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1.  Fractured Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens (ACIOL) Complicating Nd: YAG Laser for Peripheral Iridotomy 
Laser peripheral iridotomy is the procedure of choice for the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma caused by relative or absolute pupillary block. Nd: YAG laser iridotomy has been reported to have several complications such as Iris bleeding, hyphema, transient IOP elevation, intraocular inflammation, choroidal, retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage.
We report a case of a 74 year old lady on anticoagulant treatment who developed pupillary block and angle closure glaucoma after cataract surgery and anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL) insertion complicated with intraoperative bleeding. The patient was treated with Nd: YAG laser iridotomy , however, the ACIOL was inadvertently fractured after a single shot of laser and it had to be replaced. Although the incidence is rare. Ophthalmologists and Opticians should be aware that an ACIOL may be fractured even after a single Nd:YAG laser shot and avoid to perform it close to the ACIOL. Pretreatment counseling should include this rare complication.
doi:10.2174/1874364101408010001
PMCID: PMC3942864  PMID: 24600484
Laser peripheral iridotomy; Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens; Nd; Yag Laser; Complications.
2.  Clinical Risk Factors for Poor Anatomic Response to Ranibizumab in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration§ 
Purpose:
To identify OCT-based anatomical features and clinical characteristics for poor central retinal thickness (CRT) response to ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Patients and Methods:
Investigating our electronic patient records (Eyeswide), patients with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal injections of 0.5mg/0.05ml ranibizumab were identified and their notes reviewed. Data collected included gender, age, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), prior photodynamic therapy, lesion type (classic versus occult), type of macular edema (intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, pigment epithelium detachment) and the total number of previous ranibizumab injections.
Results:
A total of 210 eyes of 182 patients with neovascular AMD were identified. Mean follow-up time was 1.34 years (SD ± 0.77). Central retinal thickness reduction in women was significantly inferior to that in men (p=0.05). Patients with cystoid type macular edema had significantly greater reduction in CRT compared to patients with subretinal fluid (p<0.001) or pigment epithelium detachment (p<0.001). The percentage drop of CRT was no longer statistically significant after the sixth injection. Age, initial BCVA, prior photodynamic therapy and lesion type had no statistically effect on CRT response.
Conclusion:
Risk factors for poor central retinal thickness response to ranibizumab include female gender and patients with predominant subretinal fluid or pigment epithelium detachment. Furthermore, the anatomical response decreased after the sixth injection of ranibizumab.
doi:10.2174/1874364101408010003
PMCID: PMC4062930  PMID: 24949110
Age-related macular degeneration; Lucentis; poor-responder; ranibizumab; risk factors.
3.  Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes 
There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here.
doi:10.2174/1874364101408010007
PMCID: PMC4062941  PMID: 24949111
Cancer; chemotherapy; distilled water; fine needle aspiration; intravitreal injection; melphalan; retinoblastoma; water.
4.  Traumatic Dislocation of Implanted Collamer Phakic Lens: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Purpose :
Present a case of dislocation of an Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) that occurs after blunt trauma and review the published literature on this topic.
Methods :
Case report and literature review using PubMed.
Results :
A 44 year-old male presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of blurry vision after blunt trauma to the left eye. Three years prior, he had undergone bilateral ICL placement for high myopia. On examination, the superotemporal haptic was noted to be dislocated into the anterior chamber, but there was no endothelial touch by the dislocated lens. The patient had an associated hyphema that was medically managed, and 2 weeks after the injury, the patient underwent ICL repositioning. A review of the literature was performed and five previous cases of ICL dislocation were identified. Three of these occurred after blunt trauma. One of these cases was associated with endothelial touch and decompensation and eventually required a descement’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).
Conclusion :
Dislocation of ICLs after blunt trauma is a rare but important potential sequela of the procedure and can lead to corneal decompensation if there is lens-endothelial touch. All patients who suffer blunt dislocation of ICL should be followed long-term after repositioning for signs of endothelial loss and dysfunction.
doi:10.2174/1874364101408010024
PMCID: PMC4066362  PMID: 24959305
Dislocation; high myopia; ICL; implantable collamer lens; IOL; lens dislocations; myopia; phakic IOL; PIOL; staar ICL; trauma; traumatic lens dislocation; vision.
