In pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) effective measures have been taken while in analyzing a patient’s intervention with the help of entry to exit evaluations. The absence of an objective and quantifiable scale are limitations of PR that allow analyzing of a patient’s self reported symptoms throughout PR. The Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS©) is used to predict patient exacerbations by evaluating common symptoms identified in the COPD population. This study used the BCSS© survey to track complex symptom changes throughout the course of PR intervention. The BCSS© tool measured the patient’s self reported symptoms in real time for each visit when patient enrolled in PR.
Thirty-five patients with COPD from three outpatient PR centers were asked to report the severity of breathlessness, cough, and sputum prior to each PR session using the BCSS© survey.
There was a significant decrease in self reported symptoms of the mean BCSS© score from entry 4.6(± 2.9) to exit 2.3 (± 2.5), p < 0.001. The results showed variable decrease in the self reported symptoms with more PR visits. The secondary outcome showed high correlations with quality of life measures using the Pulmonary Function Status Scale (PFSS) on entry and exit to PR.
The BCSS© tool is an effective means for measuring the impact of PR on improving patient tolerance and self-reported symptoms as a result of COPD. More research is needed to better assess the complex symptoms of COPD patients in PR to enhance programmatic outcomes.
Rehabilitation; quality of life; dyspnea; cough; sputum.
While tissue hypoxia is known to play a critical role in the process of vascular injury and repair, the effect of hypercapnia on this process remains uncertain. We investigated whether hypercapnia might influence endothelial cell wound healing under the influence of hypoxia.
Materials and Methodology:
Monolayers of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were scratch-wounded and incubated under different levels of O2, CO2, and pH in the environment.
Inhibition of wound healing was observed in the HUVEC monolayers under the hypoxic condition as compared to the normoxic condition. Both hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia, but not normocapnic acidosis improved the rate of wound healing under the influence of hypoxia. The beneficial effect of hypercapnia was associated with stimulation of cell proliferation, without effects on cell adhesion, migration or apoptosis. On the other hand, the stimulatory effect of hypercapnia on wound healing and cell proliferation was not noted under normoxic conditions.
These results suggest that hypercapnia, rather than acidosis per se, accelerated the wound healing in HUVEC monolayers cultured under hypoxic conditions. The effect of hypercapnia on wound healing was due, at least in part, to the stimulation of cell proliferation by hypercapnia.
Endothelial cell; hypoxia; hypercapnia; acidosis; wound healing.
Refractory asthma represents an important condition, with considerable morbidity and mortality. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a potential target for treatment of severe asthma. However, controlled studies have shown controversial results and the risk-benefit profile of TNF-blocking agents is still debated.
To describe the effect of infliximab on asthma control in patients with severe, uncontrolled, steroid-dependent asthma.
From 2007 to 2010, 7 patients received infliximab in our center. All had severe refractory asthma, with frequent severe exacerbations and hospitalizations in the intensive care unit despite maximal inhaled treatment, daily oral steroids and omalizumab treatment.
Asthma control improved in the 6 patients who received infliximab for at least 3 months. Oral steroids could be stopped in 4 and the frequency of exacerbations and hospitalizations was greatly reduced, especially for the 3 patients with brittle asthma. Two patients showed severe adverse effects (bacterial pneumonia and extension of spreading melanoma). Three patients have received infliximab for more than 2 years, with good tolerance.
This case series suggests that anti-TNF-α drugs may improve the condition of a subgroup of patients with severe steroid-refractory asthma, with a favourable risk-benefit profile for most, considering asthma severity, occurrence of life-threatening exacerbations and complications of long-term oral steroids. Specific controlled trials of this subgroup are warranted.
TNF-α; severe refractory asthma; anti-TNF-α drug; brittle asthma.
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tigecycline (TGC) versus levofloxacin (LEV) in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using pooled data and to perform exploratory analyses of risk factors associated with poor outcome.
Materials and Methodology:
Pooled analyses of 2 phase 3 studies in patients randomized to intravenous (IV) TGC (100 mg, then 50 mg q12h) or IV LEV (500 mg q24h or q12h). Clinical responses at test of cure visit for the clinically evaluable (CE) and clinical modified intention to treat populations were assessed for patients with risk factors including aged ≥65 years, prior antibiotic failure, bacteremia, multilobar disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcohol abuse, altered mental status, hypoxemia, renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, white blood cell count >30 x 109/L or <4 x 109/L, CURB-65 score ≥2, Fine score category of III to V and at least 2 clinical instability criteria on physical examination.
