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1.  The rs340874 PROX1 type 2 diabetes mellitus risk variant is associated with visceral fat accumulation and alterations in postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism 
Genes & Nutrition  2015;10(2):4.
Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have recently confirmed that the rs340874 single-nucleotide polymorphism in PROX1 gene is associated with fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanism of this link was not well established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the functional/phenotypic differences related to rs340874 PROX1 variants. The study group comprised 945 subjects of Polish origin (including 634 with BMI > 25) without previously known dysglycemia. We analyzed behavioral patterns (diet, physical activity), body fat distribution and glucose/fat metabolism after standardized meals and during the oral glucose tolerance test. We found that the carriers of the rs340874 PROX1 CC genotype had higher nonesterified fatty acids levels after high-fat meal (p = 0.035) and lower glucose oxidation (p = 0.014) after high-carbohydrate meal in comparison with subjects with other PROX1 genotypes. Moreover, in subjects with CC variant, we found higher accumulation of visceral fat (p < 0.02), but surprisingly lower daily food consumption (p < 0.001). We hypothesize that lipid metabolism alterations in subjects with the PROX1 CC genotype may be a primary cause of higher glucose levels after glucose load, since the fatty acids can inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by decreasing carbohydrate oxidation. Our observations suggest that the PROX1 variants have pleiotropic effect on disease pathways and it seem to be a very interesting goal of research on prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study may help to understand the mechanisms of visceral obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk development.
doi:10.1007/s12263-015-0454-6
PMCID: PMC4298567  PMID: 25601634
PROX1 gene; Postprandial glucose/lipid metabolism; Visceral adiposity; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
2.  Inter-ethnic differences in genetic variants within the transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6) gene associated with iron status indicators: a systematic review with meta-analyses 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):442.
Transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6), is likely to be involved in iron metabolism through its pleiotropic effect on hepcidin concentrations. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified common variants in the TMPRSS6 gene to be linked to anaemia and low iron status. To get a more precise evaluation of identified TMPRSS6 single nucleotide polymorphism associations with iron status in cohorts of differing continental ancestry, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses. We searched the literature using HuGE Navigator, Pubmed and Scopus databases for primarily genome-wide association studies using TMPRSS6 as a free term. Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain summary estimates of associations. Eleven studies comprised Caucasian populations, four included an Asian population and one study included an African-American population. Differences in minor allele frequencies of 8 TMPRSS6 SNPs (rs855791, rs4820268, rs2111833, rs1421312, rs228921, rs228918, rs228919 and rs575620) across ethnic groups were observed, with the MAF of rs855791 significantly higher in Asian populations than in Caucasians (0.55 vs 0.42, P < 0.0001). In the meta-analysis, the A allele of rs855791 was associated with lower Hb and ferritin concentrations in all populations. This allele was also associated with increased serum transferrin receptor and transferrin concentrations. We observed similar associations for the G allele in rs4820268. Clear disparities in associations were found for the African-American population, although not statistically significant. Associations between TMPRSS6 SNPs and anaemia are consistent across Caucasian and Asian populations. This study highlights the need to conduct studies in African populations where iron deficiency is of utmost public health significance.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0442-2
PMCID: PMC4240767  PMID: 25416640
Systematic review; Meta-analyses; TMPRSS6; Iron status
3.  The impact of free or standardized lifestyle and urine sampling protocol on metabolome recognition accuracy 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):441.
Urine contains a clear individual metabolic signature, although embedded within a large daily variability. Given the potential of metabolomics to monitor disease onset from deviations from the “healthy” metabolic state, we have evaluated the effectiveness of a standardized lifestyle in reducing the “metabolic” noise. Urine was collected from 24 (5 men and 19 women) healthy volunteers over a period of 10 days: phase I, days 1–7 in a real-life situation; phase II, days 8–10 in a standardized diet and day 10 plus exercise program. Data on dietary intake and physical activity have been analyzed by a nation-specific software and monitored by published protocols. Urine samples have been analyzed by 1H NMR followed by multivariate statistics. The individual fingerprint emerged and consolidated with increasing the number of samples and reaches ~100 % cross-validated accuracy for about 40 samples. Diet standardization reduced both the intra-individual and the interindividual variability; the effect was due to a reduction in the dispersion of the concentration values of several metabolites. Under standardized diet, however, the individual phenotype was still clearly visible, indicating that the individual’s signature was a strong feature of the metabolome. Consequently, cohort studies designed to investigate the relation of individual metabolic traits and nutrition require multiple samples from each participant even under highly standardized lifestyle conditions in order to exploit the analytical potential of metabolomics. We have established criteria to facilitate design of urine metabolomic studies aimed at monitoring the effects of drugs, lifestyle, dietary supplements, and for accurate determination of signatures of diseases.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0441-3