5.  In Vitro Growth of Lens Epithelial Cells from Cataract Patients - Association with Possible Risk Factors for Posterior Capsule Opacification 
Aim :
Inter-individual differences in intrinsic proliferative capacity of lens epithelial cells may have importance for the risk of developing posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery. The purpose of the present study was to determine growth of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) in culture and investigate possible associations with clinical characteristics of the donors, such as age, sex, pseudoexfoliation, uveitis and diabetes.
Methods :
Pieces of lens capsule and adhering lens epithelial cells were obtained through capsulorhexis at cataract surgery. Specimens were cultured in a humidified CO2-incubator using standard culture medium and 5% fetal calf serum for two weeks after which cultured cells were stained with carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Image processing software was used to determine the area of the confluent epithelial cell layer in relation to the size of the original capsule specimen.
Results :
The increase in area of confluent HLEC showed a negative correlation with diabetes at the first week after surgery. Lower age and female sex showed border-line significant associations with a higher rate of cell proliferation. The presence of pseudoexfoliation in vivo did not significantly affect cell growth in culture postoperatively. Nor did installation of xylocain in the anterior chamber during surgery.
Conclusion :
Diabetes is associated with lower rate of proliferation of lens epithelial cells in culture. The lack of strong correlations between in vitro growth and known risk factors for PCO in the donors suggest that other factors than the proliferative capacity of the cells per se are important for PCO formation.
doi:10.2174/1874364101408010019
PMCID: PMC4066363  PMID: 24959304
Cataract; lens; posterior capsule opacification; primary cell culture; risk factors.
6.  Enduring Influence of Elizabethan Ophthalmic Texts of the 1580s: Bailey, Grassus, and Guillemeau 
Three English ophthalmic texts of the 1580s were frequently republished: 1) Walter Bailey’s A Briefe Treatise Touching the Preseruation of the Eie Sight, 2) The Method of Phisicke, an adaptation of the medieval treatise of Benevenutus Grassus, and 3) A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes, a translation of Jacques Guillemeau’s treatise. Their history is intertwined through composite publications, some of which lacked clear attribution. At least 21 editions incorporated these texts. Although not previously realized, major elements of all 3 works are found in Two Treatises Concerning the Preseruation of Eie-sight, first published in 1616. To preserve eyesight, Bailey recommended eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), fennel (Fæniculum vulgare), and a moderate lifestyle incorporating wine. In the works of Grassus and Guillemeau, cataracts were believed to lie anterior to the ‘crystalline humor,’ and were treated by the ‘art of the needle,’ or couching. Links are found between Grassus, Guillemeau, and eighteenth century glaucoma concepts. Although one of his students has traditionally received credit, it was English oculist John Thomas Woolhouse who first combined the early concepts and used the term glaucoma to describe the palpably hard eye in the early eighteenth century. The three primary ophthalmic texts of 1580s England influenced ophthalmic thought for over a century.
doi:10.2174/1874364101408010012
PMCID: PMC4066364  PMID: 24959303
Alcohol; cataract; couching; eyebright; glaucoma; ophthalmology.
7.  Diabetic Retinopathy and VEGF 
Diabetic retinopathy remains the leading vascular-associated cause of blindness throughout the world. Its treatment requires a multidisciplinary interventional approach at both systemic and local levels. Current management includes laser photocoagulation, intravitreal steroids, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment along with systemic blood sugar control. Anti-VEGF therapies, which are less destructive and safer than laser treatments, are being explored as primary therapy for the management of vision-threatening complications of diabetic retinopathy such as diabetic macular edema (DME). This review provides comprehensive information related to VEGF and describes its role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and in addition, examines the mechanisms of action for different antiangiogenic agents in relation to the management of this disease. Medline (Pubmed) searches were carried out with keywords “VEGF”, “diabetic retinopathy”, and “diabetes” without any year limitation to review relevant manuscripts used for this article.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010004
PMCID: PMC3580758  PMID: 23459241
Diabetic retinopathy; VEGF; DME; diabetes; central retinal vein occlusion; PGF.
8.  Should Posterior Vitrectomy be Made a Priority in Ophthalmic Facilities of Sub Sahara Africa? 
Background:
Posterior vitrectomy facilities are lacking in Sub Sahara Africa due to paucity of trained personnel in vitreo retinal subspecialty. More cases are seen needing vitrectomy, especially cases with vitreous opacities and complications of cataract surgery as more residents are being trained. The review will aim to determine whether vitrectomy facility should be a priority as part of ophthalmic facility in the region.
