Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism.
Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA); Selectively terminable transgenic rice; Purification
Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type member of the genus Tenuivirus. RSV is known to have four segmented, single-stranded RNA molecules and causes rice stripe disease in the rice fields of China, Japan, and Korea. Based on the complete genomic sequences of the determined 6 RSV isolates (from Yunnan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Liaoning Provinces, China) and 27 other RSV isolates (from Yunnan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, and Shandong Provinces of China, also Japan and Korea) downloaded from GenBank, we provided a genotyping profile of RSV field isolates and described the population structure of RSV. All RSV isolates, except isolate CX, could be divided into two subtypes, one including 6 isolates from Yunnan Province, and the other including 26 isolates from different parts of China, Japan, and Korea, which were referred to as subtype II and subtype I, respectively. The amino acid distances between subtypes range from 0.053 to 0.085. RSV isolates in Yunnan Province were genetically differentiated from other parts of China, Japan, and Korea and showed infrequent gene flow. The RSV populations collected from other parts of China, Japan, and Korea were only composed of subtype I and showed very low genetic diversity. We speculated that isolate CX may be the result of recombination of isolates from two subtypes. Two potential recombination events were detected in RNA4 of isolate CX.
Rice stripe virus; Genetic variability; Genetic evolution
Objective: Information regarding the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is important for understanding the functional abnormalities of the gut. Because fertilized chicken eggs provide easy access to embryos, chicken models have been widely used to study embryonic development of myenteric plexus; however, no study has been focused on the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of developing chickens in the postnatal period. Methods: Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were made in 7-d, 15-d, and 40-d old (adult) chickens of either sex (n=15). The myenteric plexus was studied after nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry using light microscopy, digital photography, and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The numbers of positively stained neurons and ganglia were counted in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, and colon in the different age groups. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD), and statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: The positively stained neurons showed various morphologies and staining intensities, and formed bead-shaped and U-shaped arrangements in the myenteric plexus. The densities of neurons and ganglia increased with age. However, the number of positive neurons per ganglion increased. The number of NADPH-d-positive neurons was highest in the colon, followed by the ileum, the jejunum, the duodenum, and the caeca in all age groups. Conclusions: Developmental changes in the myenteric plexus of chickens continue in the postnatal period, indicating that the maturation process of the gastrointestinal function is gradual. In addition, no significant difference is happening among different intestinal segments during postnatal development, suggesting that the function of different intestinal segments had been determined after birth.
NADPH-d histochemistry; Enteric nervous system (ENS); Development; Myenteric plexus; Chicken
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.
Indigenous chicken; Commercial broiler; Meat quality; Fiber diameter; Inosine-5′-monophosphate
In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction abilities of phenolics (EAP) and flavonoids (EAF), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging potential, and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as quality indicators. The results of single-factor experiments showed that temperature, ethanol concentration, extraction time, and the number of extraction cycles were the main influencing variables, and these provided key information for the central composite design. The results of RSM fitted well to a second degree polynomial model and more than 98% of the variability was explained. The ideal extraction conditions for EAP, EAF, DPPH free-radical scavenging potential, and FRAP were obtained. Considering the four quality indicators overall, the ideal extraction conditions were 58% ethanol at 57 °C for 37 min with three extraction cycles. At the ideal extraction conditions, the values of EAP, EAF, DPPH free-radical scavenging potential, and FRAP were 5.72%, 3.09%, 58.88 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g dry weight (DW), and 15.86 mg AAE/g DW, respectively. In addition, linear correlations were observed between EAP, EAF, and antioxidant potential.
Ficus virens; Phenolics; Flavonoids; Antioxidants; Response surface methodology (RSM)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs playing a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. Among them, some are highly evolutionally conserved in the plant kingdom, this provide a powerful strategy for identifying miRNAs in a new species. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important commercial beverage crops in the world, but only a limited number of miRNAs have been identified. In the present study, a total of 14 new C. sinensis miRNAs were identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis from 47 452 available C. sinensis ESTs. These miRNAs potentially target 51 mRNAs, which can act as transcription factors, and participate in stress response, transmembrane transport, and signal transduction. Analysis of gene ontology (GO), based on these targets, suggested that 37 biological processes were involved, such as oxidation-reduction process, stress response, and transport. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis inferred that the identified miRNAs took part in 13 metabolic networks. Our study will help further understanding of the essential roles of miRNAs in C. sinensis growth and development, and stress response.