PMCID: PMC4235801  PMID: 25403096
Diet; Exercise; Metabolomics; Short term; Urine; NMR
4.  TNF-α gene expression is increased following zinc supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):440.
Chronic low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can elicit changes in whole-body zinc metabolism. The interaction among the expression of inflammatory cytokines, zinc transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in type 2 DM remains unclear. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial, the effects of zinc (40 mg/day) supplementation on the gene expression of cytokines, zinc transporters and MT in women with type 2 DM were examined. In the zinc-supplemented group, gene expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α tended to be upregulated by 27 ± 10 % at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.053). TNF-α fold change in the zinc-treated group was higher than in those without zinc supplementation (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the expression or fold change of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6. Numerous bivariate relationships were observed between the fold changes of cytokines and zinc transporters, including ZnT7 with IL-1β (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.01) and TNF-α (P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, IL-1β expression was predicted by the expression of all zinc transporters and MT measured at baseline (r2 = 0.495, P < 0.05) and at week 12 (r2 = 0.532, P < 0.03). The current study presents preliminary evidence that zinc supplementation increases cytokine gene expression in type 2 DM. The relationships found among zinc transporters, MT and cytokines suggest close  interactions between zinc homeostasis and inflammation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0440-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0440-4
PMCID: PMC4235802  PMID: 25403095
Inflammation; Cytokines; Zinc transporters; Metallothionein; Gene expression; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
5.  The intake of a high-fat diet and grape seed procyanidins induces gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hamsters: capturing alterations in lipid and cholesterol metabolisms 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):438.
We previously demonstrated that hamsters that were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) showed decreased adiposity and circulating levels of free fatty acids compared with hamsters treated with a vehicle (Caimari et al. in Int J Obes 37:576–83, 2013, doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.75). Here, we tested whether the gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can reflect these metabolic effects and the dyslipidaemia produced by the HFD feeding in the same cohort of animals. The mRNA levels of a subset of genes were also studied in the liver in order to evaluate the capacity of PBMCs to reflect the metabolic adaptations that occur in this organ. In PBMCs, we reported a simultaneous up-regulation of the lipid-related genes involved in both the anabolic (pparγ, acc1 and gpat) and the catabolic (pparα, ucp2, atgl and hsl) pathways in response to the GSPE treatment, similar but no identical to previous observations in retroperitoneal white adipose tissues of these animals. Furthermore, the key cholesterol metabolism genes srebp2 and ldlr were significantly down-regulated in PBMCs of both HFD-fed groups compared with the STD groups. Although the expression of srebp2 in the liver followed a similar pattern to that obtained in PBMCs, no comparable changes were found between the liver and PBMCs in the expression of most of the studied genes. In conclusion, our results highlight the potential of PBMCs as a high accessible tissue for the indirect study of cholesterol and adipose tissue metabolism dynamics.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0438-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0438-y
PMCID: PMC4235803  PMID: 25403094
Procyanidins; PBMCs; Dyslipidaemia; Adipose tissue; Liver; Lipid and cholesterol metabolism; Nutritional biomarkers
6.  Effects of strain and age on hepatic gene expression profiles in murine models of HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):443.