Method:
A 3 year review was carried out. All cases of posterior vitrectomy performed at the retinal unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Africa between 2008 and 20011 were retrieved. Indications, and visual outcome were documented. Proportions and percentages were used to analyse the data.
Results:
Sixty six posterior vitrectomies were performed during the period. The most common indication for vitrectomy was vitreous hemorrhage n=30 [45.5%].Complication of cataract surgery such as dropped intraocular lens 7 [10.7%], sclera fixated intra ocular lens 6 [9.2%], and dropped nucleus 5 [7.5%] were emerging indications. Other indications noted include complicated retinal detachments 4 (6.1%), membranectomy for posterior capsule opacity from pediatric cataract surgery 3 (4.5%) and congenital lens subluxation 2 (3.0%). Improved visual outcome was noted after surgery. Forty nine [75%] eyes were blind [visual acuity of < 3/60] before vitrectomy. This proportion dropped to 24 [37%] after vitrectomy with an additional 24% regaining navigational vision [visual acuity of 3/60 to Counting fingers at 1meter] .
Conclusion:
Vitrectomy should be an integral part of eye care and its availability should be made a priority in ophthalmic facilities of Sub Sahara Africa, especially those involved in ophthalmology training.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010001
PMCID: PMC3582012  PMID: 23459116
Cataract surgery complications; posterior vitrectomy; retinal; sub Sahara Africa; vitreous opacities.
9.  Correlation from Undiluted Vitreous Cytokines of Untreated Central Retinal Vein Occlusion with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Purpose:
To correlate inflammatory and proangiogenic key cytokines from undiluted vitreous of treatment-naïve central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) patients with SD-OCT parameters.
Methods:
Thirty-five patients (age 71.1 years, 24 phakic, 30 nonischemic) underwent intravitreal combination therapy, including a single-site 23-gauge core vitrectomy. Twenty-eight samples from patients with idiopathic, non-uveitis floaterectomy served as controls. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) levels were correlated with the visual acuity (logMar), category of CRVO (ischemic or nonischemic) and morphologic parameters, such as central macular thickness-CMT, thickness of neurosensory retina-TNeuro, extent of serous retinal detachment-SRT and disintegrity of the IS/OS and others.
Results:
The mean IL-6 was 64.7pg/ml (SD ± 115.8), MCP-1 1015.7 ( ± 970.1), and VEGF-A 278.4 ( ± 512.8), which was significantly higher than the control IL-6 6.2 ± 3.4pg/ml (P=0.06), MCP-1 253.2 ± 73.5 (P<0.0000001) and VEGF-A 7.0 ± 4.9 (P<0.0006). All cytokines correlated highly with one another (correlation coefficient r=0.82 for IL-6 and MCP-1; r=0.68 for Il-6 and VEGF-A; r=0.64 for MCP-1 and VEGF-A). IL-6 correlated significantly with CMT, TRT, SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. MCP-1 correlated significantly with SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. VEGF-A correlated not with changes in SD-OCT, while it had a trend to be higher in the ischemic versus the nonischemic CRVO group (P=0.09).
Conclusions:
The inflammatory cytokines were more often correlated with morphologic changes assessed by SD-OCT, whereas VEGF-A did not correlate with CRVO-associated changes in SD-OCT. VEGF inhibition alone may not be sufficient in decreasing the inflammatory response in CRVO therapy.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010011
PMCID: PMC3613771  PMID: 23560031
Vitreous samples; CRVO; VEGF; MCP-1; IL-6; CBA; SD-OCT.
10.  Transient Cystoid Macular Oedema in Multiple Choroidal Naevi 
Choroidal Naevi are generally thought to be trivial. However, sometimes they cause visual loss, visual filed defect and rarely transform into malignant melanoma. We report the first case of unilateral numerous choroidal naevi in a healthy female associated with transient cystoid macular oedema and postulate about its pathogenesis.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010024
PMCID: PMC3636490  PMID: 23750184
Choroidal naevus; macular oedema; cystoid macular oedema.
