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1.  Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonates and its Risk Factors: A Seven Year Study in Northern Iran 
Purpose:
An important cause of avoidable childhood blindness is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in countries with high human development index and also in some emerging economies countries. To date, no research have been conducted on analyzing data of ROP prevalence in Babol, and this is the first research performed on ROP in this area.
Methods:
All VLBW babies who referred to Babol ophthalmology center over the seven years, from February 2007 to December 2013 were enrolled in this descriptive cross-sectional research. A team of researchers recorded patients’ information completely in check lists. A single experienced ophthalmologist performed ophthalmologic examination of patients.
Result:
The incidence of ROP of any stage in Babol was determined to be 306 (45%) of all babies enrolled in this study. In present study, key risk factors of ROP were low gestational age, oxygen therapy more than five days and low birth weight.
Conclusion:
The findings of current study demonstrate that the main risk factors of developing ROP in newborns are multiple gestation, low birth weight, oxygen therapy for more than five day. Therefore, the progression of ROP to blindness will be prevented by a high index of suspicion, suitable screening, prompt diagnosis, and early treatment.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010017
PMCID: PMC4780469  PMID: 27014382
Birth weight; multiple gestation; prevalence; retinopathy of Prematurity; risk factors; neonates
2.  A Case of Anterior Chamber Cholesterolosis Due to Coats' Disease and a Review of Reported Cases 
Purpose:
To present the case of an 18 month old boy with Coats' disease who was found to have anterior chamber cholesterolosis.
Methods:
Case presentation and review of reported cases.
Results:
An 18 month old boy presented with unilateral stage 3B Coats' disease without other clinical findings. Two weeks after presentation he returned with xanthocoria due to anterior chamber cholesterolosis. He subsequently developed hyphema, neovascular glaucoma, and was enucleated. His case is compared to all previously reported cases of Coats' disease leading to anterior chamber cholesterolosis.
Conclusion:
The presentation of anterior chamber cholesterolosis in Coats' disease can range from the incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient to acute angle closure glaucoma with pain and acutely decreased vision. Clinicians should be aware of this potential complication of Coats' disease as it denotes a poor visual prognosis.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010027
PMCID: PMC4780468  PMID: 27014384
Cholesterolosis; coats' disease; prognosis; anterior chamber
3.  The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina 
Purpose:
To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model.
Methods:
Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments.
Results:
Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247).
Conclusion:
In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010012
PMCID: PMC4780483  PMID: 27014381
Azithromycin; apoptic cell death; bacteriostatic agent; retina
4.  Coats’ Disease: Very Long-Term Outcome After Early Stage Conventional Treatment 
Purpose:
To report on the outcome of conventional therapy in patients with Coats’ disease.
Methods:
Retrospective analysis of the charts of thirteen patients with Coats’ disease.
Results:
Mean age of 9 male (70%) and 4 female (30%) patients was 17.7 (range, 5-33) years; one female had bilateral disease. Eleven eyes with retinal telangiectasia and exudation were treated with argon laser photocoagulation alone or photocoagulation associated with cryotherapy; the mean follow up was 32.5 (range,17-41) years. In four eyes without foveal involvement (stage 2a) the mean presenting visual acuity (VA) remained at 0.8 or improved, whereas poor VA in seven stage 2b eyes deteriorated minimally over time. In one and two of the three eyes with total retinal detachment, phthisis or neovascular glaucoma ensued.