Hereditary hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder most commonly caused by a defect in the HFE gene. While the genetic defect is highly prevalent, the majority of individuals do not develop clinically significant iron overload, suggesting the importance of genetic modifiers. Murine hfe knockout models have demonstrated that strain background has a strong effect on the severity of iron loading. We noted that hepatic iron loading in hfe−/− mice occurs primarily over the first postnatal weeks (loading phase) followed by a timeframe of relatively static iron concentrations (plateau phase). We thus evaluated the effects of background strain and of age on hepatic gene expression in Hfe knockout mice (hfe−/−). Hepatic gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays in 4- and 8-week-old hfe−/− and wild-type mice on two different genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J (C57) and AKR/J (AKR). Genes differentially regulated in all hfe−/− mice groups, compared with wild-type mice, including those involved in cell survival, stress and damage responses and lipid metabolism. AKR strain-specific changes in lipid metabolism genes and C57 strain-specific changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix protein genes were detected in hfe−/− mice. Mouse strain and age are each significantly associated with hepatic gene expression profiles in hfe−/− mice. These affects may underlie or reflect differences in iron loading in these mice.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0443-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0443-1
PMCID: PMC4245401  PMID: 25427953
Hereditary hemochromatosis; AKR/J; C57BL/6J; Mouse strains; Iron loading status
7.  A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):445.
There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)–diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m2 of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0445-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0445-z
PMCID: PMC4246034  PMID: 25430627
Genetic risk score; Obesity; Adiposity; Gene–macronutrient interaction
8.  Nutritional B vitamin deficiency alters the expression of key proteins associated with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in the aorta of atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E null mice 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):446.
Low B vitamin status is linked with human vascular disease. We employed a proteomic and biochemical approach to determine whether nutritional folate deficiency and/or hyperhomocysteinemia altered metabolic processes linked with atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice. Animals were fed either a control fat (C; 4 % w/w lard) or a high-fat [HF; 21 % w/w lard and cholesterol (0/15 % w/w)] diet with different B vitamin compositions for 16 weeks. Aorta tissue was prepared and global protein expression, B vitamin, homocysteine and lipoprotein status measured. Changes in the expression of aorta proteins were detected in response to multiple B vitamin deficiency combined with a high-fat diet (P < 0.05) and were strongly linked with lipoprotein concentrations measured directly in the aorta adventitia (P < 0.001). Pathway analysis revealed treatment effects in the aorta-related primarily to cytoskeletal organisation, smooth muscle cell adhesion and invasiveness (e.g., fibrinogen, moesin, transgelin, vimentin). Combined B vitamin deficiency induced striking quantitative changes in the expression of aorta proteins in atherosclerotic ApoE null mice. Deregulated expression of these proteins is associated with human atherosclerosis. Cellular pathways altered by B vitamin status included cytoskeletal organisation, cell differentiation and migration, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms through which B vitamin deficiency may accelerate atherosclerosis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0446-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0446-y
PMCID: PMC4250435  PMID: 25446494
Aorta proteome; ApoE null mice; Atherosclerosis; B vitamins; Hyperhomocysteinemia
9.  Dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory gene interactions in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Bellvitge colorectal cancer case–control study 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):447.
Chronic inflammation is an important factor in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, evidence on the effect of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients is scarce. Moreover, there are few studies focusing on diet–gene interactions on inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was designed to investigate the association between the novel dietary inflammatory index (DII) and CRC and its potential interaction with polymorphisms in inflammatory genes. Data from the Bellvitge Colorectal Cancer Study, a case–control study (424 cases with incident colorectal cancer and 401 hospital-based controls), were used. The DII score for each participant was obtained by multiplying intakes of dietary components from a validated dietary history questionnaire by literature-based dietary inflammatory weights that reflected the inflammatory potential of components. Data from four important single nucleotide polymorphisms located in genes thought to be important in inflammation-associated CRC: i.e., interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) were analyzed. A direct association was observed between DII score and CRC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 1.65, 95 % CI 1.05–2.60, and P trend 0.011). A stronger association was found with colon cancer risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 2.24, 95 % CI 1.33–3.77, and P trend 0.002) than rectal cancer risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 1.12, 95 % CI 0.61–2.06, and P trend 0.37). DII score was inversely correlated with SNP rs2243250 in IL-4 among controls, and an interaction was observed with CRC risk. Neither correlation nor interaction was detected for other inflammatory genes. Overall, high-DII diets are associated with increased risk of CRC, particularly for colon cancer, suggesting that dietary-mediated inflammation plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0447-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0447-x
PMCID: PMC4259879  PMID: 25488145
Dietary inflammatory index; Colorectal cancer; Inflammatory genes; Case–control study
10.  Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):450.
Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0—control group—receiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1—receiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2—receiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3—receiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8 years (ranging from 18 to 79 years). Of these participants, 60.9 % were women and 96.7 % were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5 kg m−2, and 44.8 % of the participants had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg m−2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0450-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0450-2
PMCID: PMC4261071  PMID: 25491748
Personalised nutrition; Web-based; Phenotype; Genotype; Randomised controlled trial
11.  γ-Glutamyl hydrolase modulation significantly influences global and gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression in human colon and breast cancer cells 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):444.
γ-Glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) plays an important role in folate homeostasis by catalyzing hydrolysis of polyglutamylated folate into monoglutamates. Polyglutamylated folates are better substrates for several enzymes involved in the generation of S-adenosylmethionine, the primary methyl group donor, and hence, GGH modulation may affect DNA methylation. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic determinant in gene expression, in the maintenance of DNA integrity and stability, and in chromatin modifications, and aberrant or dysregulation of DNA methylation has been mechanistically linked to the development of human diseases including cancer. Using a recently developed in vitro model of GGH modulation in HCT116 colon and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells, we investigated whether GGH modulation would affect global and gene-specific DNA methylation and whether these alterations were associated with significant gene expression changes. In both cell lines, GGH overexpression decreased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, while GGH inhibition increased global DNA methylation and DNMT activity. Epigenomic and gene expression analyses revealed that GGH modulation influenced CpG promoter DNA methylation and gene expression involved in important biological pathways including cell cycle, cellular development, and cellular growth and proliferation. Some of the observed altered gene expression appeared to be regulated by changes in CpG promoter DNA methylation. Our data suggest that the GGH modulation-induced changes in total intracellular folate concentrations and content of long-chain folylpolyglutamates are associated with functionally significant DNA methylation alterations in several important biological pathways.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0444-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0444-0
PMCID: PMC4265218  PMID: 25502219
Folate; γ-Glutamyl hydrolase (GGH); DNA methylation; Gene expression; Colon cancer; Breast cancer
12.  Role of genetic variants in ADIPOQ in human eating behavior 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):1.
The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5′ UTR and measured serum adiponectin levels in 1,036 individuals from the German Sorbs population. The German version of the three-factor eating questionnaire (FEV) was completed by 548 Sorbs. For replication purposes, we included an independent replication cohort from Germany (N = 350). In the Sorbs, we observed positive correlations of restraint with adiponectin serum levels (P = 0.001; r = 0.148) which, however, did not withstand adjustment for covariates (P = 0.083; r = 0.077). In addition, four SNPs were nominally associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P < 0.05). Of these, two variants (rs3774261; rs1501229, all P < 0.05) were also related to disinhibition. Furthermore, three variants were exclusively associated with hunger (rs2036373, P = 0.049) and disinhibition (rs822396; rs864265, all P < 0.05). However, none of these associations withstood Bonferroni corrections for multiple testing (all P > 9.3 × 10−4). In our replication cohort, we observed similar effect directions at rs1501229 for disinhibition and hunger. A meta-analysis resulted in nominal statistical significance P = 0.036 (Z score 2.086) and P = 0.017 (Z score 2.366), respectively. Given the observed relationship of the SNPs with adiponectin levels and eating behavior, our data support a potential role of adiponectin in human eating behavior. Whether the relationship with eating behavior is mediated by the effects of circulating adiponectin warrants further investigations.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0449-8
PMCID: PMC4277552  PMID: 25542302
Adiponectin serum levels; Genetics; Eating behavior; Human studies
13.  In vivo effects of dietary quercetin and quercetin-rich red onion extract on skeletal muscle mitochondria, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):2.
Red onions and low doses of the flavonoid, quercetin, increase insulin sensitivity and improve glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with red onion extract (RO) would attenuate high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance similar to quercetin supplementation by increasing energy expenditure through a mechanism involving skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into four groups and fed either a low fat diet (LF), HFD (HF), HFD + quercetin (HF + Q), or HFD + RO (HF + RO) for 9 weeks. Food consumption and body weight and composition were measured weekly. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance tests. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured by indirect calorimetry. Skeletal muscle incomplete beta oxidation, mitochondrial number, and mtDNA-encoded gene expression were measured. Quercetin and RO supplementation decreased HFD-induced fat mass accumulation and insulin resistance (measured by insulin tolerance test) and increased energy expenditure; however, only HF + Q showed an increase in physical activity levels. Although quercetin and RO similarly increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and decreased incomplete beta oxidation, establishing mitochondrial function similar to that seen in LF, only HF + Q exhibited consistently lower mRNA levels of mtDNA-encoded genes necessary for complexes IV and V compared to LF. Quercetin- and RO-induced improvements in adiposity, insulin resistance, and energy expenditure occur through differential mechanisms, with quercetin—but not RO-induced energy expenditure being related to increases in physical activity. While both treatments improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function, mtDNA-encoded transcript levels suggest that the antiobesogenic, insulin-sensitizing effects of purified quercetin aglycone, and RO may occur through differential mechanisms.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0451-1
PMCID: PMC4277553  PMID: 25542303
Quercetin; Insulin resistance; Obesity; Mitochondrial number; Skeletal muscle; Energy expenditure
14.  Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):448.