In the CE population of 574 patients, overall cure rates were similar: TGC (253/282, 89.7%); LEV (252/292, 86.3%). For all but one risk factor, cure rates for TGC were similar to or higher than those for LEV. For individual risk factors, the greatest difference between treatment groups was observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (difference of 22.9 for TGC versus LEV; 95% confidence interval, 4.8 - 39.9).
TGC achieved cure rates similar to those of LEV in hospitalized patients with CAP. For patients with risk factors, TGC provided generally favorable clinical outcomes.
Community-acquired pneumonia; glycylcycline; risk factors; tigecycline.
The “Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)“ is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to validate this ICF Core Set from the perspective of physicians.
Materials and Methodology:
Physicians experienced in COPD treatment were asked about the patients’ problems treated by physicians in patients with COPD in a three-round electronic mail survey using the Delphi technique. Responses were linked to the ICF.
Seventy-six physicians in 44 countries gave a total of 1330 responses that were linked to 148 different ICF categories. Nine ICF categories were not represented in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for COPD although at least 75% of the participants have rated them as important. Nineteen concepts were linked to the not yet developed ICF component personal factors and seventeen concepts were not covered by the ICF.
The high percentage of ICF categories represented in the ICF Core Set for COPD indicates satisfactory content validity from the perspective of the physicians. However, some issues were raised that were not covered and need to be investigated further.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthma; rehabilitation; international classification of functioning; disability and health; ICF core set.
The aim is to correlate pulmonary arterial (PA) remodeling estimated by PA fibrosis in PA hypertension (PAH) with clinical follow-up. Histology of PA specimens is also performed.
19 patients, aged 54±16 (4 men), functional class II-III were studied with right heart catheterization, PA Intravascular Ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in inferior lobe segment. PA wall fibrosis was obtained by OCT ( area of fibrosis/PA cross sectional area × 100). Patients follow-up was blind to OCT. Events were defined as mortality, lung transplantation, need of intravenous prostaglandins or onset of right ventricular failure.
OCT measurements showed high intra- and interobserver agreement. There was a good correlation between OCT and histology in PA fibrosis from explanted lungs. Area of fibrosis was 1.4±0.8 mm2, % fibrosis was 22.3±8. Follow-up was 3.5 years (2.5-4.5). OCT %Fib was significantly correlated with PA capacitance (r=-0.536) and with pulmonary vascular rsistance (r=0.55). Patients were divided according to the median value of PA fibrosis. There were 10 patients with a high (≥ 22%) and 9 with a low fibrosis (<22%). Events occurred in 6 (1 death, 1 lung transplantation, 2 intravenous prostaglandins, 2 right heart failure) out of 10 patients with high and in 0 out of 9 patients with low fibrosis (p<0.01).
In PAH, the severity of PA remodeling assessed by OCT wall fibrosis was significantly predictive of severely unfavorable clinical outcome. In vivo assessment of pulmonary arterial wall fibrosis by intravascular OCT in PAH is a promising new prognostic marker of adverse clinical outcome.
Catheterization; pulmonary heart disease; prognosis; remodeling.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia develops in preterm infants due to a combination of lung immaturity and lung injury. Cultured pluripotent bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) are known to reduce injury and induce repair in adult and in immature lungs, possibly through paracrine secretion of soluble factors. The paracrine relationship between BMSC and primary fetal lung epithelial type II cells is unknown. We determined the effects of BMSC on type II cell and fibroblast behavior using an in vitro co-culture model. Rat BMSC were isolated and co-cultured with primary fetal E21 rat type II cells or lung fibroblasts in a Transwell® system without direct cell contact. Effects of BMSC conditioned media (CM) on type II cell and fibroblast proliferation and on type II cell surfactant phospholipid (DSPC) synthesis and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins B and C (sftpb and sftpc) were studied. We also determined the effect of fibroblast and type II cell CM on BMSC proliferation and surface marker expression. Co-culture with BMSC significantly decreased type II cell and fibroblast proliferation to 72.5% and 83.7% of controls, respectively. Type II cell DSPC synthesis was significantly increased by 21% and sftpb and sftpc mRNA expressions were significantly induced (2.1 fold and 2.4 fold, respectively). BMSC proliferation was significantly reduced during the co-culture. Flow cytometry confirmed that BMSC retained the expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers despite their exposure to fetal lung cell CM. We conclude that BMSC induce fetal type II cell differentiation through paracrine release of soluble factors. These studies provide clues for how BMSC may act in promoting alveolar repair following injury.