11.  Corneal Transplantation at an Ophthalmological Referral Center in Colombia: Indications and Techniques (2004-2011) 
Purpose:
To analize changing trends in indications and surgical techniques of corneal transplantation at an ophthalmological tertiary referral center in Colombia over a 7 year period.
Methods:
A retrospective analysis was performed of medical records from patients who underwent corneal transplantation surgeries at Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander (FOSCAL) in Bucaramanga, Colombia, between August 2004 and August 2011.
Results:
During this period from a total of 450 corneal transplants performed, we had access to 402 medical records (89.4%). The patients’ mean age was 55. Leading indications were: pseudophakic/aphakic bullous kerathopathy (PBK/ABK) (34.6%), corneal scar (15.7%), active infectious keratitis (14.4%) and keratoconus (12.7%). During the first period (2004-2007) PBK/ABK was the leading indication, followed by stromal opacities and keratoconus. During the second period (2008-2011) PBK/ABK remained the leading indication. Infectious keratitis, however, became the second most common indication. Stromal opacities and keratoconus, moved to third and fourth, respectively. All transplants performed in the first period (2004-2007) were penetrating keratoplasties. In the second period (2008-2011) 18.7% of the procedures were performed using the Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty technique (DSAEK).
Conclusions:
Similar to other international results, PBK/ABK was the leading indication for corneal transplantation at our institution. Keratoconus is becoming a less common indication for keratoplasty in our institution. Infectious keratitis remains a frequent indication for corneal transplantation in this geographical area. In our institution we started performing DSAEK in 2009, and it is emerging as the procedure of choice in corneal diseases that involve only the endothelial layers.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010030
PMCID: PMC3722533  PMID: 23898357
Corneal transplantation; penetrating keratoplasty; endothelial keratoplasty; lamellar keratoplasty; DSAEK
12.  HIV and HBsAg Seropositivity Amongst Patients Presenting for Ocular Surgery at a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital in Nigeria 
Background:
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and HBsAg sero-positivity is very high in sub-Saharan African. There is a risk of horizontal transmission of these diseases amongst ophthalmic patients.
Aim:
To determine the proportion patients for eye surgery who are HIV/AIDS and HBsAg sero-positive at the National Eye Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Methods:
Patients selected for eye surgery during a surgical camp at the National Eye Centre, Kaduna were counseled for Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and HBsAg to determine their viral status.
Results:
A total of 650 patients who were selected were screened. The distributions of the indications for selection were as follows: cataract 483 (74.3%); glaucoma 44 (6.8%) and pterygium 123 (18.9%). Two patients (0.2%) were found to be HIV seropositive while 11 (1.5%) were HbsAg positive.
Conclusion:
Pre-operative screening of all patients going for ophthalmic surgery for HIV and HbsAg may be desirable in our environment.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010018
PMCID: PMC3722535  PMID: 23898354
HIV; HBsAg; ocular surgery; seroprevalence; Nigeria.
13.  Stability of Cachet Phakic Intraocular Lens Position During 6-Months Follow-Up 
Purpose:
To evaluate the position stability of a phakic intraocular lens (Cachet pIOL; Alcon, Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) in the anterior chamber (AC) during a 6-months follow-up.
Methods:
Thirty eyes of 16 subjects underwent a Cachet pIOL implantation for the correction of high myopia from -6.50 to -16.00 D with plano targeted refraction. The position stability of the Cachet pIOL was evaluated using an Anterior Segment-OCT (AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany) at 1- and 6-months postoperatively. Three measurements have been taken into account: 1) the minimum distance between the anterior surface of the Cachet pIOL optic disk and the central corneal endothelium; 2) the minimum distance between the optic disk’s edges of the pIOL and the endothelium; 3) the minimum distance between the posterior surface of the pIOL optic disk and the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. The endothelial cell density (ECD) was also recorded.
Results:
No statistically significant changes of the Cachet pIOL position in the AC were found during follow-up. The average changes were ≤0.1 mm between 1- and 6-months postoperatively (P>0.05). At the end of follow-up, The mean ECD loss was 0.7 % (from 2794 ± 337 cell/mm2 to 2776 ± 388 cell/mm2; P>0.05).
Conclusion:
A high position stability of the Cachet pIOL in the anterior chamber was shown during a 6-months follow-up.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010020
PMCID: PMC3722538  PMID: 23898355
Phakic IOL; high myopia; cachet; anterior segment oct.