MicroRNA (miRNA); Camellia sinensis; Tea; Gene ontology; Pathway
Evaluating the performance of a biotrickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing beer was the aim of this study. A pilot scale trickling filter filled with gravel was used as the experimental biofilter. Pilot scale plant experiments were made to evaluate the performance of the trickling filter aerobic and anaerobic biofilm systems for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients from synthetic brewery wastewater. Performance evaluation data of the trickling filter were generated under different experimental conditions. The trickling filter had an average efficiency of (86.81±6.95)% as the hydraulic loading rate increased from 4.0 to 6.4 m3/(m2∙d). Various COD concentrations were used to adjust organic loading rates from 1.5 to 4.5 kg COD/(m3∙d). An average COD removal efficiency of (85.10±6.40)% was achieved in all wastewater concentrations at a hydraulic loading of 6.4 m3/(m2∙d). The results lead to a design organic load of 1.5 kg COD/(m3∙d) to reach an effluent COD in the range of 50–120 mg/L. As can be concluded from the results of this study, organic substances in brewery wastewater can be handled in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner using the gravel-filled trickling filter.
Biodegradation; Pilot scale trickling filter; Aerobic treatment; Brewery wastewater; Chemical oxygen demand (COD); Trickling filter performance
The objective of this study was to investigate the tempo-spatial distribution of paddy rice in Northeast China using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We developed an algorithm for detection and estimation of the transplanting and flooding periods of paddy rice with a combination of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and land surface water index with a central wavelength at 2 130 nm (LSWI2130). In two intensive sites in Northeast China, fine resolution satellite imagery was used to validate the performance of the algorithm at pixel and 3×3 pixel window levels, respectively. The commission and omission errors in both of the intensive sites were approximately less than 20%. Based on the algorithm, annual distribution of paddy rice in Northeast China from 2001 to 2009 was mapped and analyzed. The results demonstrated that the MODIS-derived area was highly correlated with published agricultural statistical data with a coefficient of determination (R
2) value of 0.847. It also revealed a sharp decline in 2003, especially in the Sanjiang Plain located in the northeast of Heilongjiang Province, due to the oversupply and price decline of rice in 2002. These results suggest that the approaches are available for accurate and reliable monitoring of rice cultivated areas and variation on a large scale.
Paddy rice; Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS); Northeast China; Enhanced vegetation index; Land surface water index
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still an incurable blinding eye disease because of complex pathogenic mechanisms and unusual diseased regions. With the use of chemical biology tools, great progress has been achieved in improving the understanding of AMD pathogenesis. The severity of AMD is, at least in part, linked to the non-degradable lipofuscin bis-retinoids in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE). This material is thought to result from the lifelong accumulation of lysosomal residual bodies containing the end products derived from the daily phagocytosis of rod outer segments by RPE cells. Here, we present previously recognized bis-retinoids with focus on structures and biosynthetic pathways. In addition to a brief discussion on the mutual conversion relationships of bis-retinoids, future perspectives and the medical relevance of such studies on these lipofuscin constituents are also highlighted.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD); Lipofuscin; Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE); Bis-retinoids; Structures; Biogenesis; Conversion relationships
In vitro cultures of loquat cultivar Mardan were established using shoot apices after treating with NaOCl (5%, 7%, 10%, 12%, 14% (v/v)) for 12 min and HgCl2 (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.25% (w/v)) for 2 min. A maximum survival rate of 70% was recorded after surface sterilization with 10% NaOCl. Caulogenic response was assessed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with assorted combinations of the cytokinins, benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin, and N6-(2-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). Treatment of BAP 1.5 mg/L combined with 2iP 9.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L was found to be optimum for shoot morphogenesis in terms of the number and subsequent growth of shoots, while the highest shoot length was yielded by the combination of BAP 0.5 mg/L, kinetin 0.5 mg/L, and 2iP 3 mg/L. Higher levels of cytokinins induced callogenesis, vitrification and stunted growth to some extent. For rhizogenesis, uniform sized micro-shoots were excised and transferred to half-strength MS medium containing auxins. The best rooting expression was observed with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 1 mg/L combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) 2 mg/L and paclobutrazol (PBZ) 1 mg/L.
