Fifty-five consecutive cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), collected between 1996 and 1998 from Cairo, Egypt, were histologically subtyped, phenotyped, and then studied for the presence of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). We used immunohistochemical stains for EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and in situ hybridization stains for EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER-1) transcripts. Forty-five cases (82%) had classic HL (cHL), and ten cases (18%) had nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL), with each group expressing its typical phenotype. LMP-1 stains were positive in 63% and 0% of cHL and NLPHL cases, respectively. EBER-positive Reed–Sternberg cells and variants were also present in 62% and 0% of each group, respectively. The cHL cases showed variable EBER positivity: nodular sclerosis, 58%; mixed cellularity, 100%; lymphocyte depletion, 100%; and unclassifiable, 67%. Our findings are similar to those from other developing countries and point towards a pathogenic role of EBV in cHL.
Classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Epstein–Barr virus; EBER-1; LMP-1
Rapidly progressive heart failure is commonly caused by an extensive myocardial infarction, a mechanical complication of infarction, myocarditis, or acute valvular insufficiency. We present an unusual case that was caused by a diffuse infiltration of the myocardium with leukemic cells (myeloid sarcoma). The patient presented with episodic shortness of breath, he was anemic and thrombocytopenic, and his bone marrow biopsy revealed myelodysplastic syndrome from treatment for oligodendroglioma. His clinical course was characterized by a chronic leak of cardiac enzymes, a new right bundle branch block, and a large pericardial effusion causing tamponade and death from fulminant heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias within 2 weeks. At autopsy, the heart was massively infiltrated with myeloblasts and other immature myeloid cells. There was no evidence of acute leukemia in the bone marrow or peripheral blood. Cardiac infiltration in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome is extremely rare, especially in the absence of bone marrow involvement by blasts. The recognition of this entity is becoming increasingly important as the incidence of cardiac myeloid sarcoma may be on the rise as the number of patients receiving chemotherapy increases.
Myeloid sarcoma; Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome; Rapidly progressive heart failure; Leukemia cordis
Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, is an Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoma that most commonly involves the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract. Lung involvement by NK/T cell lymphoma is rare and seldom reported in the literature. We describe the unusual case of a 41-year-old male with NK cell lymphoma, nasal type, who presented with massive secondary lung involvement 2.5 years after the detection of a retroperitoneal mass. The diagnosis was made by open lung biopsy. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient died shortly after the initiation of therapy. Lung involvement by NK/T cell lymphoma occurs most commonly as part of widely disseminated disease and carries a poor prognosis for the patient. Novel agents and innovative therapies need to be developed for this aggressive lymphoma.
Extranodal NK/T lymphoma; Lung involvement; Epstein–Barr virus
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), accounts for ∼5% of all cases of Hodgkin lymphoma and is characterized by involvement of the peripheral lymph nodes. NLPHL occurs in young adults and is associated with frequent relapses. In 3% to 7% of cases, NLPHL progresses to a diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Furthermore, a proportion of NLPHL also have areas with features of T cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL), either at presentation or on follow-up. Here, we describe a 32-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with small bowel perforation. The resected small bowel showed full-thickness mural ulceration and involvement by a lymphoma with features of NLPHL that also had areas resembling THRLBCL. The patient had axillary lymphadenopathy, biopsy of which showed NLPHL with focal THRLBCL-like areas. Such a lymphoma presenting as small intestinal lesion/perforation has not been reported in the literature before. We take this opportunity to review the literature on extranodal presentations of NLPHL and discuss the natural history of this disease.
Lymphoma; Hodgkin lymphoma; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Gray zone lymphoma; Immunohistochemistry
In this paper, we describe a case of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with the subsequent development of a peripheral T cell lymphoma. This case is unusual in that the sheets of atypical and small to intermediate-sized T cells in the diffuse component were CD8 positive and expressed cytotoxic proteins. The diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphoma was supported by the demonstration of a clonal T cell receptor beta chain gene rearrangement by Southern blot analysis. Peripheral T cell lymphoma with a cytotoxic phenotype is a rare entity with an aggressive clinical behavior. As such, this report emphasizes the need to consider a diagnosis of coexisting peripheral T cell lymphoma in cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with atypical features, such as few or poorly defined B cell macronodules and diffuse T cell areas. The examination of both T cell receptor gamma and beta chain gene rearrangements should be performed to confirm such cases.