14.  The Incidence of Blindness Due to Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in the UK 
Purpose:
To determine the incidence of blindness secondary to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in the United Kingdom.
Methods:
New cases of blindness occurring secondary to IIH were identified prospectively through the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU) from October 2005 to November 2006. Only idiopathic cases of intracranial hypertension and those meeting the World Health Organisation`s definition of blindness were included. Cases that were already blind or had already been blind registered before the study period were excluded.
Results:
There were 24 new cases of registerable blindness secondary to IIH reported during the 12 month period. Questionnaires were completed for 19 cases. Of these 19 cases, 3 were not truly idiopathic and 3 cases did not fulfil the strict criteria for blindness. One case was a duplicate report. There were 12 definite cases of blindness secondary to IIH giving a UK incidence of blindness secondary to IIH of 0.6-2% (assuming a UK population of 63.2 million and an incidence of IIH of 1-3/100,000). If the 5 cases reported as blind but without a completed questionnaire are assumed to be true cases then the incidence of blindness would be 1-3%.
Conclusions:
The results of this study suggest that approximately 1-2% of new cases of IIH are likely to become blind in a given year. This contrasts with rates of between 4-10% reported previously in hospital-based studies, but may be a more accurate figure for the population as a whole. Under-ascertainment and improving standards of care may also have contributed to the lower figure than previously reported.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010026
PMCID: PMC3722545  PMID: 23898356
Blindness; intracranial hypertension; pseudotumour cerebri.
15.  Morphology of Optic Disc Through Heidelberg Retina Tomograph in Retinal Vein Occlusions Alone or in Combination with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma§ 
Purpose:
To evaluate the morphology of optic discs in eyes suffering from retinal vein occlusion (RVO) alone or in combination with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
Methods:
Prospective, observational study. 48 consecutive patients were enrolled, 30 with unilateral RVO diagnosis, 18 with unilateral retinal vein occlusion (RVO) associated with POAG. We divided RVOs on the basis of occlusion site: arterio-venous crossing (AV-RVO), optic cup (OC-RVO), optic nerve (ON-RVO) with head nerve swelling (ONHS-RVO) or without it (NONHS-RVO). A control group of 25 patients who were sex and age matched was selected.
Results:
Comparing the fellow eyes of the patients with RVO and control healthy eyes, no differences emerged in cup/disc ratio but they came out for the HRT values in Rim Area, cup shape measure and height variation contour (p<0.05).
The most frequent occlusion site was at the level of an arteriovenous crossing in patients not suffering from POAG (36.7%) and at the level of the optic cup in patients with RVO and POAG (50%). In the RVO group without POAG, the OC-RVO subgroup has shown an higher cup area (0.366±0.094) and cup/disc area ratio (0.184±0.063), a lower rim volume (0.374±0.021) and a different cup shape measure (-0.221±0.066) (p<0.05) compared with the AV and NONHS sites. Compared with NONHS group differences emerged also for the fibres parameters and in the height variation contour (0.346±0.081). Also in the RVO group with POAG significant differences (p<0.05) have been surveyed between OC-RVO and other occlusion sites in cup area (0.119±0.029), cup/disc area ratio (0.532±0.09), rim volume (0.374±0.07), cup/shape measure (-0.079±0.013).
Conclusions:
Classification of the analyzed parameters on the basis of the occlusion site provides a basis for which clinical decisions and research on causal factors in future studies can be based on.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010034
PMCID: PMC3744860  PMID: 23961303
Optic disc; retinal vein occlusion (RVO); glaucoma; HRT.
16.  Changes in Day 1 Post-Operative Intraocular Pressure Following Sutureless 23-Gauge and Conventional 20-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy 
Background/Aims:
The benefits associated with transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy techniques are continuing to be defined. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of extreme changes in day 1 intraocular pressure (IOP) following 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy compared with conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy.
Methods:
Fifty consecutive 23-gauge and 50 consecutive 20-gauge cases were included; eyes with a history of previous vitreoretinal surgery were excluded. 23-gauge surgery was completed with passive fluid air exchange where no long acting tamponade was indicated. The surgery remained sutureless unless a leak was visible at the end of the procedure. Data were collected by retrospective case note review. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s exact and chi-square tests.
