The α-chemokine CXCL12 (stromal derived factor-1; SDF-1) and its corresponding GαI protein-coupled CXCR4 receptor axis play an important role in retention of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in bone marrow (BM) stem cell niches. CXCL12 has also been identified as a strong chemoattractant for HSPCs and implicated both in homing of HSPCs to BM after transplantation and in egress of these cells from BM into peripheral blood (PB). However, since CXCL12, as a peptide, is highly susceptible to degradation by proteolytic enzymes, its real biological availability in biological fluids may be somewhat limited. In this review, we will present data demonstrating that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis is positively modulated by innate immunity-derived several external factors, ensuring that even low (near threshold) doses of CXCL12 still exert a robust chemotactic influence on HSPCs.
CXCR4; CXCL12; SDF-1; C3a; LL-37; stem cell mobilization; stem cell homing.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) is the receptor for chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12, also known as stromal derived factor-1, Sdf1). CXCR4, a protein consisting 352 amino acids, is known to transduce various signals such as cell differentiation, cell survival, cell proliferation, cell chemotaxis and apoptosis [1, 2]. The expression of CXCR4 is observed in embryonic stem cells, blood cells, haematopoietic stem cells, endothelial cells, angioblasts and smooth muscle cells [3-9]. The CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway has very important roles in the embryonic development. Mutant mice for CXCL12 or CXCR4 genes showed lethality due to defects in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, myelopoiesis, lymphopoiesis and germ cell development [10-13]. Recently, we reported that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway has a crucial role in regional specification of the gut endoderm during early development . Here, we would like to focus on the role of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway in pancreatic development and summarize recent findings of its role in the induction of the pancreatic progenitor cells.
CXCL12; CXCR4; signaling pathway
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease highly lethal in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV infects CD4+ cells of the immune system (T cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells) via interaction with a universal primary receptor, the CD4 molecule, followed by a mandatory interaction with a second receptor (co-receptor) belonging to the chemokine receptor family. Apart from some rare cases, two chemokine receptors have been evolutionarily selected to accomplish this need for HIV-1: CCR5 and CXCR4. Yet, usage of these two receptors appears to be neither casual nor simply explained by their levels of cell surface expression. While CCR5 use is the universal rule at the start of every infection regardless of the transmission route (blood-related, sexual or mother to child), CXCR4 utilization emerges later in disease coinciding with the immunological deficient phase of infection. Moreover, in most instances CXCR4 use as viral entry co-receptor is associated with maintenance of CCR5 use. Since antiviral agents preventing CCR5 utilization by the virus are already in use, while others targeting either CCR5 or CXCR4 (or both) are under investigation, understanding the biological correlates of this “asymmetrical” utilization of HIV entry co-receptors bears relevance for the clinical choice of which therapeutics should be administered to infected individuals. We will here summarize the basic knowledge and the hypotheses underlying the puzzling and yet unequivocal role of CXCR4 in HIV-1 infection.
HIV; chemokine receptor; CCR5; CXCR4; CD4; integrin; AMD3100.
Lung cancer is the second most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Moreover, despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the death rate from lung cancer remains high and the reported overall five-year survival rate is only 15%. Thus, novel treatments for this devastating disease are urgently needed. Chemokines, a family of 48 chemotactic cytokines interacts with their 7 transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, to guide immune cell trafficking in the body under both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Tumor cells, which express a relatively restricted repertoire of chemokine and chemokine receptors, utilize and manipulate the chemokine system in a manner that benefits both local tumor growth and distant dissemination. Among the 19 chemokine receptors, CXCR4 is the receptor most widely expressed by malignant tumors and whose role in tumor biology is most thoroughly studied. The chemokine CXCL12, which is the sole ligand of CXCR4, is highly expressed in primary lung cancer as well as in the bone marrow, liver, adrenal glands and brain, which are all sites for lung cancer metastasis. This review focuses on the pathologic role of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in NSCLC and on the potential therapeutic implication of targeting this axis for the treatment of NSCLC.