Cytotoxic peripheral T cell lymphoma; Nodular lymphocyte predominant; Hodgkin lymphoma; Gene rearrangement; Composite lymphoma
NK/T lymphomas have rarely been reported in HIV/AIDS patients. Here we report a case of a 37-year-old woman, with AIDS and a recent diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma in a mesenteric lymph node, who presented with extra-ocular nerve palsies and gastrointestinal bleeding. A small intestine resection specimen revealed an extra-nodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type. The unique presentation of this rare and aggressive lymphoma in the setting of AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma underscores the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating a malignant neoplasm from a HIV-positive patient.
Natural killer/T cell lymphoma; AIDS; HIV; Kaposi sarcoma
Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family, which is also implicated in mitosis regulation. Most reports in the literature impute poor prognosis to neoplasms with overexpression of this protein. The purpose of the present study is to validate and compare the immunohistochemical reactivity of malignant lymphomas and reactive lymphoid tissue using a new mouse monoclonal antibody to Survivin produced in our laboratory, 6-78. Survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. It was shown that the antibody anti-Survivin 6-78 reliably stains formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissues, mostly in a nuclear pattern. We confirmed using this novel antibody that Survivin immunostaining has a tendency to be lower in reactive lymphoid tissues and low-grade B cell lymphomas than in aggressive lymphomas. This antibody may represent a useful tool for standardizing the study of the immunoexpression of Survivin in neoplasms.
Malignant lymphomas; Survivin; Mouse monoclonal antibody 6-78; Immunohistochemistry
Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is a subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma arising in the mediastinum with distinctive clinical and morphological features. Though diffuse large B cell lymphoma is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with AIDS, there are no data available regarding the association of HIV and PMLBCL. We report here two cases of PMLBCL arising in AIDS patients. In both cases, PMLBCL presented in a setting of low CD4 T-cell count as rapidly enlarging mediastinal mass. The morphologic and immunophenotypic findings are characteristic of PMLBCL. One of the two patients, a 25-year-old woman who had localized disease and evidence of Epstein–Barr virus in lymphoma cells, did not respond to chemotherapy and died of disease progression 5 months after diagnosis. The second patient, a 38-year-old male with disseminated disease, responded to therapy and is disease-free after 9 months of follow-up.
Primary Mediastinal Large B Cell Lymphoma; HIV; EBV
B-cell clonality detection in whole tissue is considered indicative of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We tested frozen tissue of 24 classical Hodgkin lymphomas (cHL) with a varying tumor cell load with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets for IGH and IGK gene rearrangement (BIOMED-2). A clonal population was found in 13 cases with the IGH FR1 and/or FR2/FR3 PCRs. Using the IGK-VJ and IGK-DE PCRs, an additional six cases had a dominant clonal cell population, resulting in a detection rate of 79% in frozen tissue. Of 12 cases, also the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was tested. Surprisingly, in eight of the 12 FFPE cases with acceptable DNA quality (allowing PCR amplification of >200 nt fragments), the IGK multiplex PCRs performed better in detecting clonality (six out of eight clonal IGK rearrangements) than the IGH PCRs (four out of nine clonal rearrangements), despite a rather large amplicon size. There was no evidence of B-cell lymphoma during follow-up of 1 to 6 years and no correlation was found between the presence of a clonal result and Epstein–Barr virus in the tumor cells. Our results indicate that the present routine PCR methods are sensitive enough to detect small numbers of malignant cells in cHL. Therefore, the presence of a clonal B-cell population does not differentiate between cHL and NHL.