Lung development; surfactant; proliferation; co-culture; lung fibroblasts.
Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may occur in mitochondrial disorders (MD) and can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. It is difficult and invasive to measure systemic nitric oxide. NO is formed in the lungs and can be detected in expired air. Currently, hand-held fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement devices are available enabling a fast in-office analysis of this non-invasive test. It was postulated that FeNO levels might be reduced in MD.
Sixteen subjects with definite MD by modified Walker criteria (4 to 30 years of age) and sixteen healthy control subjects of similar age, race and body mass index (BMI) underwent measurement of FeNO in accordance with the American Thoracic Society guidelines.
Sixteen patient-control pairs were recruited. The median FeNO level was 6.5 ppm (IQR: 4-9.5) and 10.5 ppm (IQR: 8-20.5) in the MD and control groups, respectively. In 13 pairs (81%), the FeNO levels were lower in the MD cases than in the matched controls (p=0.021). Eleven (69%) cases had very low FeNO levels (≤7ppm) compared to only 1 control (p=0.001). All cases with enzymatic deficiencies in complex I had FeNO ≤7ppm.
Single-breath exhaled nitric oxide recordings were decreased in patients with MD. This pilot study suggests that hand-held FeNO measurements could be an attractive non-invasive indicator of MD. In addition, measurement of FeNO could be used as a parameter to monitor therapeutic response in this population.
Mitochondrial disorder; exhaled nitric oxide; FeNO; walker criteria; modified walker criteria; NIOX MINO.
Initial blood cultures (BCs) with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are warranted. However, other than severity, the specific contributing factors that affect the decision to change antimicrobial agents have not been evaluated previously.
Consecutive adults with CAP hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2010 were assessed retrospectively. We enrolled those who were over 18 years old with typical symptoms of pneumonia and with an infiltrate consistent with pneumonia, from which 2 sets of BCs were obtained. Those who had been immunocompromised, hospitalized, or prescribed antibiotics in the past 30 days were excluded. We retrospectively assessed the factors contributing to the change in antimicrobial agents as well as the frequency of these changes in the enrolled patients based on the initial BC results.
In total, 793 patients with initial diagnosis of CAP were admitted; 399 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 386 were made definitive diagnosis of CAP after admission (the remaining 13 were made alternative diagnosis [non-pneumonia illnesses]). BC results were positive in 17 (4.4%) out of 386 CAP patients, among whom antimicrobial therapy was changed based on the BC results in 8 (2.1%) (Pneumonia Severity Index [PSI] grade IV; 2, PSI grade V; 6). Alternative diagnosis after admission was contributing factors for changing antimicrobial agents based on the positive blood culture results.
The use of BCs should be limited to patients with very severe cases. It would be helpful to find alternative diagnosis and modify treatment.
Blood cultures; community-acquired pneumonia; antimicrobial agents.
Centrilobular emphysema (CLE) is recognized as low attenuation areas (LAA) with centrilobular pattern on high-resolution computed tomography (CT). However, several shapes of LAA are observed. Our preliminary study showed three types of LAA in CLE by CT-pathologic correlations. This study was performed to investigate whether the morphological features of LAA affect pulmonary functions.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 73 Japanese patients with stable CLE (63 males, 10 females) were evaluated visually by CT and classified into three subtypes based on the morphology of LAA including shape and sharpness of border; patients with CLE who shows round or oval LAA with well-defined border (Subtype A), polygonal or irregular-shaped LAA with ill-defined border (Subtype B), and irregular-shaped LAA with ill-defined border coalesced with each other (Subtype C). CT score, pulmonary function test and smoking index were compared among three subtypes.
Twenty (27%), 45 (62%) and 8 cases (11%) of the patients were grouped into Subtype A, Subtype B and Subtype C, respectively. In CT score and smoking index, both Subtype B and Subtype C were significantly higher than Subtype A. In FEV1%, Subtype C was significantly lower than both Subtype A and Subtype B. In diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide, Subtype B was significantly lower than Subtype A.