Eriobotrya japonica; Micropropagation; Sterilization of loquat; Plant growth regulator; Shoot proliferation; Rhizogenesis
Anoectochilus formosanus, commonly known as “Jewel Orchid”, is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. The existence of A. formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss, human and animal consumption, etc. The highly potent medicinal activity of A. formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites, especially kinsenosides and flavonoids. This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship. Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them, which are related to plant growth, yield and changes in secondary metabolites. This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A. formosanus in pot culture. The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation: increased shoot height, shoot dry weight, and leaf numbers by 16.6%, 31.3%, and 22.5%, respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%, 226.1%, and 196.0%, respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and, significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells. Moreover, F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A. formosanus. These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts, although further physiological, genetic and ecological analyses are warranted.
Anoectochilus formosanus; Endophyte; Secondary metabolite; Kinsenoside; Flavonoid
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’, ‘Rubel’, ‘Rancocas’, and ‘Friendship’.
Northern highbush blueberry; Half highbush blueberry; Functional food; Fruit quality
In order to investigate the cause of poor fruit set in ‘Zuili’ plums, anatomical examinations of post-bloom pistils were conducted and the dates of young fruit drop were recorded during the growing seasons of 2008 and 2009. Pistils of cv. ‘Black Amber’ were also examined as an abundant setting control. Two major dropping periods were detected in ‘Zuili’: one during the first 5 d after full bloom (DAF) and another between 10 and 17 DAF. Anatomical analyses of the pistils at the full bloom stage revealed that half of the ovules had not developed embryos, which may have caused their early drop. In most dropped pistils collected at 17 DAF, the micropyle had not been penetrated by a pollen tube, indicating that they were not fertilized. ‘Zuili’ ovules initiated embryo division at 10–12 DAF, although thereafter embryo development was retarded when compared to the rates observed in ‘Black Amber’. Ovule fertilization failure and inactive embryo development after ovule fertilization may be the major causes of the later fruit drop observed in ‘Zuili’ plum trees.
Ovule; Development; Pistils; ‘Zuili’ plum
Objective: There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however, results are conflicting, possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population, residents within Yunnan Province, China. Methods: A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population. The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/−) analysis followed by gene dosage and gene copy definition analysis. Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology. Results: The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups. The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs. 8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs. 8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences. Similarly, single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls. However, the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%). Further, we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes. Conclusions: Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications, but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions, suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.
Azoospermia factor c (AZFc); AZFc polymorphism; b2/b3; gr/gr; Infertility
Proteasomes are responsible for the production of the majority of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Hence, it is important to identify correctly which peptides will be generated by proteasomes from an unknown protein. However, the pool of proteasome cleavage data used in the prediction algorithms, whether from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I ligand or in vitro digestion data, is not identical to in vivo proteasomal digestion products. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of these models still need to be improved. In this paper, three types of proteasomal cleavage data, constitutive proteasome (cCP), immunoproteasome (iCP) in vitro cleavage, and MHC I ligand data, were used for training cleave-site predictive methods based on the kernel-function stabilized matrix method (KSMM). The predictive accuracies of the KSMM+pair coefficients were 75.0%, 72.3%, and 83.1% for cCP, iCP, and MHC I ligand data, respectively, which were comparable to the results from support vector machine (SVM). The three proteasomal cleavage methods were combined in turn with MHC I-peptide binding predictions to model MHC I-peptide processing and the presentation pathway. These integrations markedly improved MHC I peptide identification, increasing area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) values from 0.82 to 0.91. The results suggested that both MHC I ligand and proteasomal in vitro degradation data can give an exact simulation of in vivo processed digestion. The information extracted from cCP and iCP in vitro cleavage data demonstrated that both cCP and iCP are selective in their usage of peptide bonds for cleavage.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes; Kernel function; Proteasome; Stabilized matrix method
For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been based mainly on their hosts and phenotypic characteristics. A new subspecies of Demodex folliculorum has been proposed, but not confirmed. Here, cox1 partial sequences of nine isolates of three Demodex species from two geographical sources (China and Spain) were studied to conduct molecular identification of D. folliculorum. Sequencing showed that the mitochondrial cox1 fragments of five D. folliculorum isolates from the facial skin of Chinese individuals were 429 bp long and that their sequence identity was 97.4%. The average sequence divergence was 1.24% among the five Chinese isolates, 0.94% between the two geographical isolate groups (China (5) and Spain (1)), and 2.15% between the two facial tissue sources (facial skin (6) and eyelids (1)). The genetic distance and rate of third-position nucleotide transition/transversion were 0.0125, 2.7 (3/1) among the five Chinese isolates, 0.0094, 3.1 (3/1) between the two geographical isolate groups, and 0.0217, 4.4 (3/1) between the two facial tissue sources. Phylogenetic trees showed that D. folliculorum from the two geographical isolate groups did not form sister clades, while those from different facial tissue sources did. According to the molecular characteristics, it appears that subspecies differentiation might not have occurred and that D. folliculorum isolates from the two geographical sources are of the same population. However, population differentiation might be occurring between isolates from facial skin and eyelids.