B cell; Hodgkin lymphoma; PCR clonality
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with a germinal center B-cell (GCB) phenotype is believed to confer a better prognosis than DLBCL with an activated B-cell (ABC) phenotype. Previous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation plays an important role in the ABC subtype of DLBCL, whereas c-REL amplification is associated with the GCB subtype. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we examined 68 newly diagnosed de novo DLBCL cases (median follow-up 44 months, range 1 to 142 months) for the expression of c-REL, BCL-6, CD10, and MUM1/IRF4. Forty-four (65%) cases demonstrated positive c-REL nuclear expression. In this cohort of patients, the GCB phenotype was associated with a better overall survival (OS) than the non-GCB phenotype (Kaplan–Meier survival (KMS) analysis, p = 0.016, Breslow–Gehan–Wilcoxon test). In general, c-REL nuclear expression did not correlate with GCB vs. non-GCB phenotype, International Prognostic Index score, or OS. However, cases with a GCB phenotype and negative nuclear c-REL demonstrated better OS than cases with a GCB phenotype and positive nuclear c-REL (KMS analysis, p = 0.045, Breslow–Gehan–Wilcoxon test), whereas in cases with non-GCB phenotype, the expression of c-REL did not significantly impact the prognosis. These results suggest that c-REL nuclear expression may be a prognostic factor in DLBCL and it may improve patient risk stratification in combination with GCB/non-GCB phenotyping.
c-REL; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; DLBCL; Prognosis
Although KIT mutations are present in 20–25% of cases of t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), concurrent development of systemic mastocytosis (SM) is exceedingly rare. We examined the clinicopathologic features of SM associated with t(8;21)(q22;q22) AML in ten patients (six from our institutions and four from published literature) with t(8;21) AML and SM. In the majority of these cases, a definitive diagnosis of SM was made after chemotherapy, when the mast cell infiltrates were prominent. Deletion 9q was an additional cytogenetic abnormality in four cases. Four of the ten patients failed to achieve remission after standard chemotherapy and seven of the ten patients have died of AML. In the two patients who achieved durable remission after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, recipient-derived neoplastic bone marrow mast cells persisted despite leukemic remission. SM associated with t(8;21) AML carries a dismal prognosis; therefore, detection of concurrent SM at diagnosis of t(8;21) AML has important prognostic implications.
Systemic mastocytosis; Acute myeloid leukemia; KIT mutations; Pathogenesis; Translocation (8;21); Prognosis
RNA interference is a powerful tool for the functional analysis of proteins by specific gene knockdown. In this study, we devised a rapid and efficient way to screen suitable siRNA sequences and subsequently employ them for specific gene knockdown in usually hard-to-transfect lymphoid cell lines, using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. Two proteins with different half-lives were chosen, cyclin D1 and STAT3. A specific lacZ reporter fusion assay was used to identify highly effective siRNA sequences. Only siRNA molecules with more than 85% of knockdown efficiency were selected for the generation of lentiviral transfer vectors. Transduction rates of 75–99% were achieved in the lymphoma cell lines Granta 519 (mantle cell lymphoma), Karpas 299, and SUDHL-1 (anaplastic large T cell lymphoma), as demonstrated by green fluorescent protein expression in fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The high level of transduction efficiency allows RNA interference studies to be performed on transduced cells without further manipulation, such as cell sorting or cloning. The LacZ reporter system together with the lentivirus technology is a very important tool in the hematology field, which enables experiments in lymphoid cells that were not possible before.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12308-008-0020-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
RNA interference; Efficient siRNA; β-galactosidase assay; Lentivirus transduction; Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL); Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)
Aurora kinase A, also known as aurora A, is a serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in mitosis entry, chromosome alignment, segregation, and cytokinesis. Overexpression of aurora A has been observed in many solid tumors and some hematopoietic neoplasms, but little is known about its expression in myeloid diseases. Because cytogenetic abnormalities play an essential role in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies, we hypothesized that aurora A deregulation may be involved in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia and contribute to the chromosomal instability observed in these diseases. We assessed aurora A mRNA levels in CD34+ bone marrow blasts from nine patients with acute myeloid leukemia, 20 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and five normal patients serving as controls. CD34+ blasts were isolated from bone marrow aspirate specimens using magnetic activated cell separation technology. RNA was extracted from purified CD34+ cells, and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for aurora A was performed. Immunocytochemical analyses for total aurora A, phosphorylated aurora A, Ki-67, and activated caspase 3 were performed on cytospin slides made from purified CD34+ cells in myelodysplastic syndrome patients using standard methods. Aurora A mRNA and protein levels were correlated, as was aurora A mRNA level, with blast counts, cytogenetic abnormalities, and International Prognostic Scoring System score. We found that CD34+ cells in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia expressed aurora A at significantly higher levels (P = 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively) than normal CD34+ cells. Aurora A mRNA levels correlated with total and phosphorylated protein levels (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.02, respectively). No significant correlation was found between aurora A mRNA level and blast count, blast viability, cytogenetic abnormalities, or the International Prognostic Scoring System score in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. We conclude that aurora A is up-regulated in CD34+ blasts from myeloid neoplasms.