The morphological differences of LAA may relate with an airflow limitation and alveolar diffusing capacity. To assess morphological features of LAA may be helpful for the expectation of respiratory function.
Centrilobular emphysema; subtype; pulmonary function test; CT.
There have been an increasing number of pediatric reports of septic pulmonary embolism in the setting of septic thrombophlebitis adjacent to a primary infectious source.
Retrospective review at an urban hospital. A total of five adults with a documented primary infectious source, adjacent septic thrombophlebitis and septic pulmonary embolism were identified between 2000 and 2011.
The predominant symptoms on presentation were fever and pleuritic chest pain, followed by chills and cough. S. aureus was the pathogen in 4 patients. Only one case had echocardiographic evidence of endocarditis. All patients received IV antibiotics and anticoagulation therapy. No new embolic events or central nervous system complications were noted.
The triad of extrapulmonary infection, contiguous septic thrombophlebitis and septic pulmonary embolism is present in adult as well as pediatric populations. The use of systemic anticoagulation with appropriate antibiotics resulted in clinical and radiologic improvement but no significant complications.
Septic thrombophlebitis; septic pulmonary emboli; anticoagulation.
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is often used in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), though questions remain about the influence gender, ethnicity, and body morphometry have in the responses to this questionnaire. The aim of this study was to examine differences in ESS scores between various demographic groups of patients referred for polysomnography, and the relationship of these score to sleep-disordered breathing
Nineteen hundred consecutive patients referred for polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA completed questionnaires, including demographic data and ESS. OSA was determined based on a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥15 by polysomnography.
In this high risk population for OSA, the ESS was 10.7 ± 5.6. The highest ESS scores were seen in obese males; non-obese females and non-obese Caucasian males scored the lowest. ESS was weakly correlated with RDI (r = 0.17, P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of ESS for the diagnosis of OSA was 54% and the specificity was 57%. The positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 64% and 47%, respectively. In obese subjects, the sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 53%, compared with 47% and 63% in non-obese subjects. In obese, Hispanic males, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were 59%, 54%, and 84%, respectively. In non-obese, Caucasian females, the sensitivity, specificity, and NPV were 43%, 59%, and 72%.
The ESS appears to be affected by many factors, including gender, ethnicity, and body morphometry. The ability of the ESS to predict OSA is modest, despite a significant correlation with the severity of OSA. The test characteristics improve significantly when applied to select populations, especially those at risk for OSA.
Ethnicity; gender; obstructive sleep apnea; epworth sleepiness scale; screening.
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the two most prominent chronic inflammatory lung diseases with increasing prevalence. Both diseases are associated with mild or severe remodeling of the airways. In this review, we postulate that the pathologies of asthma and COPD may result from inadequate responses and/or a deregulated balance of a group of cell differentiation regulating factors, the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins (C/EBPs). In addition, we will argue that the exposure to environmental factors, such as house dust mite and cigarette smoke, changes the response of C/EBPs and are different in diseased cells. These novel insights may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of the diseases and may provide new aspects for therapies.
Asthma; COPD; airway inflammation; airway wall remodelling; CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.
to describe the frequency of sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly;to identify the proportion of candidates for treatment with positive airway pressure;to report our experience with the positive pressure titration process in acromegaly patients.
A cross-sectional study that included the acromegaly cohort at the Centro Medico Nacional “20 de Noviembre” in Mexico City (n=44). A standard polysomnography (PSG) was carried out for each patient. A second PSG was done for purposes of CPAP titration.
A total of 35 patients were studied (80% of the cohort, 20 [57%] women). Polysomnography results showed that 34 subjects (97%, 95%CI 91-100%) had apnea hypopnea indexes (AHI) ≥ 5. No patient had central apnea. We identified 19 subjects with AHI ≥5 and Epworth ≥10, for a frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome of 54% (95%CI 36-71%). A total of 31 patients (88%; 95%CI 77-99%) were deemed to be candidates for positive pressure treatment, but only 8 of them accepted CPAP. They required pressures that ranged from 10 to 18 cmH2O.
Our results confirm a high prevalence of sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly, and provide evidence that the majority of those patients are candidates for treatment with positive pressure. Contrary to what has been reported, we identified no patients with central apnea.
Acromegaly; sleep; sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing; growth hormone.