Conclusion:
About three decades after conventional treatment of Coats’ disease stage 2a, treated eyes maintained good VA, and stage 2b eyes did not progress to advanced stages.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010022
PMCID: PMC4780504  PMID: 27014383
Coats' disease; exudative retinopathy; neovascular glaucoma; retinal detachment; telangiectasia
5.  Detecting IOP Fluctuations in Glaucoma Patients 
Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the guiding principle of glaucoma management. Although IOP is the only treatable risk factor, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Current glaucoma management usually relies on single IOP measurements during clinic hours, even though IOP is a dynamic parameter with rhythms dependent on individual patients. It has further been shown that most glaucoma patients have their highest IOP measurements outside clinic hours. The fact that these IOP peaks go largely undetected may explain why certain patients progress in their disease despite treatment. Nevertheless, single IOP measurements have determined all major clinical guidelines regarding glaucoma treatment. Other potentially informative parameters, such as fluctuations in IOP and peak IOP, have been neglected, and effects of IOP-lowering interventions on such measures are largely unknown. Continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring has been an interest for more than 50 years, but only recent technological advances have provided clinicians with a device for such an endeavor. This review discusses current uses and shortcomings of current measurement techniques, and provides an overview on current and future methods for 24-hour IOP assessment. It may be possible to incorporate continuous IOP monitoring into clinical practice, potentially to reduce glaucoma-related vision loss.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010044
PMCID: PMC4780505  PMID: 27014387
24-h IOP monitoring; fluctuations; intraocular pressure; laucoma
6.  Editorial: Update on Glaucoma Diagnosis and Management 
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010033
PMCID: PMC4780510  PMID: 27014385
7.  Morphologic Changes in Patient with Drusen and Drusenoid Pigment Epithelial Detachment after Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Choroidal Neovascular Membrane : A Case Report 
The authors present a case of morphologic changes of drusen and drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment (DPED) after treating choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using ranibizumab in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A 71-year-old woman has noticed mild visual acuity deterioration in the right eye for several months. She was presented with some drusen and DPED associated with CNV. This patient was given intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg of ranibizumab five times at monthly intervals for treating CNV. DPED in the temporal and drusen in the superior to macula were diminished, which continued up to 2 months. Intravitreal ranibizumab injection may have influenced with diminishment of drusen and DPED. After 2 months, CNV was recurred.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010001
PMCID: PMC4780511  PMID: 27014379
Age-related macular degeneration; anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor); drusen; drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment; ranibizumab
8.  Managing Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma – The Role of Lens Extraction in this Era 
Trabeculectomy has been the gold standard in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients, no matter it is angle closure or open angle glaucoma. However in primary angle closure glaucoma, no matter the lens is cataractous or not, it is likely to be pathological, this thicker than usual lens, with or without a more anterior position, is often regarded as a strong contributing factor to angle closure. Lens extraction, no matter it is cataractous or clear, can theoretically eliminate this anatomical predisposing factor of angle closure, and thus IOP can be reduced. Based on recent results of a number of clinical trials, lens extraction alone or in combination with other IOP-lowering surgeries, may therefore play a more important role in the treating primary angle closure glaucoma. In cases when greater IOP-lowering effect is needed or if drug dependency has to be minimized, combined procedures, such as phacotrabeculectomy, can be considered, but the surgical risk can be higher than lens extraction alone.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010086
PMCID: PMC4780513  PMID: 27014390
Acute primary angle closure; lens extraction; primary angle closure glaucoma; trabeculectomy
9.  Intra-Ocular Pressure Measurement in a Patient with a Thin, Thick or Abnormal Cornea 
Accurate measurement of intra-ocular pressure is a fundamental component of the ocular examination. The most common method of measuring IOP is by Goldmann applanation tonometry, the accuracy of which is influenced by the thickness and biomechanical properties of the cornea. Algorithms devised to correct for corneal thickness to estimate IOP oversimplify the effects of corneal biomechanics. The viscous and elastic properties of the cornea influence IOP measurements in unpredictable ways, a finding borne out in studies of patients with inherently abnormal and surgically altered corneal biomechanics. Dynamic contour tonometry, rebound tonometry and the ocular response analyzer provide useful alternatives to GAT in patients with abnormal corneas, such as those who have undergone laser vision correction or keratoplasty. This article reviews the various methods of intra-ocular pressure measurement available to the clinician and the ways in which their utility is influenced by variations in corneal thickness and biomechanics.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010035
PMCID: PMC4780515  PMID: 27014386