Aurora A; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Acute myeloid leukemia
Lymphomas originating from the lymphatic system comprise about 30 entities classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The histopathological diagnosis is generally considered difficult and prone to mistakes. Since non-random chromosomal translocations are specifically involved in different lymphoma entities, their detection will be increasingly important. Hence, a split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) procedure would be helpful in discriminating the most difficult classifications. The Euro-FISH programme, a concerted action of nine European laboratories, has validated a robust, standardised protocol to improve the diagnostic approach on lymphoma entities. Therefore, 16 fluorescent probes and 10 WHO entities, supplemented with reactive cases, were selected. The results of the Euro-FISH programme show that all probes were correctly cytogenetically located, that the standardised protocol is robust, resulting in reliable results in approximately 90% of cases, and that the procedure could be implemented in every laboratory, bringing the relatively easy interpretation of split-signal probes within the reach of many pathology laboratories.
Split-signal FISH; Lymphoma; Validation; Classification; Chromosomal aberration
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) occasionally demonstrate overlapping morphological features including hypercellularity, mild/nonspecific dysplastic changes and variable bone marrow fibrosis. Thus, when the associated bone marrow fibrosis results in a suboptimal specimen for morphological evaluation, the descriptive diagnosis “fibrotic marrow with features indeterminate for MDS versus MPN” is often applied. The JAK2V617F mutation was recently shown to be frequently identified in MPN, but it is rarely present in other myeloid disorders. However, the diagnostic utility of JAK2V617F screening in hypercellular bone marrow specimens with fibrosis has not been previously investigated. Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction melting-curve assay capable of detecting JAK2V617F in archived fixed materials, we retrospectively studied JAK2V617F in 45 cases with fibrotic hypercellular bone marrow at initial presentation, including 19 cases initially described as “with features indeterminate for MDS versus MPN”. These 19 cases were reclassified into more specific categories of MDS (n = 14) or MPN (n = 5) based on the availability of subsequent clinical data and/or bone marrow examinations. The JAK2V617F allele was identified in 17 out of 18 BCR/ABL gene-negative MPN cases with marrow fibrosis, whereas only wild-type alleles were identified in the remaining non-MPN cases. Importantly, JAK2V617F alleles were seen in all five cases of “with features indeterminate for MDS versus MPN” at initial presentation that were later determined to be MPN, but they were absent in the 14 cases later determined to be MDS. Our results suggest that JAK2V617F allele evaluation can be a useful ancillary test for discriminating MDS from MPN in specimens with bone marrow fibrosis.
Myeloproliferative neoplasm; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Bone marrow fibrosis; JAK2V617F
The vast majority of cases of T cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia have a CD3+, CD4−, CD8+ phenotype and express the αβ T cell receptor. Whether the rare γδ variant should be included in the same diagnostic category is currently unclear. Two well-characterized cases of γδ T-LGL leukemia were identified by our laboratory in 2007. These two cases and other reports of γδ T-LGL leukemia were compared with the common αβ variant. Other than more often being negative for both CD4 and CD8 (in about 35% to 40% of cases), the γδ variant of T-LGL leukemia is similar to the common αβ type in virtually all respects and should be included in the general category of T-LGL leukemia. However, it is important to exclude other more aggressive γδ T cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Large granular lymphocytes; γδ lymphocytes; T cell leukemia
Clonality testing in T-lymphoproliferations has technically become relatively easy to perform in routine laboratories using standardized multiplex polymerase chain reaction protocols for T-cell receptor (TCR) gene analysis as developed by the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936. Expertise with clonality diagnostics and knowledge about the biology of TCR gene recombination are essential for correct interpretation of TCR clonality data. Several immunobiological and technical pitfalls that should be taken into account to avoid misinterpretation of data are addressed in this report. Furthermore, we discuss the need to integrate the molecular data with those from immunohistology, and preferably also flow cytometric immunophenotyping, for appropriate interpretation. Such an interactive, multidisciplinary diagnostic model guarantees integration of available data to reach the most reliable diagnosis.
TCR; Clonality; Pitfall; GeneScanning; Lymphoma