Meat intake is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in order to identify biological pathways involved in meat carcinogenesis. We performed a literature search of PubMed and Embase using “interaction”, “meat”, “polymorphisms”, and “colorectal cancer”, and data on meat–gene interactions were extracted. The studies were divided according to whether information on meat intake was collected prospectively or retrospectively. In prospective studies, interactions between meat intake and polymorphisms in PTGS2 (encoding COX-2), ABCB1, IL10, NFKB1, MSH3, XPC (Pint = 0.006, 0.01, 0.04, 0.03, 0.002, 0.01, respectively), but not IL1B, HMOX1, ABCC2, ABCG2, NR1I2 (encoding PXR), NR1H2 (encoding LXR), NAT1, NAT2, MSH6, or MLH1 in relation to CRC were found. Interaction between a polymorphism in XPC and meat was found in one prospective and one case–control study; however, the directions of the risk estimates were opposite. Thus, none of the findings were replicated. The results from this systematic review suggest that genetic variation in the inflammatory response and DNA repair pathway is involved in meat-related colorectal carcinogenesis, whereas no support for the involvement of heme and iron from meat or cooking mutagens was found. Further studies assessing interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to CRC in large well-characterised prospective cohorts with relevant meat exposure are warranted.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0448-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0448-9
PMCID: PMC4261072  PMID: 25491747
Colorectal carcinogenesis; Genetic susceptibility; Genetic epidemiology; Polymorphisms; Gene–environment interactions; Diet–gene interactions; Lifestyle
15.  White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;10(1):439.
Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity—from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert’s definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS (http://bioclaims.uib.es). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a physiological aspect that determines WAT health status. Following this principle, five anti-diabetic drug interventions and one diet intervention were scored for the match of their expression signature to the five biomarker signatures derived from the WATRefNet. This confirmed previous observations of successful intervention by dietary lifestyle and revealed WAT-specific effects of drug interventions. The WATRefNet represents a sustainable knowledge resource for extraction of relevant relationships such as mechanisms of action, nutrient intervention targets and biomarkers and for assessment of health effects for support of health claims made on food products.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0439-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0439-x
PMCID: PMC4252261  PMID: 25466819
Network biology; Systems biology; Data integration; Adipose tissue; Nutrition; Drugs
16.  Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):437.
Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9–2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p < 0.0001), whereas the index of δ-6 desaturase activity decreased by 17.7 ± 18.2 % (p < 0.0001) post-supplementation. Index of elongase activity decreased by 39.5 ± 27.9 % (p < 0.0001). Some gene–diet interactions potentially modulating the enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases involved in the FA metabolism post-supplementation were found. SNPs within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0437-z
PMCID: PMC4235832  PMID: 25367143
Omega-3 fatty acids; Diet and dietary lipids; Genomics; Fish oil; Omega-6 fatty acids; Genotype
17.  Meat-derived carcinogens, genetic susceptibility and colorectal adenoma risk 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):430.
Exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), carcinogens produced when meat is cooked at high temperatures, is an emerging risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). In a cross-sectional study of 342 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy, the role of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), the three most abundant HAAs found in cooked meats, and total mutagenic activity in cooked meats were examined in relation to colorectal adenoma risk. Given that genetic differences in the ability to biotransform HAAs and repair DNA are postulated to modify the HAA–CRC relationship, gene–diet interactions were also examined. Among the total study population, no relationships were observed between dietary HAAs or meat mutagenicity, and colorectal adenoma risk; however, in males, positive associations between dietary HAAs/meat mutagenicity exposures and adenoma risk were suggestive of a relationship. In a separate analysis, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 were found to be associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Additionally, gene–diet interactions were observed for dietary PhIP and polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and XPD, dietary DiMeIQx and XPD polymorphisms, and meat mutagenicity exposure and CYP1B1 polymorphisms. Overall, increased colorectal adenoma risk was observed with higher HAA/meat mutagenicity exposures among those with polymorphisms which confer greater activity to biotransform HAAs and/or lower ability to repair DNA. This research supports the link between dietary HAAs and genetic susceptibility in colorectal adenoma etiology. The vast majority of CRCs arise from colorectal adenomas; thus, the results of this study suggest that changes in meat preparation practices limiting the production of HAAs may be beneficial for CRC prevention.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0430-6
PMCID: PMC4166582  PMID: 25231222
Heterocyclic aromatic amines; Colorectal cancer; Colorectal adenoma; Gene–diet interaction; Diet; Meat consumption
18.  Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):432.
There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0432-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0432-4
PMCID: PMC4176838  PMID: 25260660
Fasting; Gene expression profiling; Transcriptomics; Mononuclear cells; Type 1 interferon; Inflammation
19.  Riboflavin status modifies the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) polymorphisms on homocysteine 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):435.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), riboflavin-dependent enzymes, participate in homocysteine metabolism. Reported effects of riboflavin status on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and homocysteine vary, and the effects of the MTRR 66A>G or MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on homocysteine are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of the MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G and MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) depend on riboflavin status (erythrocyte glutathionine reductase activation coefficient, optimum: <1.2; marginally deficient: 1.2–1.4; deficient: ≥1.4) in 771 adults aged 18–75 years. MTHFR 677T allele carriers with middle or low tertile plasma folate (<14.7 nmol/L) had 8.2 % higher tHcy compared to the 677CC genotype (p < 0.01). This effect was eliminated when riboflavin status was optimal (p for interaction: 0.048). In the lowest cobalamin quartile (≤273 pmol/L), riboflavin status modifies the relationship between the MTRR 66 A>G polymorphism and tHcy (p for interaction: 0.034). tHcy was 6.6 % higher in MTRR 66G allele carriers compared to the 66AA genotype with marginally deficient or optimal riboflavin status, but there was no difference when riboflavin status was deficient (p for interaction: 0.059). tHcy was 13.7 % higher in MTRR 524T allele carriers compared to the 524CC genotype when cobalamin status was low (p < 0.01), but no difference was observed when we stratified by riboflavin status. The effect of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism on tHcy depends on riboflavin status, that of the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism on cobalamin and riboflavin status and that of the MTRR 524C>T polymorphism on cobalamin status.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0435-1
PMCID: PMC4235830  PMID: 25322900
Homocysteine; MTHFR; MTRR; Riboflavin; EGRAC; Vitamin B6; EASTAC
20.  Gender-specific genetic associations of polymorphisms in ACE, AKR1C2, FTO and MMP2 with weight gain over a 10-year period 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):434.
Weight gain, when it leads to overweight or obesity, is nowadays one of the major health problems. ACE, FTO, AKR1C2, TIMP4 and MMP2 genes have been implicated in previous studies on weight regulation. This study investigated the contribution of polymorphisms in these five candidate genes to the risk of weight gain over a 10-year time period. Two groups were selected from participants of the Doetinchem cohort study who were followed over a 10-year period: A stable weight group (±2 kg/10 year; n = 259) and a weight gainers group who increased their body weight by roughly 10 % (>8 kg/10 year; n = 237). Starting BMI was between 20 and 35 kg/m2 and baseline age between 20 and 45 years. Selected SNPs and insert/deletion in candidate genes were measured in each group. In men, the allelic distribution of FTO rs9939609 (χ2p = 0.005), ACE rs4340 (χ2p = 0.006) and AKR1C2 rs12249281 (χ2p = 0.019) differed between the weight stable and weight gainers group. Interaction between FTO rs9939609 and ACE rs4340 was observed. In women, the allelic distribution of MMP2 rs1132896 differed between the weight stable and weight gainers group (χ2p = 0.00001). The A-allele of FTO was associated with a 1.99× higher risk of gaining weight in men (OR 1.99, p = 0.020), while in women, the C-allele of MMP2 was associated with a 2.50× higher risk of weight gain (OR 2.50, p = 0.001) over the 10-year period. We found that FTO in men and MMP2 in women are associated with weight gain over a 10-year follow-up period.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0434-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0434-2
PMCID: PMC4235831  PMID: 25322899
Weight gain; Overweight; SNP; Genotyping
21.  Zinc proteome interaction network as a model to identify nutrient-affected pathways in human pathologies 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):436.