Applanation; corneal pathology; corneal thickness; hysteresis; intraocular pressure
10.  Current and Future Techniques in Wound Healing Modulation after Glaucoma Filtering Surgeries 
Filtering surgeries are frequently used for controlling intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. The long-term success of operation is intimately influenced by the process of wound healing at the site of surgery. Indeed, if has not been anticipated and managed accordingly, filtering surgery in high-risk patients could end up in bleb failure. Several strategies have been developed so far to overcome excessive scarring after filtering surgery. The principal step involves meticulous tissue handling and modification of surgical technique, which can minimize the severity of wound healing response at the first place. However, this is usually insufficient, especially in those with high-risk criteria. Thus, several adjuvants have been tried to stifle the exuberant scarring after filtration surgery. Conventionally, corticosteroids and anti-fibrotic agents (including 5-fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C) have been used for over three decades with semi-acceptable outcomes. Blebs and bleb associated complications are catastrophic side effects of anti-fibrotic agents, which occasionally are encountered in a subset of patients. Therefore, research continues to find a safer, yet effective adjuvant for filtering surgery. Recent efforts have primarily focused on selective inhibition of growth factors that promote scarring during wound healing process. Currently, only anti-VEGF agents have gained widespread acceptance to be translated into routine clinical practice. Robust evidence for other agents is still lacking and future confirmative studies are warranted. In this review, we explain the importance of wound healing process during filtering surgery, and describe the conventional as well as potential future adjuvants for filtration surgeries.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010068
PMCID: PMC4780518  PMID: 27014389
Anti-fibrotics; filtering surgery; glaucoma; trabeculectomy; wound healing
11.  Current and Future of Laser Therapy in the Management of Glaucoma 
There has been tremendous progress in the past decades in the utilization of lasers for treating patients with glaucoma. This article reviews the use of lasers in different areas of glaucoma, including the shift from argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) to selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), laser trabeculoplasty as an initial treatment for glaucoma, new laser trabeculoplasty procedures under investigation, and other recent laser treatment modalities such as endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation and laser-assisted deep sclerectomy.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010056
PMCID: PMC4780519  PMID: 27014388
Cyclophotocoagulation; glaucoma; laser iridotomy; laser trabeculoplasty; laser treatment
12.  Ocular, Neurologic and Systemic Findings of the Cases with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia 
Aim:
To describe the associated ocular, neurologic, and systemic findings in a population of children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and to evaluate the relationship between ocular signs and neurologic findings.
Method:
A retrospective chart review of 53 patients with the diagnosis of ONH seen between December 1998 and September 2012 was performed. All neurodevelopmental anomalies, neuroradiologic findings, endocrinologic and systemic findings were recorded. Poor vision was defined as the visual acuity poorer than logMAR 1.0 or inadequate central steady maintained fixation.
Results:
Thirty (56.6%) of the 53 children with ONH were boys. Mean age at presentation was 56.2±46.8 months (range; 3 months to 18 years). Poor vision defined for the purpose of this study was found in 47.2% of 53 patients. Thirty-three (62.3%) children had nystagmus. Thirty-four (64.2%) children had strabismus. Thirteen (38.2%) of those with strabismus had esotropia, 20 (58.8%) had exotropia. The total number of the children with neurodevelopmental deficit was 22 (41.5%) in our study.
Conclusion:
The vision of young children with ONH should be monitored at least annually, and any refractive errors should be treated. Neuroimaging of the brain and endocrinologic evaluation is necessary in all cases with ONH.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010005
PMCID: PMC4780520  PMID: 27014380
Endocrinologic evaluation; neurodevelopmantal anomaly; neuroimaging; optic nerve hypoplasia
13.  Serial Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injections Slow the Progression of Radiation Maculopathy Following Iodine-125 Plaque Radiotherapy 
Background and Objective:
To assess the outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in the management of radiation maculopathy secondary to plaque radiotherapy, and to identify optimal treatment strategies.
Study Design:
A retrospective review of all choroidal melanoma patients at one referral center who were treated with plaque radiotherapy, subsequently developed radiation maculopathy, and received intravitreal bevacizumab.
Results:
A total of 31 patients were identified. The mean visual acuity decreased three Snellen lines in the year leading up to the first bevacizumab injection. After initiating injection therapy, the mean visual acuity remained stable for 9 months. The change in visual acuity of patients who received injections within 90 days of previous injections was significantly better than the visual acuity of those who received injections more than 90 days apart (p=0.0003). Patients who demonstrated late-phase macular leakage on fluorescein angiography at the time of the first bevacizumab injection had better long-term visual acuity outcomes than patients who had no evidence of macular leakage (average of one line improvement of vision vs. ten line loss of vision, p=0.03).