NSCLC; Lung; Human; Chemokines.
The Chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) are important players involved in cross-talk between leukemia cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. CXCR4 expression is associated with poor prognosis in AML patients with and without the mutated FLT3 gene.
CXCL12 which is constrictively secreted from the BM stroma and AML cells is critical for the survival and retention of AML cells within the BM. In vitro, CXCR4 antagonists were shown to inhibit the migration of AML cells in response to CXCL12. In addition, such antagonists were shown to inhibit the survival and colony forming potential of AML cells and abrogate the protective effects of stromal cells on chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in AML cells. In vivo, using immune deficient mouse models, CXCR4 antagonists were found to induce the mobilization of AML cells and progenitor cells into the circulation and enhance anti leukemic effects of chemotherapy. The hypothesis that CXCL12/CXCR4 interactions contribute to the resistance of AML cells to signal transduction inhibitor- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis is currently being tested in a series of Phase I/II studies in humans.
CXCR4; CXCL12; AML; Bone marrow; Microenvironment.
Directional movement of cells in the human body is orchestrated via chemokines. This migration was initially identified in pathological and immunological processes but quickly extended to homeostatic cell trafficking. One such chemokine is the ubiquitous CXCL12 (initially called SDF1-α) which signals via the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. In the last decade CXCL12 was recognized to participate not only in embryonic development and homeostatic maintenance, but also in progression of inflammation. A role for CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in inflammatory bowel diseases was recently shown. The current review discusses up to date knowledge of CXCL12 in inflammation, focusing on the involvement of CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Chemokines. Inflammatory bowel disease. CXCL12. CXCR4. CXCR7.
CXCR4 is a G-protein-coupled receptor involved in a number of physiological processes in the hematopoietic and immune systems. The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is significantly associated with several diseases, such as HIV, cancer, WHIM syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary fibrosis and lupus. For example, CXCR4 is one of the major co-receptors for HIV entry into target cells, while in cancer it plays an important role in tumor cell metastasis. Several promising CXCR4 antagonists have been developed to block SDF-1/CXCR4 interactions that are currently under different stages of development. The first in class CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, was approved by the FDA in 2008 for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and several other drugs are currently in clinical trials for cancer, HIV, and WHIM syndrome. While the long-term safety data for the first generation CXCR4 antagonists are not yet available, several new compounds are under preclinical development in an attempt to provide safer and more efficient treatment options for HIV and cancer patients.
CXCR4; antagonists; HIV; cancer; rheumatoid arthritis; WHIM syndrome; lupus.
CXCR4 was found to be expressed by many different types of human cancers and its expression has been correlated with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. CXCR4 was also shown to contribute to metastatic seeding of organs that express its ligand CXCL12 and support the survival of these cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4 is a potentially attractive therapeutic target, and several antagonists and antibodies for this receptor were developed and are under clinical evaluation. Quantifying CXCR4 expression non-invasively might aid in prognostication as a mean for personalized therapy and post treatment monitoring. Multiple attempts were done over the recent years to develop imaging agents for CXCR4 using different technologies including PET, SPECT, fluorescent and bioluminescence, and will be reviewed in this paper.
CXCR4; molecular imaging; diagnostics; cancer.
A method for highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation, is described in this paper. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were applied to adsorb genome DNA after the sample was lysed. The DNA binding MNPs were directly subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify gyrB specific sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The biotin labeled PCR products were detected by chemiluminescence when they were successively incubated with the probes-modified MNPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) labeled streptavidin (SA). Agarose gel electrophoresis analyses approved the method of in situ PCR to be highly reliable. The factors which could affect the chemiluminiscence were studied in detail. The results showed that the MNPs of 400 nm in diameter are beneficial to the detection. The sequence length and the binding site of the probe with a target sequence have obvious effects on the detection. The optimal concentration of the probes, hybridization temperature and hybridization time were 10 μM, 60 ºC and 60 mins, respectively. The method of in situ PCR based on MNPs can greatly improve the utilization rate of the DNA template ultimately enhancing the detection sensitivity. Experiment results proved that the primer and probe had high specificity, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was successfully detected with detection limits as low as 10 cfu/mL by this method, while the detection of a single Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also be achieved.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Magnetic Enrichment; gyrB; In Situ PCR; Chemiluminescence.
