Cross-Sectional Survey 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:96-106.
Despite the drive towards evidence-based practice, the extent to which research evidence is being implemented in nursing practice is unclear, particularly in developing countries. This study was to assess the levels of perceived barriers to and facilitators of research utilization in practice among Chinese nurses and inter-relationships between these barriers and facilitators and their socio-demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted in 2011 with 743 registered nurses randomly selected from four general hospitals in China. They completed the Barriers to Research Utilization and Facilitators of Research Utilization scales. Correlation tests were used to test the relationships between the nurses’ perceived barriers and facilitators, their demographic characteristics and research training and involvement. The Chinese nurses’ level of perceived barriers was moderate on average and lower than that in previous research. Among the 10 top-ranked items, six were from the subscale ‘Organizational Characteristics’. Their perceived barriers were correlated positively with age and post-registration experience and negatively with research training undertaken. Junior diplomatic nurses reported a significantly higher degree of barriers than those senior ones with postgraduate education. Higher and more diverse barriers to research utilization in practice are perceived by Chinese nurses than those in Western countries and they are associated with a few socio-demographic factors. Future research on these barriers/facilitators and their relationships with occupational and socio-cultural factors in Chinese and other Asian nurses is recommended.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010096
PMCID: PMC3731799  PMID: 23919099
Cross-sectional survey; perceived barriers; perceived facilitators; research utilization; registered nurses; Chinese.
18.  The Influence of Beliefs About Health and Illness on Foot Care in Ugandan Persons with Diabetic Foot Ulcers 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:123-132.
Diabetes mellitus is becoming pandemic, particularly affecting Sub-Saharan Africa, and the prevalence of complications is increasing. Diabetic foot disorders are a major source of morbidity and disability. Delay in the health care process due to patients’ beliefs may have deleterious consequences for limb and life in persons with diabetic foot ulcers. No previous studies of beliefs about health and illness in persons with diabetic foot ulcers living in Africa have been found. The aim of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness among Ugandans with diabetic foot ulcers that might affect self-care and care seeking behaviour. In an explorative study with consecutive sample semi-structured interviews were held with 14 Ugandan men and women, aged 40-79, with diabetic foot ulcer. Knowledge was limited about causes, management and prevention of diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcers were often detected as painful sores, perceived to heal or improve, and led to stress and social isolation due to smell and reduced mobility. Most lacked awareness of the importance of complete daily foot care and seldom practised self-care. Health was described as absence of disease and pain. Many feared future health and related it to contact with nurses in the professional sector from whom they sought information, blood tests and wound dressings and desired better organised diabetes clinics offering health education and more opening hours. Many have an underutilised potential for self-care and need education urgently, delivered in well-organised diabetes clinics working to raise awareness of the threat and prevent foot ulcers.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010123
PMCID: PMC3771228  PMID: 24039644
Africans; attitudes to health/illness; beliefs about health/illness; care-seeking behaviour; diabetes mellitus complications; foot ulcer; self-care.
19.  Beliefs About Health, Health Risks and Health Expectations from the Perspective of People with a Psychotic Disorder 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:114-122.
Aim:
To examine beliefs about health, health risks and health expectations from the perspective of people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder
Background:
People with psychotic disorders have a threefold higher risk of developing physical health problems than the general population, and prevention of these problems is warranted. Examining patients´ health beliefs could help deepen our understanding of how to plan successful health interventions with this group.
Methods:
Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted from November 2010 to October 2011 with 17 people with psychotic disorders. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis.
Results:
An overall positive picture of health was found despite the fact that physical health was found to be hard to verbalize and understand. Health was mainly associated with psychological wellbeing, while health risks were found to be related to uncertain bodily identity, troublesome thoughts and inner voices, and exclusion from society. Interest in learning, and visions and goals of health seemed to increase awareness of health risks and health expectations, while not worrying could be viewed as a hindrance for health expectations.