Conclusions:
Intravitreal bevacizumab injection was effective in stabilizing visual acuity in patients with radiation maculopathy. Patients benefited most from injections administered every 90 days or sooner. Fluorescein angiography can help identify patients who will respond favorably to treatment.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010103
PMCID: PMC4797673  PMID: 27053973
Choroidal melanoma patients; Fluorescein angiography; Intravitreal bevacizumab injection; Macular disease; Radiotherapy; Visual acuity
14.  Lithium-Induced Downbeat Nystagmus and Horizontal Gaze Palsy 
We report a case of lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus and horizontal gaze palsy in a 62-year-old woman who was treated for a bipolar affective disorder with lithium carbonate for one month. At presentation serum lithium was within therapeutic range. No alternative causes of the ocular motility disturbances were found, and the patient improved significantly as lithium carbonate was discontinued.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010126
PMCID: PMC4899508  PMID: 27347248
Adverse effects; Downbeat nystagmus; Gaze palsy; Lithium
15.  Ocular Tolerability of Preservative-Free Tafluprost and Latanoprost: in vitro and in vivo Comparative Study 
Objective:
Detrimental effects of the preserved prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) have been thoroughly documented in the published literature. The current work studied two preservative-free (PF) prostaglandin eye drops: PF tafluprost and PF latanoprost. The aim of the study was to compare these two PF formulations in vitro for viability of the human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells and in vivo for ocular tolerability of the rabbit eye.
Method:
Viability of the HCE-T cells was measured by the MTS assay. The SV40-immortalized HCE-T cells were exposed to 100 µL of the drug solutions (at their commercial concentrations) or the culture medium. Ocular irritation was evaluated after repeated instillation of the drug solutions in Japanese white rabbits (Kbl:JW).
Results:
A significant loss of HCE-T cell viability was observed in vitro immediately after the exposure to PF latanoprost formulation but not immediately after the exposure to PF tafluprost formulation. Congruently, PF latanoprost induced in vivo more irritation on the rabbit eye than PF tafluprost.
Conclusion:
Comparing these two PF formulations in vitro and in vivo, it is considered that ocular tolerability of PF tafluprost is better than PF latanoprost. Taking into account the composition of these two PF PGA formulations, the solubilizing agent macrogolglycerol hydroxystearate 40 (MGHS40) contained in PF latanoprost formulation is a plausible cause for the negative effects.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010146
PMCID: PMC4899509  PMID: 27347250
Latanoprost; ocular tolerability; preservative-free; tafluprost
16.  Long Term Clinical and Visual Outcomes of Retrofixated Iris Claw Lenses Implantation in Complicated Cases 
Aims:
To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications after implantation of retrofixated iris claw (RFIC) lens in various challenging situations.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective, single centre, 8 year clinical audit.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of cases who underwent RFIC lens implantation alone (group 1) or in combination with vitreoretinal (VR), corneal or glaucoma procedures (group 2) was performed. The main outcomes evaluated were corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA) and postoperative complications. The mean follow up was 13.09±6.8 (range 6-24) months.
Results:
The study involved 100 eyes of 83 patients with mean age of 51.1±25.4 years. Group 1 included 59 eyes and group 2 had 41 eyes. In group 1, the mean CDVA improved from 0.86±0.81 to 0.38±0.51 LogMAR (p<0.001) with 72.8% eyes having gain in lines (≥ 2 lines) of CDVA with safety index of 1.73. The mean CDVA in group 2 improved from 0.71±0.65 to 0.38±0.34 LogMAR (p=0.003) with 65.8% eyes having gain in lines (≥ 2 lines) of CDVA with a safety index of 1.54. Group 2 showed a higher complication rate of 36.59% compared to group 1 (20.34%). Significant complications noted were secondary glaucoma (8%), disenclavation of haptic (4%), subluxation of RFIC lens (1%).
Conclusion:
The visual outcome with RFIC lenses when combined with other intraocular procedures is mainly affected by the complexity of co-existing pathologies .The complications are more related to the combined procedures performed rather than RFIC lens implantation alone. This may still be acceptable when complication profile of other intraocular lenses is evaluated in similar challenging situations.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010111
PMCID: PMC4899510  PMID: 27347246
Combined; enclavation; intraocular lens; iris claw; retrofixated; vitreoretinal
17.  Risk Factors for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) Progression: A Study Ruled in Torino 
Purpose:
Aim of this retrospective, observational study is to describe features of a population sample, affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in order to evaluate damage progression on the basis of the emerged individual risk factors.
Methods:
We included 190 caucasian patients (377 eyes), evaluating relationship between individual risk factors (explicative variables) and MD (Mean Deviation) of standard automated perimetry. We also considered the dependent variable NFI (Neural Fiber Index) of GDx scanning laser polarimetry. Progression has been evaluated through a statistic General Linear Model on four follow up steps (mean follow up 79 months).