Even with high coverage of vaccination programs, Bordetella pertussis is still reported in various countries. It causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in infants while it could be asymptomatic in adults. At the present study, we are going to evaluate the frequency of B. pertussis among received specimens.
This cross-sectional study was performed on 138 children under one year who were suspected to have whooping cough from October 2008 to March in 2011. Nasopharyngeal dacron and rayon swabs and sera were used for PCR and serology respectively.
The mean age of the subjects was 1.9± 0.9 months. PCR was positive in 12 cases; ELISA was in agreement with PCR results except in one case that showed the specific antibody at borderline limit.
The rate of reported positive results showed that pertussis not only is still present in the community, but the number of the asymptomatic cases who are able to transmit the disease may be considerable.
Whooping cough; B. pertussis; PCR; ELISA.
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are preferred first-line controller agents for adults and adolescents with asthma. There is limited effectiveness data comparing ICS to leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) in children with asthma aged 4 to 11 years.
A retrospective, matched cohort study was conducted using medical and pharmacy claims data. Asthma patients (ICD-9, 493.xx) naïve to any asthma controller therapy, and having ≥1 dispensing of fluticasone propionate 44 mcg (FP44), an ICS, or montelukast any dose (MON), an LTRA, were identified. Drug cohorts were matched (1:2) using propensity scores. Outcomes during follow-up included asthma-related ED visits, composite measure of asthma-related ED/hospital visit, asthma-related costs per month, and monthly rescue medication use. Statistical differences between cohorts were evaluated using multivariate regression models.
The final matched sample included 6,636 patients (FP44=2,212; MON=4,424). During follow-up, the FP44 cohort had a 29% significantly lower risk of an asthma-related ED visit (Hazard ratio (95% CI) =0.71 (0.52, 0.96)) compared to the MON cohort. Monthly asthma-related costs were significantly reduced on average by 36% in the FP44 compared to the MON cohort ($48 vs $75, p<0.05). Use of short-acting beta-agonists per month were similar between cohorts but monthly adjusted number of oral corticosteroid prescriptions were significantly lower in the FP44 compared to the MON cohort (0.03 vs 0.04, p<0.001).
Initiation of FP44 versus MON in children with asthma aged 4 to 11 years is associated with a significant reduction in asthma-related ED visits, costs, and oral corticosteroid use.
Asthma; pediatrics; inhaled corticosteroids; leukotriene; receptor antagonists; outcomes; costs.
The key feature of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs of preterm infants. As a result, researchers have looked into the possibility of surfactant replacement therapy as a means of preventing and treating RDS. We sought to identify the role of surfactant in the prevention and management of RDS, comparing the various types, doses, and modes of administration, and the recent development. A PubMed search was carried out up to March 2012 using phrases: surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, protein-containing surfactant, protein-free surfactant, natural surfactant, animal-derived surfactant, synthetic surfactant, lucinactant, surfaxin, surfactant protein-B, surfactant protein-C.
Natural, or animal-derived, surfactant is currently the surfactant of choice in comparison to protein-free synthetic surfactant. However, it is hoped that the development of protein-containing synthetic surfactant, such as lucinactant, will rival the efficacy of natural surfactants, but without the risks of their possible side effects. Administration techniques have also been developed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and selective surfactant administration now recommended; multiple surfactant doses have also reported better outcomes. An aerosolised form of surfactant is being trialled in the hope that surfactant can be administered in a non-invasive way. Overall, the advancement, concerning the structure of surfactant and its mode of administration, offers an encouraging future in the management of RDS.
Surfactant; RDS; natural; synthetic; protein-free; protein-containing.
Measured reductions in lung function, as a result of COPD, use a measured current value and make comparisons to a determined ‘normal’ value arrived at using a regression equation based upon a patients height. Osteoporosis is a recognised co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may cause excessive height loss resulting in the ‘normal’ values and disease progression being under-estimated.
The aim of the study was to examine the height variation in a cohort of COPD patients and controls over a 7-8 years period and evaluate its impact on estimates of lung function and hence COPD progression.
In 1999-2002 we studied a cohort of primary care patients in Sunderland, UK with and without COPD and reexamined 104 (56 male) during 2007-2009. We calculated FEV1% predicted for actual and estimated height (armspan/1.03 and armspan/1.01 in males and females respectively).