Results:
Twenty-two percent (11/50) of 23-gauge vitrectomies required suturing of one or more ports. On the first post-operative day hypotony (IOP<5mmHg) occurred in 1/50 eyes in the 20- and 23-gauge groups. Raised pressure (IOP>21mmHg) occurred in 30% (15/50) of eyes in the 20-gauge group and 8% (4/50) of eyes in the 23-gauge group; IOP>30mmHg only occurred in the 20-gauge group (3/50).
Conclusion:
Fluid air exchange following 23-gauge vitrectomy is associated with very low risk of day 1 hypotony. This predominantly sutureless technique appears to reduce the incidence and magnitude of early post-operative IOP elevation compared with conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010042
PMCID: PMC3763675  PMID: 24015163
Transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy; 23-gauge vitrectomy; post-operative hypotony; post-operative IOP.
17.  Experience Using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 with a Wide-Field Contact Lens System in Diabetic Retinopathy Cases 
Introduction:
HRA (Heiderberg Retina Angiograph) 2 uses a confocal scanning laser system which can provide high quality digital images but its imaging field is only 30°at most. HRA2 with a wide-field contact lens system allows an imaging field of up to 150°.
Methods:
We examined the advantages and disadvantages of HRA2, with a wide-field contact lens, for the evaluating diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Results:
HRA2 was beneficial for obtaining images of the entire retina simultaneously, without missing peripheral retinal non-perfusion and neovascularization. On the other hand, clear images connot be acquired in cases with media opacities such as corneal dystrophy, cataract and asteroid hyalosis, or in those with yellow tinted IOL.
Conclusions:
HRA2 with a wide-field contact lens is useful for visualizing peripheral retinal lesions in DR cases.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010054
PMCID: PMC3785056  PMID: 24082980
Heidelberg retina angiograph 2; wide-field contact lens; diabetic retinopathy.
18.  NAVILAS Laser System Focal Laser Treatment for Diabetic Macular Edema - One Year Results of a Case Series 
Purpose:
To report one year outcomes of focal Navigated Retina Laser Therapy (NAVILAS) for diabetic macular edema (DME).
Methods:
Retrospective cohort series of 7 diabetic patients treated with NAVILAS focal laser. Statistical analysis included descriptive and continuous variables (Best-corrected logMAR Visual Acuity and time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters) which were compared using a non-parametric procedure, the Friedman tests for repeated measures. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to denote statistical significance.
Results:
diabetic patients (4 male; 3 female) with an average age of 60.8 years (range 48-85 years) were included. All treated eyes were phakic; patients had an average hemoglobin A1C of 9.1 (range 7.8-11.7) at baseline and 8.0 (range 7.4-8.4) at 12 months. Six of the 7 patients had intravitreal bevacizumab injections prior to focal laser treatment with 1 patient having had more than 1 prior injection (total 3). At 12 months, median logMAR improved from 0.695 (± interquartile range 0.574) to 0.477 (± 0.573, p <0.001). OCT median central foveal thickness decreased from 248 (± 112) to 220 µm (± 41, p <0.001); total macular volume decreased from 7.84 (± 0.8) to 7.44 mm3 (± 0.7, p = 0.117); and largest macular subfield thickness decreased from 354 (± 116) to 289 µm (± 42, p <0.001). All patients were treated without complications.
Conclusions:
Focal NAVILAS showed to be safe and effective in treating DME with improvement in visual acuity and macular edema on OCT over 12 months in this case series. In clinical practice, combined treatment with focal laser including NAVILAS and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor may provide long-term improvement in DME.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010048
PMCID: PMC3785058  PMID: 24082979
Anti-VEGF; bevacizumab; diabetes; focal laser photocoagulation; macular edema; NAVILAS.
19.  Efficacy of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection in Acute Nonarteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy: A Long-Term Follow Up§ 
Background:
To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal ranibizumab injection in eyes with acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION).
Subjects and Methods:
In this retrospective clinical data analysis, 17 eyes of sixteen patients who experienced a visual loss with duration of 15 days or less comprised the study group. In addition to standard ophthalmic examination, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) analysis with spectral domain OCT was also performed prior to 0.5 mg Ranibizumab injection, one week, one, three, six months and one year after the injection.