Results:
Factors reaching statistical significance, determining a worsening of the MD variable, are: age (P<0.0001), intraocular pressure (IOP) at follow up (P < 0.0001), female gender (P<0.0001), hypertension (P< 0.0001) and familiarity (P = 0.0006).
Factors reaching statistical significance, determining a worsening of the NFI variable, are only IOP at follow up (P = 0.0159) and depression (P = 0.0104).
Conclusion:
Results of this study confirm and enforce data coming from most recent studies: IOP remains the main risk factor for glaucoma assess and progression; age and familiarity are great risk factors as underlined in the last decades; female sex can be an important risk factors as emerged only in the last years; arterial hypertension should always be evaluated in timing of our clinic follow up.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010129
PMCID: PMC4899511  PMID: 27347249
Epidemiology; glaucoma; intraocular pressure (IOP); optic nerve; progression; risk factors; visual field
18.  Evaluation of a Public Child Eye Health Tertiary Facility for Pediatric Cataract in Southern Nigeria I: Visual Acuity Outcome 
Purpose:
A retrospective study of the outcome of congenital and developmental cataract surgery was conducted in a public child eye health tertiary facility in children <16 years of age in Southern Nigeria, as part of an evaluation.
Materials and Method:
Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery with or without anterior vitrectomy was performed. The outcome measures were visual acuity (VA) and change (gain) in visual acuity. The age of the child at onset, duration of delay in presentation, ocular co-morbidity, non ocular co-morbidity, gender, and pre operative visual acuity were matched with postoperative visual acuity. A total of 66 children were studied for a period of six weeks following surgery.
Results:
Forty eight (72.7%) children had bilateral congenital cataracts and 18 (27.3%) children had bilateral developmental cataracts. There were 38(57.6%) males and 28 (42.4%) females in the study. Thirty Five (53%) children had good visual outcome (normal vision range 6/6/ -6/18) post-operatively. The number of children with blindness (vision <3/60) decreased from 61 (92.4%) pre-operatively to 4 (6.1%) post-operatively. Post operative complication occurred in 6.8% of cases six week after surgery. Delayed presentation had an inverse relationship with change (gain) in visual acuity (r = - 0.342; p-value = 0.005). Pre-operative visual acuity had a positive relationship with post operative change (gain) in visual acuity (r = 0.618; p-value = 0.000).
Conclusion:
Predictors of change in visual acuity in our study were; delayed presentation and pre-operative VA. Cataract surgery in children showed clinical benefit.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010119
PMCID: PMC4899512  PMID: 27347247
Bilateral cataracts; Clinical benefit; Congenital; Developmental; Outcome; Southern Nigeria; Visual acuity
19.  Efficacy and Safety of Switching Latanoprost Monotherapy to Bimatoprost Monotherapy or Combination of Brinzolamide and Latanoprost 
Purpose:
To prospectively assess the efficacy and safety of switching to bimatoprost monotherapy or brinzolamide and latanoprost combination therapy in patients who had been receiving latanoprost monotherapy.
Methods:
A prospective, open-label study was conducted. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who had been receiving latanoprost monotherapy for three months or more were enrolled. Bimatoprost was substituted for latanoprost in one eye (BIM group), and brinzolamide was added to the latanoprost in the other eye (BRZ group) simultaneously. The patients underwent examinations at 6 weeks (visit 1) and 12 weeks (visit 2) after changing therapies. Subsequently, the treatments were returned to latanoprost monotherapy. The patients underwent another examination 6 weeks (visit 3) after the return to latanoprost. The parameters examined were intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival hyperemia, and corneal epithelial damage.
Results:
Twenty-six patients (13 men and 13 women) completed the protocol. Both groups showed a significant IOP reduction at visits 1 and 2 compared with the baseline, with a similar magnitude (BIM group: P = 0.016 at visit 1, P = 0.025 at visit 2, BRZ group: P = 0.0006 at visit 1, P = 0.028 at visit 2). The IOPs at the baseline and on visit 3 were similar in both groups (P = 0.7). The two groups showed no changes in either conjunctival hyperemia or corneal epithelial damage compared with the baseline.