In 1999-2002 the subjects were aged 62.6 ± 9.4 years, BMI was 26.4± 4.7 kg/m2, predicted FEV1 was 59.0 ±16.0, and mean actual height was 167.3±8.9cm. The actual height changed significantly (p<0.001) by 2cms over time in both genders. Whilst the overall classifications of the cohort did not change significantly when armspan was used to determine height and hence normal lung volume, individual cases did move to a classification of higher severity.
The study suggests that current measured height may underestimate the degree of impairment of FEV1 and hence progression of COPD. The use of height, derived from armspan, may give a more accurate measure of ‘normal’ lung volumes and hence the degree of impairment.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; historical height; osteoporosis.
With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease.
Lung; adverse drug reaction; drug-induced lung disease; mechanism of pulmonary toxicity; diagnosis; treatment; review.
The frequency of metabolic alkalosis among adults with stable severe CF-lung disease is unknown.
Retrospective chart review.
Fourteen CF and 6 COPD (controls) patients were included. FEV1 was similar between the two groups. PaO2 was significantly higher in the COPD (mean ± 2 SD is 72.0 ± 6.8 mmHg,) than in the CF group (56.1 ± 4.1 mmHg). The frequency of metabolic alkalosis in CF patients (12/14, 86%) was significantly greater (p=0.04) than in the COPD group (2/6, 33%). Mixed respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis was evident in 4 CF and 1 COPD patients. Primary metabolic alkalosis was observed in 8 CF and none of the COPD patients. One COPD patient had respiratory and metabolic alkalosis.
Metabolic alkalosis is more frequent in stable patients with CF lung disease than in COPD patients. This might be due to defective CFTR function with abnormal electrolyte transport within the kidney and/ or gastrointestinal tract.
Cystic fibrosis; metabolic alkalosis.
Percutanous needle biopsy of the lung (PNBL), under image guidance, has established itself as a safe and effective minimally-invasive method of obtaining a tissue diagnosis of pulmonary lesions, for selected patients with suspected pathologic processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of percutaneous core biopsy of the lung (PCBL) without Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB), with specific attention to potential risk factors that may predict post-biopsy pneumothorax.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of 75 consecutive PCBL procedures between January 2006 to March 2008 involving 72 patients with a documented pulmonary nodule or mass lesion on CT scan of Thorax. The study population included 38 males (52.8%) and 34 females (47.2%) aged 20-85 years (mean age 63.6 years). A co-axial cutting system with a 19-gauge outer needle and a 20-gauge inner automated cutting needle (Temno, Allegiance Healthcare Corporation, Ohio, USA) was used in all patients.
Lesions varied in size from 0.7cm to 10.7cm (mean maximum trans-axial diameter 3.1cm). The mean number of core biopsy samples obtained was 3.1 (range 1-5). Of the 75 PCBL procedures, 71 yielded specimens adequate for histopathologic evaluation, consistent with a technical success rate of 95%. Malignancy was detected in 48 specimens (64%) and benign diagnoses were identified in 23 specimens (31%). As mentioned, 4 specimens (5%) were nondiagnostic. The most common biopsy-induced complication was pneumothorax, occurring in 15 patients (20%), with 4 (5.3%) requiring thoracostomy tube placement.
PCBL without FNAB, under CT fluoroscopy guidance, has an excellent diagnostic accuracy in obtaining a conclusive histologic diagnosis of thoracic lesions and is comparable to FNAB in terms of safety and rates of occurence of complications.
Percutaneous biopsy of lung; non-fine needle; efficacy; safety.
Rickettsiosis, Q fever, tularemia, and anthrax are all bacterial diseases that can affect the pleura. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) are caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, respectively. Pleural fluid from a patient with MSF had a neutrophil-predominant exudate. Coxiella
burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Of the two cases described in the literature, one was an exudate with a marked eosinophilia while the other case was a transudate due to a constrictive pericarditis. Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Pleural fluid from three tularemia patients showed a lymphocyte predominant exudate. Bacillus
anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Cases of inhalational anthrax from a recent bioterrorist attack evidenced the presence of a serosanguineous exudative pleural effusion. These four bacterial microorganisms should be suspected in patients presenting with a clinical history, exposure to known risk factors and an unexplained pleural effusion.
Rickettsia; Q fever; tularemia; anthrax; pleural disease.