Demodex folliculorum; cox1 partial sequences; Divergence; Genetic relationship; Phylogenetic tree
Objective: The efflux pump (EP) is one of the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, there are few reports on the effect of the abuse of antibiotic use on the activity of EPs. To determine whether the use of low efficacy antibiotics has any effect on the activity of EPs and induces drug resistance in K. pneumoniae, we investigated the effect of ciprofloxacin on the activity of EPs in K. pneumoniae strains. Methods: Sixteen susceptible K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were measured in the absence and presence of the pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). The strains were then induced with a gradient of ciprofloxacin until the MICs of the strains showed no further increase, to obtain induced resistant strains. The EP activities of the strains before and after induction were compared using EP inhibition and ethidium bromide (EtBr) accumulation assays. Results: The MIC values of the strains were 16‒256 times higher after induction than before induction. In the presence of CCCP, the MIC values of 50% of the induced strains were 2‒4-fold lower than that in the absence of this inhibitor. The EtBr accumulation assay showed that the fluorescence of EtBr in the induced cells was lower than that in the cells before induction. Conclusions: EPs are widespread in susceptible and drug-resistant K. pneumoniae strains. Induction with ciprofloxacin may increase the activity of EPs in K. pneumoniae. The EtBr accumulation assay is more sensitive than the EP inhibition assay in evaluating the activity of EPs in K. pneumoniae.
Klebsiella pneumoniae; Efflux pump; Ciprofloxacin; Antibiotic resistance
The objective of this study was to investigate the endosonographic appearance of gastric linitis plastica (GLP) and to study the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the T and N staging of GLP. EUS examinations of 55 patients with histologically proven GLP were retrospectively studied. In all patients, EUS showed that lesions involved at least one-third of the circumference of the stomach. Based on the findings of the EUS, the 55 patients were divided into two groups. There were 32 (58.2%) patients in the first group. EUS of this group showed that the five sonographic layers had disappeared and had been replaced by a hypoechogenic thickening of the gastric wall. There were 23 (41.8%) patients in the second group. EUS of this group showed that the first three sonographic layers were blurred and thickened, and the fourth layer was significantly thickened. The full thickness of the gastric wall was significantly thicker in first than in the second group of patients (P<0.01). The incidence of perigastric lesions was significantly higher in the first than in the second group of patients (P<0.01). Results for the 15 patients following preoperative EUS were compared postoperatively with histopathologic findings for T and N staging. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the T stage was 73.3% and of the N stage was 60.0%. In eight patients, we used EUS to assess a therapeutic response. No response was observed in five patients and a partial response in three. EUS images of GLP are characteristic. EUS is helpful in diagnosing GLP and for assessing the T and N stages.
Gastric linitis plastica; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Diagnosis; Differentiation; Follow-up
Outcomes research, which investigates the outcomes of health care practices, is intended to provide scientific evidence for clinical decision making and health care. This paper elucidates the goal and domains of outcomes research. Also it shows the potential and promise of outcomes research to provide a methodology to uncover what to do and how to do it, and enable the health care profession to achieve the right care, for the right patient, at the right time, the first time, every time, nothing more, and nothing less.
Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis, which is also crucial for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent studies have revealed that interleukin (IL)-17, which was regarded as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has a dual function in the progress of ACS. In this review, we sum up both experimental and clinical studies on the relevance of IL-17 to atherosclerosis and its complications, and summarize the research progress on the effect of IL-17 on the atherosclerotic plaque stability and ACS onset. Although the studies are controversial and the mechanism remains unclear, we highlight the knowledge of the role of IL-17 in ACS and elucidate its potential mechanism.
Transcatheter valve implantation or repair has been a very promising approach for the treatment of valvular heart diseases since transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was successfully performed in 2002. Great achievements have been made in this field (especially TAVI and transcatheter mitral valve repair—MitraClip system) in recent years. Evidence from clinical trials or registry studies has proved that transcatheter valve treatment for valvular heart diseases is safe and effective in surgical high-risk or inoperable patients. As the evidence accumulates, transcatheter valve treatment might be an alterative surgery for younger patients with surgically low or intermediate risk valvular heart diseases in the near future. In this paper, the updates on transcatheter valve treatment are reviewed.