Conclusion:
Bimatoprost monotherapy and brinzolamide adjunctive to latanoprost similarly reduced the IOP, with no additive adverse effects, compared with latanoprost monotherapy.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010094
PMCID: PMC4800778  PMID: 27073587
Bimatoprost; Brinzolamide; Glaucoma; Intraocular Pressure; Latanoprost
20.  Characteristics of Sympathetic Ophthalmia in a Single International Center 
Aim:
To report the main features of sympathetic ophthalmia in a referral ophthalmology center.
Methods:
Retrospective clinical study. We reviewed clinical records of patients with diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia attending the Uveitis Department from 2007 to 2013. Patients were selected by clinical criteria. Descriptive statistics were used to assess variables.
Results:
Twenty patients were included for analysis, 13 males and 7 females. Mean follow up was 1 year. The median age of presentation was 50 years. Fifty percent had history of ocular trauma and 50% had history of intraocular surgery, of which 40% underwent phacoemulsification. The time between injury and onset of symptoms ranged from 1 to 456 months. Most common ocular manifestations were mutton fat keratic precipitates and anterior chamber inflammation. All patients received oral prednisone as single or combined therapy. Sixty percent of the sympathizing eyes improved two or more lines of vision and 20% lost two or more lines of vision.
Conclusion:
This report from a single center adds to the body of literature of sympathetic ophthalmia occurring in a specific population. Our data found a high proportion of patients with sympathetic ophthalmia after phacoemulsification.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010154
PMCID: PMC5009293  PMID: 27651849
Ocular surgery; Ocular trauma; Panuveitis; Sympathetic ophthalmia
21.  Bilateral Choroidal Metastases from Endobronchial Carcinoid Treated with Somatostatin Analogues 
Objective:
To describe a patient with bilateral multifocal choroidal metastases from an endobronchial carcinoid treated with a somatostatin analogue.
Method:
A 60-year-old woman presenting with photopsia in the left eye underwent an extensive ophthalmic examination, including fluorescein angiography, OCT and ultrasound.
Results:
Fundoscopy revealed a small retinal tear in the left eye, for which she received laser treatment. In addition, choroidal masses were detected in both eyes. Her medical history of a pneumectomy for a bronchial carcinoid six years earlier together with recent elevated chromogranin A blood levels prompted a diagnosis of choroidal metastases. Subsequently, a Gallium-68 DOTANOC positron emitting tomography/computer tomography scan revealed a spinal cord metastasis and mediastinal as well as mesenterial lymph node invasion. Systemic treatment with Sandostatin®, a somatostatin analogue was started. Up until two years after the initial presentation and treatment, these choroidal lesions remained stable without any signs of growth.
Conclusion:
Endobronchial carcinoid tumors have an indolent nature and long-term follow-up is recommended for early detection of metastases. Although treatment with somatostatin analogues rarely induces complete tumor regression, tumor stabilization and prevention of symptoms related to hormone secretion is achieved. This well-tolerated systemic treatment provides a worthy alternative treatment for choroidal metastasis compared to classic radiotherapy without any risk of radiation or laser-related visual loss.
doi:10.2174/1874364101610010160
PMCID: PMC5078593  PMID: 27843513
Carcinoid tumor; Choroidal metastases; Chromogranine A; Somatostatin analogues
22.  Visual and Optical Performances of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses with Three Different Near Additions: 6-Month Follow-Up 
Purpose :
To compare the visual and optical outcomes of four multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with three different near additions of +3.00 diopters (D), +3.75 D and +4.00 D.
Methods :
In this prospective study, 133 eyes of 88 patients were implanted with one of the following IOLs: AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 (+3.00 D) for Group A, AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 or BB MFM 611 (+3.75 D) for Group B, and AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) for Group C. The visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, tomography and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) were compared between the three groups preoperatively and at 6 month postoperatively. Defocus curve, contrast sensitivity and higher order aberrations (HOAs) at 6 month postoperative visit were measured and compared.
Results :
There were no statistically significant differences in distance visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure or ECD among the three groups after 6 months (P > 0.05). The photopic contrast sensitivity in Group C was statistically better than in Group A (P < 0.05). The scotopic ocular aberration in Group B was statistically greater compared to that in Group A (P < 0.05). The highest near-visual peaks were -0.06 logMAR at a -2.50 D (40 cm) in Group A, -0.07 logMAR at -3.00D (33 cm) in Group B, and -0.06 logMAR at -3.50 D (29 cm) in Group C. Statistically significant differences in near and intermediate visual acuities were observed among the three groups at -2.00 D (50 cm), -2.50 D (40 cm), -3.50 D (29 cm) and -4.00 D (25 cm) (P < 0.01).