Zinc is an essential micronutrient playing fundamental roles in cellular metabolism. It acts mostly through binding a wide range of proteins, thus affecting a broad spectrum of biological processes, which include cell division, growth and differentiation. Full annotation of zinc-binding proteins showed them to represent about 10 % of the human proteome, with over 300 enzymes containing zinc ions within their catalytic domains. Also, hundreds of key regulatory proteins, including transcription factors, require zinc for their activity. In this study, the whole set of zinc-binding proteins together with their direct interactors was listed and defined as the zinc proteome (ZNP). We interrogated pathway analysis tools to identify the cellular processes that are predicted to be affected by zinc availability. Network and functional enrichment analyses highlighted biological processes potentially affected by deregulated zinc homeostasis. This computational approach was also tested on a real case study: The possible involvement of ZNP network proteins in Crohn’s disease pathogenesis was assessed on genes transcriptionally regulated in the intestine of patients affected by this condition. The analysis produced a network of pathways likely to be influenced by zinc and associated with Crohn’s disease. These results highlight a central role for zinc in the tissue remodeling process which occurs upon gut inflammation, pointing at novel disease pathways whose effect could be worsened by zinc dyshomeostasis and impaired zinc fluxes in specific damaged areas. Overall, our computational approach could provide novel insights into pathological conditions and could therefore be used to drive mechanistic research in under-investigated fields of research. An interactive version of the determined ZNP network is available at URL http://93.63.165.11/ZNnetwork/.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0436-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0436-0
PMCID: PMC4235833  PMID: 25367142
Zinc; Pathway analysis; Crohn’s disease
22.  Genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 taste receptor and food consumption among Finnish adults 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):433.
Genetic variation in bitter taste receptors, such as hTAS2R38, may affect food preferences and intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between bitter taste receptor haplotypes and the consumption of vegetables, fruits, berries and sweet foods among an adult Finnish population. A cross-sectional design utilizing data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort from 2007, which consisted of 1,903 men and women who were 30–45 years of age from five different regions in Finland, was employed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and hTAS2R38 polymorphisms were determined based on three SNPs (rs713598, rs1726866 and rs10246939). Food consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of the bitter taste-sensitive (PAV/PAV) haplotype was 11.3 % and that of the insensitive (AVI/AVI) haplotype was 39.5 % among this Finnish population. PAV homozygotic women consumed fewer vegetables than did the AVI homozygotic women, 269 g/day (SD 131) versus 301 g/day (SD 187), respectively, p = 0.03 (multivariate ANOVA). Furthermore, the intake of sweet foods was higher among the PAV homozygotes of both genders. Fruit and berry consumption did not differ significantly between the haplotypes in either gender. Individuals perceive foods differently, and this may influence their patterns of food consumption. This study showed that the hTAS2R38 taste receptor gene variation was associated with vegetable and sweet food consumption among adults in a Finnish population.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0433-3
PMCID: PMC4235829  PMID: 25303850
TAS2R38; Bitter taste; Vegetables; Adults
23.  Omental adipose tissue gene expression, gene variants, branched-chain amino acids, and their relationship with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in humans 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(6):431.