Non-specific lung inflammatory events caused by severe asphyxia may be intensified by the way we resuscitate the newly born. Assessing lung injury is potentially important because if alternative resuscitation approaches induces similar inflammatory responses or less lung injury. then we may choose the resuscitation approach that is most gentle, and easiest to perform and learn. We investigated the levels of lung inflammatory markers by comparing different ventilation, chest compression and inhaled oxygen fraction strategies in resuscitation of newly born pigs at cardiac arrest.
Materials and Methodology:
Progressive asphyxia in newborn pigs was induced until asystole occurred. With current resuscitation guidelines as a reference group, pigs were randomized to receive initial ventilation before chest compressions for 30s, 60s or 90s, or to compression-to-ventilation ratios 3:1or 9:3, or to resuscitation using pure oxygen or air. We analysed inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), IL8 and TNFα, and lung tissue qPCR for genes matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)2, MMP9, TNFα and ICAM-1.
BAL-levels of TNFα and IL8 tended to be higher in the 30s group compared to 60s group (p = 0.028 and p = 0.023, respectively) as was gene expression in lung tissue of ICAM-1 and MMP2 (p=0.012 and p=0.043, respectively). MMP2 expression was slightly higher in the 30s group compared to 90s group (p = 0.020). No differences were found between pigs resuscitated with C:V ratio 9:3 and 3:1 or pure oxygen versus air.
Compared to current guidelines, with respect to lung injury, resuscitation with longer initial ventilation should be considered. Longer series of chest compressions did not change the lung inflammatory response, neither did the use of air instead of pure oxygen in severely asphyxiated pigs resuscitated from asystole.
Newborn; asphyxia; lung inflammation; room air; resuscitation; BAL; MMP2; MMP9; TNFα; IL8; ICAM-1.
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has allowed in detection of airway wall abnormalities and emphysema, whose extent may correlate with the clinical severity of the disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Six minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) can determine functional status.
A study was undertaken to investigate whether the extent of emphysema in COPD patients quantitatively confirmed by HRCT scoring was associated with distance walked, inspiratory capacity (IC) changes after exercise, anaerobic threshold of cardiopulmonary exercise and the BODE index (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise performance).
Seventeen patients with COPD underwent HRCT scanning, 6MWT and CPET. The emphysema score was highly correlated to forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.748, p<0.001), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r=-0.615, p<0.01), IC post exercise (r=-0.663, p<0.01) and dyspnea score post exercise (r=0.609, p<0.01), but was not associated with the BODE index. The distance walked during 6MWT was inversely correlated to emphysema score (r=-0.557, p<0.05). IC before exercise was highly related to the 6MWT. The change in IC after exercise was associated with the percent decline of oxygen saturation after exercise (r=0.633, p<0.01). Severity of lung emphysema in COPD patients was inversely correlated to VO2 max (r=-0.514, p<0.05) and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.595, p<0.01) of cardiopulmonary exercise.
These results suggest that COPD associated with emphysema on HRCT is characterized by more severe lung function impairment, greater exercise impairment and cardiopulmonary dysfunction.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; High-resolution computed tomography; Six-minute walk test; cardiopulmonary exercise test; Inspiratory capacity.
Information concerning the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is controversial. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: determine the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with SDB; explore whether the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms rises with increasing parameters of SDB severity; and investigate the factors potentially associated with anxiety and depression.
Materials and Methodology:
Data was collected from consecutive adult patients referred to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases’ Sleep Medicine Unit from October 2008 to October 2009. SDB diagnoses were established using standard polysomnography or simplified respiratory polygraphy. All patients routinely completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on their first visit to the Sleep Medicine Unit.
382 patients with SDB were included. Mean age was 50.8±13.6 years, 62% were male. Anxiety symptoms were acknowledged by 71 patients (18.5%), while 29 (7.6%) had depression symptoms, and 116 (30.4%) had symptoms of anxiety plus depression. Patients who reported anxiety and depression symptoms scored higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, 16±7) than those with no symptoms (11±6) (p<0.0001). Patients with symptoms of anxiety plus depression also had higher BMIs (36 ± 8 K/m2) than patients with SDB without anxiety or depression. No other differences were observed, not even with respect to the parameters of the severity of their SDB.
Our results support the recommendation that due to their high frequency and potential importance for long-term adherence to CPAP, anxiety and depression symptoms should be included in the routine evaluation of all adults with SDB.
Anxiety; depression; sleep-disordered breathing; sleep apnea; mood disorders.