Conclusion :
AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 IOLs (+3.00 D) and SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) IOLs provided the best intermediate and near vision, respectively. Both intermediate and near vision were comparatively better in the eyes with AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 IOLs or BB MF 613 IOLs (+3.75 D).
doi:10.2174/1874364101509010001
PMCID: PMC4321207  PMID: 25674189
Cataract surgery; multifocal intraocular lens; near addition.
23.  Rail-Roading Technique Using 18 Gauge Intravenous Catheter and Silicon Rod for Frontalis Suspension in Blepharophimosis Syndrome 
Silicon rods are widely employed for frontalis sling suspension. However, on passing through the tissues, at times, the silicon rod gets detached from the stainless steel needle. This occurs more commonly in patients of blepharophimosis syndrome, in which hypoplasia of superior orbital rim with deficiency of skin between lid and brow, causes difficulty in passage of the needle when it is manipulated upwards from lid towards the brow. To overcome these problems we describe the use of an 18 G intravenous catheter to railroad the needle with the silicon rod, obviating the blind upward maneuvers with the needle and protecting against the damage to the silicon rod –needle assembly. The technique is easily reproducible, safe and can be used in all silicon rod suspensions.
doi:10.2174/1874364101509010008
PMCID: PMC4321230  PMID: 25674190
Blepharophimosis syndrome; intravenous catheter; ptosis; silicon sling; technique.
24.  Prevalence of Punctate Keratopathy of West Indians in a Colombian Referral Center and a New Name Proposed: Rice´s Keratopathy 
Purpose :
To perform a prevalence study of Punctate Keratopathy of West Indians in Colombian individuals and to propose a new name for the condition.
Methods :
Prospective, population-based epidemiological study. All patients evaluated between November 1 and December 31, 2012, in the Centro Oftalmológico Virgilio Galvis and Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander (FOSCAL), Floridablanca, Colombia, with clinical findings of white corneal opacities corresponding to Punctate Keratopathy of West Indians were identified. Careful slit-lamp examination was performed for clinical diagnosis and findings were reported in the electronic medical record indicating number and location of the lesions. Prevalence was calculated for the total population, and for gender and age groups. Furthermore a literature review was performed and a new name for the condition proposed.
Results :
In the whole group of patients, prevalence was 1.0%. No one case was diagnosed in a patient younger than 21 year-old. No one lesion was located within 2.5 mm of the corneal apex. 96% of affected patients had unilateral involvement. 58.5% of eyes had a single corneal lesion; 7% of eyes had 6 or 7 corneal lesions.
Conclusion :
The condition heretofore known as Punctate Keratopathy of West Indians was present in 1% of our patients in Colombia (South America). Thus, this non-infectious, non-inflammatory, asymptomatic ailment of unknown etiology is not restricted to people of Antillean descent, or who have lived in these islands. We propose the new name “Rice's keratopathy". Age and male gender were independent risk factors for the presence of the keratopathy.
doi:10.2174/1874364101509010012
PMCID: PMC4333615  PMID: 25713637
Cornea; keratoconjunctivitis; keratopathy; punctate keratopathy of West Indians; 
25.  Specific Densified Regions in the Postlaminar Human Glaucomatous Optic Nerve 
Purpose:
To describe ‘densified regions’ in human postlaminar optic nerves of donors with the clinical diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG).
Methods:
Optic nerves of 25 eyes with POAG and of 19 eyes with PEXG were investigated. Clinical data and axon counts of Epon-embedded semi-thin sections were used to determine the stage of the disease. Ultrathin sections were performed of selected areas and studied with an electron microscope. Immunofluorescence staining of paraffin sections was performed including antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neural cellular adhesion molecule, vimentin and laminin.
Results:
Early changes in both types of glaucoma showed increased numbers of areas with a densified appearance. The lack of GFAP staining and of ultrastructurally light nuclei within these areas indicated loss of astroglia.
Conclusion:
For the first time, a special type of neurodegeneration in optic nerves with mild glaucomatous changes is described.
doi:10.2174/1874364101509010020
PMCID: PMC4347199  PMID: 25741395
Astrocytes; degeneration; glaucoma; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); optic nerve

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