Obesity is a complex disorder caused by several factors. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess whether the expression of genes in the omental white adipose tissue (AT) of subjects with insulin resistance (IR) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an elevation in serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and whether this response depends on specific genetic variants. Serum BCAA concentration, the adipocyte area, and gene variants of PPARγ, ABCA1, FTO, TCF7L2, GFOD2,BCAT2, and BCKDH were determined in 115 Mexican subjects. The gene expression in the AT and adipocytes of BCAT, BCKDH E1α, C/EBPα, PPARγ2, SREBP-1, PPARα, UCP1, leptin receptor, leptin, adiponectin, and TNFα was measured in 51 subjects. Subjects with IR showed higher values for the BMI, HOMA-IR, and adipocyte area and higher levels of serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and C-reactive protein, as well as an elevation of the AT gene expression of SREBP-1, leptin, and TNFα and a significant reduction in the expression of adiponectin, BCAT2, and BCKDH E1α, compared with non-IR subjects. The presence of MetS was associated with higher HOMA-IR as well as higher serum BCAA concentrations. Subjects with the genetic variants for BCAT2 and BCKDH E1 α showed a lower serum BCAA concentration, and those with the ABCA1 and FTO gene variant showed higher levels of insulin and HOMA-IR than non-IR subjects. AT dysfunction is the result of a combination of the presence of some genetic variants, altered AT gene expression, the presence of MetS risk factors, IR, and serum BCAA concentrations.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0431-5
PMCID: PMC4176839  PMID: 25260659
Branched-chain amino acid; Omental; White adipose tissue; Gene expression; Polymorphisms; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity
24.  β-Cryptoxanthin modulates the response to phytosterols in post-menopausal women carrying NPC1L1 L272L and ABCG8 A632 V polymorphisms: an exploratory study 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(5):428.
Phytosterol (PS) intake may be used for hypercholesterolaemia in some groups although the presence of non-responders is well known. Carotenoids and PS/cholesterol may compete for the same transporters during absorption. As part of a randomized, double-blind, crossover, multiple-dose supplementation study with β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) and PS, single and combined, polymorphisms of ABCG8 (A632V) and NCPL1 (L272L) were determined in 19 post-menopausal women. Subjects carrying CC polymorphism for NCP1L1 (L272L) showed a net increase in total cholesterol and LDL after PS intake but, interestingly, displayed a decrease in both lipid fractions after consuming PS plus β-Cx. For the ABCG8 (A632V) gene, CT/TT carriers consuming PS also displayed an increase in total cholesterol and LDL, but this increment was much lower after the intake of PS plus β-Cx. Additionally, in CC carriers for ABCG8 (A632V), a greater decrease in total cholesterol and LDL was found after the intake of PS plus β-Cx compared to that observed after PS alone. Overall, our results suggest that β-Cx improves the response to PS in individuals carrying specific genetic polymorphisms (i.e. non-responders), opening the possibility to modulate the response to PS by food technology. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01074723).
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0428-0
PMCID: PMC4172639  PMID: 25163590
β-Cryptoxanthin; Phytosterols; Functional food; Genetic variation; Niemann-Pick C1-like protein; ATP-binding cassette G8
25.  Concept mapping One-Carbon Metabolism to model future ontologies for nutrient–gene–phenotype interactions 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(5):419.
Advances in the development of bioinformatic tools continue to improve investigators’ ability to interrogate, organize, and derive knowledge from large amounts of heterogeneous information. These tools often require advanced technical skills not possessed by life scientists. User-friendly, low-barrier-to-entry methods of visualizing nutrigenomics information are yet to be developed. We utilized concept mapping software from the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition to create a conceptual model of diet and health-related data that provides a foundation for future nutrigenomics ontologies describing published nutrient–gene/polymorphism–phenotype data. In this model, maps containing phenotype, nutrient, gene product, and genetic polymorphism interactions are visualized as triples of two concepts linked together by a linking phrase. These triples, or “knowledge propositions,” contextualize aggregated data and information into easy-to-read knowledge maps. Maps of these triples enable visualization of genes spanning the One-Carbon Metabolism (OCM) pathway, their sequence variants, and multiple literature-mined associations including concepts relevant to nutrition, phenotypes, and health. The concept map development process documents the incongruity of information derived from pathway databases versus literature resources. This conceptual model highlights the importance of incorporating information about genes in upstream pathways that provide substrates, as well as downstream pathways that utilize products of the pathway under investigation, in this case OCM. Other genes and their polymorphisms, such as TCN2 and FUT2, although not directly involved in OCM, potentially alter OCM pathway functionality. These upstream gene products regulate substrates such as B12. Constellations of polymorphisms affecting the functionality of genes along OCM, together with substrate and cofactor availability, may impact resultant phenotypes. These conceptual maps provide a foundational framework for development of nutrient–gene/polymorphism–phenotype ontologies and systems visualization.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0419-1
PMCID: PMC4172641  PMID: 25091042
One-Carbon Metabolism; Nutrigenomics; Ontology; CMAPs

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