Results:
The mean time between visual loss and intravitreal injection was 7.5 days (Range, 2-15 days). Mean age of patients was 59 years (Range, 41-90 years). Male to female ratio was 6:10. After a single dose of ranibizumab injection, visual gain was noted in 14 of 17 study eyes. In two eyes, visual acuity was minimally reduced and no change was noted in the remaining eye with an initial visual acuity of hand motions. While pre-injection mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.45 ±0.88 log Mar unit, post-injection mean BCVA was 1.00±0.68, 0.86 ±0.70, 0.80 ±0.71, 0.77 ±0.70, 0.77 ±0.70 log Mar unit respectively at the first week, first month, third month, sixth month and first year. In all patients, the mean RNFLT dramatically decreased after the injection during the follow- up. While pre-injection mean RNFLT was 210 ±38 µm, post-injection mean RNFLT was 162.11±40.2, 94±27, 71.23±22.5, 63 ±19 and 57 ±18 µm respectively at the first week, first month, third month, sixth month and first year. No injection related complication was noted during the follow-up period.
Conclusion:
Intravitreal ranibizumab injection can be a treatment modality in eyes with acute NAION.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010058
PMCID: PMC3795401  PMID: 24133556
Intravitreal injection; nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; optic coherence tomography; optic nerve; ranibizumab.
20.  Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy with Crosslinking for Keratoconus 
Purpose:
To analyse visual, refractive and topographic outcomes of combining transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) with simultaneous corneal crosslinking for the visual rehabilitation of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients.
Methods:
Patients with topographically significant keratoconus, limited corrected vision and intolerant of contact lenses were prospectively recruited, subject to ethical approval and consent. All patients underwent single step aspheric tPRK and sequential crosslinking. Preoperative vision, refraction, corneal topography and wavefront were assessed, with postoperative assessment at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.
Results:
22 eyes of 14 patients were included in the pilot study. Mean age was 32 years (SD 6.8, range 24 to 43). Mean preoperative unaided vision was 1.39 LogMAR (SD 0.5) best corrected 0.31 LogMAR (SD 0.2). Mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -2.74 Diopters (D) (SD 4.1 range -12.25 to +7.75), and mean cylinder -2.9 D (SD 1.2, range 0 to -5.5). Mean central corneal thickness was 461um (SD 29, range 411 to 516). Vision improved postoperatively; unaided 0.32 LogMAR (SD 0.4), best corrected 0.11 (SD 0.13) (P=<0.005). Mean postoperative cylinder was -1.4D (SD1.2), significantly reduced (p<0.005). Maximum keratometry (Kmax) was stable throughout postoperative follow up. (p<0.05).
Conclusions:
Non topographic transepithelial PRK with simultaneous crosslinking improves vision, and may offer an alternative to keratoplasty in contact lens intolerant keratoconus. Further comparative studies to topographic PRK techniques are indicated.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010063
PMCID: PMC3821082  PMID: 24222809
Keratoconus; photorefractive keratectomy; collagen crosslinking therapy (CXL); tPRK.
21.  The Effect of 3D Visual Simulator on Children’s Visual Acuity - A Pilot Study Comparing Two Different Modalities 
Purpose :
To evaluate the efficacy of two non-surgical interventions of vision improvement in children.
Methods :
A prospective, randomized, pilot study to compare fogging method and the use of head mounted 3D display. Subjects were children, between 5 to 15 years old, with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and up to -3D myopia. Subjects played a video game as near point work, and received one of the two methods of treatments. Measurements of uncorrected far visual acuity (UCVA), refraction with autorefractometer, and subjective accommodative amplitude were taken 3 times, at the baseline, after the near work, and after the treatment.
Results :
Both methods applied after near work, improved UCVA. Head mounted 3D display group showed significant improvement in UCVA and resulted in better UCVA than baseline. Fogging group showed improvement in subjective accommodative amplitude. While 3D display group did not show change in the refraction, fogging group’s myopic refraction showed significant increase indicating the eyes showed myopic change of eyes after near work and treatment.
Discussion :
Despite our lack of clear knowledge in the mechanisms, both methods improved UCVA after the treatments. The improvement in UCVA was not correlated to measured refraction values.
Conclusion :
UCVA after near work can be improved by repeating near and distant accommodation by fogging and 3D image viewing, although at the different degrees. Further investigation on mechanisms of improvements and their clinical significance are warranted.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010069
PMCID: PMC3821097  PMID: 24222810
3D; fogging ; myopia; vision; visual acuity.