Conclusion:
There is a lack of expressed awareness of physical health risks, but such awareness is fundamental to performing life-style changes [14]. Nurses thus have an important task to help patients understand and verbalize potential physical health risks, and to find out what motivates them to adopt health behaviors.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010114
PMCID: PMC3771229  PMID: 24039643
Health beliefs; health expectations; health promotion; nursing; psychotic disorder; qualitative interviews.
20.  Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household’s Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study  
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:133-141.
We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household’s health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women’s personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010133
PMCID: PMC3771236  PMID: 24039645
Health promotion activities; Women heads of household; Women’s health; Grounded theory.
21.  Meanings Over Time of Working as a Nurse in Elderly Care 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:107-113.
Background:
Although registered nurses (RNs) play a central role in the care of older persons, their work in elderly care has historically been described as “low status” in nursing. This is especially problematic due to the global issue of RN turnover, but there is still little evidence of how to change this trend. Better understanding is needed of the reasons why RNs work in elderly care, as well as knowledge of whether these reasons have changed over time.
Aim:
The aim was to explore the meaning of working in elderly care, over time, from the perspective of RNs.
Method:
We interviewed thirteen RNs working in nursing homes, six of them in 2000 and the remaining seven in 2012, and analysed the resulting data using Interpretive Description.
Results:
The results show similarities and differences over time in the RNs’ reasoning about the meaning of their work with older persons, from a focus on obstacles to a view of opportunities.
Conclusion:
An RN’s intention to continue working in elderly care might be based on their beliefs; their view of older people, and their experiences of being able to influence the care. Managing this knowledge could be an essential factor in reversing the historical trend of RN work in elderly care being seen as low status, and the increasing turnover in such nurses. Our results could stimulate reflection on daily care and beliefs about caring for older persons.
doi:10.2174/1874434620130726005
PMCID: PMC3772566  PMID: 24044032
Beliefs; elderly care; registered nurse; nursing.
22.  Relationship Between Advanced Maternal Age, Hiesho (Sensitivity to Cold) and Abnormal Delivery in Japan 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:142-148.
Background:
In Japan, the proportion of women aged 35 and older giving birth has greatly increased in recent years, and maternal age is continuing to increase. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for abnormal delivery, as is hiesho (sensitivity to cold).
Research Question:
This study aimed to assess whether advanced maternal age and hiesho precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding.
Method:
The study design was a descriptive comparative study with a retrospective cohort group design. Subjects in this study were 2,810 Japanese women in hospital after childbirth. The research methods employed were a paper questionnaire and extraction of data from medical records.
Results:
Comparing the rate of occurrence of abnormal delivery among women aged 35 to 39 according to whether or not they had hiesho, results were premature delivery OR: 3.51 (95% CI: 1.66-7.43), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.90-1.74), weak labor pains OR: 2.94 (95% CI: 1.65-5.24), prolonged labor OR: 2.56 (95% CI: 1.23-5.26), and atonic bleeding, OR: 1.65 (95% CI: 0.14-2.40) when hiesho was present. Among women aged 40 and over, results were premature delivery OR: 5.09 (95% CI: 1.16-22.20), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.60 (95% CI: 0.73-3.46), weak labor pains OR: 7.02 (95% CI: 1.56-31.55), prolonged labor OR:7.19 (95% CI: 1.49-34.60) and atonic bleeding OR: 2.00 (95% CI: 0.64-6.23).
Conclusions:
Regardless of maternal age, the presence of hiesho is a risk factor that can precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Furthermore, hiesho coupled with advanced maternal age increases the incidence of premature delivery, weak labor pains and prolonged labor.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010142
PMCID: PMC3778526  PMID: 24062862
Maternal age; abnormal delivery; hiesho.
23.  Vocation, Friendship and Resilience: A Study Exploring Nursing Student and Staff Views on Retention and Attrition 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:149-156.
Introduction:
There is international concern about retention of student nurses on undergraduate programmes. United Kingdom Higher Education Institutions are monitored on their attrition statistics and can be penalised financially, so they have an incentive to help students remain on their programmes beyond their moral duty to ensure students receive the best possible educational experience.
Aims:
to understand students’ and staff concerns about programmes and placements as part of developing our retention strategies.