22.  Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy – A Type I Polypoidal Subretinal Neovasculopathy 
This 47 year old female developed the new onset of a polypoidal subretinal neovascular membrane in the left eye 13 years after having polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated in the right eye. The indocyanine green (ICG) angiography of the left eye at initial presentation showed a normal choroidal vascular pattern without PCV. The new development of a PCV complex on ICG angiography demonstrates that PCV is truly a type of subretinal neovascularization, and not a choroidal vascular abnormality. The optical coherence tomography shows that the polypoidal vascular complex lies above Bruch’s membrane and beneath the retinal pigment epithelium, and not within the choroid. Treatment with high dose ranibizumab (2.0 mg) resulted in excellent polyp closure and regression of the branching vascular network. The documented new development of polypoidal subretinal vessels on ICG angiography and the response to ranibizumab supports that PCV is a polypoidal neovasculopathy (PNV).
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010082
PMCID: PMC3831305  PMID: 24265653
Subretinal neovascularization; polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; ranibizumab; serous retinal detachment; branching vascular network; macular edema.
23.  Cross-Linking as an Adjuvant Treatment for Tectonic Corneal Lamellar Graft Preparation 
Purpose:
To describe a new surgical approach for the tectonic reconstruction of the anterior ocular segment and the management of scleral and conjuctival melting.
Methods:
Case series of patients demonstrating anterior segment anomalies, such as scleral and conjunctival melting. The anterior stromal part of a pre-cut corneal graft for Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) was cross-linked with riboflavin and ultraviolet A irradiation and was used to cover scleral (scleral melting in a patient with necrotizing scleritis, one case) and conjuctival (dehiscence of the conjunctiva in patients with anti-glaucomatous valve exposure, two cases) areas. The endothelial part of all corneal grafts was used for DSAEK in patients with need of corneal endothelial transplantation.
Results:
Repair of scleral and conjuctival melting was successful in all cases. No intra- or post- operative complications occured. Visual acuity of all patients remained stable during the follow up period. One year postoperatively the corneal graft remained in place and no signs of inflammation were evident, while all grafts were epithelialized.
Conclusions:
The use of cross-linked corneal graft for the tectonic reconstruction of the anterior ocular segment represents an adequate surgical approach for the management of scleral and conjuctival melting; while, at the same time it offers the advantage of using one corneal graft for two recipients.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010079
PMCID: PMC3837367  PMID: 24278090
Corneal collagen cross-linking; scleral melting; conjuctival melting; corneal transplantation.
24.  Adverse Effects of the Oral Anticancer Drug S-1: Lacrimal Passage Impairment and Specific Features of Corneal Epitheliopathy 
We report the incidence of lacrimal passage impairment and specific features of corneal epitheliopathy as adverse effects of the oral anticancer drug S-1, and examine the relationship between the two pathologies. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 84 patients prescribed the anticancer drug S-1. The incidence of lacrimal passage impairment and corneal epitheliopathy was 8% and 6%, respectively. Three patients experienced both pathologies, demonstrating a moderate probability of both occurring in the same patient (kappa coefficient = 0.46). The findings show that lacrimal passage impairment and specific features of corneal epitheliopathy are likely to occur in the same individual as adverse effects of S-1.
doi:10.2174/1874364101307010085
PMCID: PMC3915315  PMID: 24511333
Antineoplastic agents; adverse effects; lacrimal duct obstruction; corneal diseases.
25.  Intraocular Hemorrhage After Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma in Sickle Cell Trait 
Massive intraocular hemorrhage developed in a child with advanced unilateral retinoblastoma after intrarterial treatment with Melphalan and Topotecan. The child tested positive for sickle cell trait. Sickle cell trait may predispose such children to slower vascular transit time, hypoxia, sickling and vascular occlusion caused by catheter induced decreased flow. Enucleation confirmed the ultrasound and selective angiogram findings in addition to a completely calcified tumor. Clinicians should be on the lookout for the association of sickle-cell disease/trait and intraocular hemorrhages after intraarterial chemotherapy to fully understand its clinical significance.
doi:10.2174/1874364101206010001
PMCID: PMC3267092  PMID: 22291865
Retinoblastoma; sickle cell; intra-arterial chemotherapy; enucleation.

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