Design:
This study reports qualitative data on retention and attrition collected as part of an action research study.
Setting:
One University School of Nursing and Midwifery in the South West of England.
Participants:
Staff, current third year and ex-student nurses from the adult field.
Methods:
Data were collected in focus groups, both face-to face and virtual, and individual telephone interviews. These were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis.
Results:
Four themes emerged: Academic support, Placements and mentors, Stresses and the reality of nursing life, and Dreams for a better programme.
Conclusions:
The themes Academic support, Placements and mentors and Stresses and the reality of nursing life, resonate with international literature. Dreams for a better programme included smaller group learning. Vocation, friendship and resilience seem instrumental in retaining students, and Higher Education Institutions should work to facilitate these. ‘Vocation’ has been overlooked in the retention discussions, and working more actively to foster vocation and belongingness could be important.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010149
PMCID: PMC3807580  PMID: 24167537
Student nurse; retention; qualitative research; action research.
24.  Nurse Managers’ Strategies for the Integration of Newly Graduated Nurses into Clinical Units in Japan: A Qualitative Exploratory Study 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:157-164.
Aim:
The purpose of this study was to explore the strategies used by nurse managers in Japan to facilitate the integration of newly graduate nurses (NGNs) into their clinical units.
Background:
The integration of NGNs into clinical units is an important issue for both NGNs and nurse managers because the first year of practice plays a vital role in a NGN’s career.
Method:
Data were generated through semi-structured interviews with 9 nurse managers in 9 acute care hospitals. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative content analysis method.
Results:
Nurse managers used a total of 6 strategies: understanding the circumstances of NGNs, providing opportunities for experience and learning, supporting nurses who teach NGNs, facilitating self-learning, promoting awareness of being a nurse in the clinical unit, and strengthening the sense of comradeship in clinical units. Three of these strategies were particularly important for NGNs’ integration into clinical units: facilitating self-learning, promoting awareness of being a nurse in the clinical unit, and strengthening the sense of comradeship in clinical units. These strategies were described in this study.
Conclusions:
The strategies adopted by nurse managers should be aimed at all nurses, not just NGNs, in order to strengthen the sense of comradeship in clinical units. This approach would create a supportive environment for the integration of NGNs into clinical units. The strategies presented in this study can be utilized not just by nurse managers but all senior nurses in the unit. NGNs can use these strategies to help them understand what they need to do to become a full member of their unit.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010157
PMCID: PMC3822705  PMID: 24222811
Clinical units; integration; newly graduated nurses; nurse managers; qualitative descriptive study; strategies.
25.  Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) of Quality of Life After Prostatectomy - Results from a 5-Year Study 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:165-173.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Sweden, and treatment is negatively affecting the patients' quality of life. Even so, long term experiences are sparse and implications for nursing practice are little known. The aim of this study was to determine areas of functioning and factors impacting quality of life, QOL, during and five years after radical prostatectomy (RP) using a quality of life questionnaire and a specific module for prostate cancer. A longitudinal study was performed with consecutively included Swedish men from baseline and after RP treatment (n=222) from 2003 to 2011 to obtain their opinions on quality of life. Data was gathered through a mail out - mail in procedure at baseline, 3 months, 1-3 and 5 years after treatment with a response rate of 94.14% - 75.2%. One reminder was sent on each occasion. Identified areas with increased functioning after five years were emotional and social functioning. QOL ratings did not change over the years. Sexual activity and functioning decreased and hormonal treatment-related symptoms increased. Impact on QOL was found regarding emotional and social functioning, nausea/vomiting, pain and hormone-related symptoms. Increasing age, living with a partner and educational level had no significant impact on QOL. Implications for nursing are to initially focus on physical problems and at times for follow-up visits pay attention also to emotional and social aspects of life. To be able to make a difference in the patient’s life, nurses need to bridge the gap between in-hospital treatment and everyday life outside hospital.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010165
PMCID: PMC3893719  PMID: 24454589
Patient reported outcome measure PROM; quality of life; quantitative longitudinal study.

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