Competitive inhibition diminishes ligand adhesion as receptor sites become occupied with competing ligands. It is unknown if this effect occurs in ultrasound molecular imaging studies where endothelial binding sites become occupied with adherent bubbles or bubble fragments. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the effect that repeated administration and clearance of targeted agents has on successive adhesion. Two groups of animals were imaged with 3-D ultrasonic molecular imaging. Injections and imaging were performed on Group 1 at time 0 and 60 minutes. Group 2 received injections of microbubbles at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes with imaging at 0 and 60 minutes. At 60 minutes, Group 1 targeting relative to baseline was not significantly different from Group 2 (1.06±0.27 vs. 1.08±0.34, p=0.93). Data suggest that multiple injections of targeted microbubbles do not block sufficient binding sites to bias molecular imaging data in serial studies.
Microbubble; Contrast Agents; Molecular Imaging; Ultrasound; Targeted; cRGD.
A facile strategy is reported here for synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS (ZCIS/ZnS) core/shell QDs to address the synthetic issues that the unexpected blue-shift of CuInS2-based nanocrystals. In this strategy, Zn2+ ions are intentionally employed for the synthesis of alloyed ZCIS core QDs before ZnS shell coating, which contributes to the reduced blue-shift in photoluminescence (PL) emission. The experimental results demonstrate this elaborate facile strategy is effective for the reduction of blue-shift during shell growth. Particularly, a hypothesis is proposed and proved for explanation of this effective strategy. Namely, both cation exchange inhibition and ions accumulation are involved during the synthesis of ZCIS/ZnS QDs. Furthermore, the obtained near infrared (NIR) ZCIS/ZnS QDs are transferred into aqueous phase by a polymer coating technique and coupled with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (cRGD) peptides. After confirmation of biocompability by cytotoxicity test on normal 3T3 cells, these QDs are injected via tail vein into nude mice bearing U87 MG tumor. The result indicates that the signals detected in the tumor region are much more distinguishing injected with ZCIS/ZnS-cRGD QDs than that injected with ZCIS/ZnS QDs.
CuInS2; Near-infrared; In vivo imaging; Blue shift; Tumor Targeting.
Near infrared quantum dots have been receiving great attention as fluorescent optical probes for in vivo imaging applications. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and surface functionalization of cadmium free ternary AgInS2 nanocrystals emitting in the near infrared range for successful in vitro and in vivo bioimaging applications. The FDA approved triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 was used to encapsulate the nanocrystals and made them dispersible in aqueous solution. By employing a whole body small animal optical imaging setup, we were able to use the AgInS2 nanocrystals formulation for passive targeted delivery to the tumor site. The ultra-small crystal size, near-infrared emitting luminescence, and high quantum yield make the AgInS2 nanocrystals an attractive candidate as a biological contrast agent for cancer sensing and imaging.
Near infrared quantum dots; Bioimaging; Surface functionalization; Targeted delivery; Nanotoxicity.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are an important and versatile nano- platform with broad biological applications. Despite extensive studies, the biological and pharmacological activities of SPION have not been exploited in therapeutic applications. Recently, β-lapachone (β-lap), a novel anticancer drug, has shown considerable cancer specificity by selectively increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress in cancer cells. In this study, we report that pH-responsive SPION-micelles can synergize with β-lap for improved cancer therapy. These SPION-micelles selectively release iron ions inside cancer cells, which interact with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated from β-lap in a tumor-specific, NQO1-dependent manner. Through Fenton reactions, these iron ions escalate the ROS stress in β-lap-exposed cancer cells, thereby greatly enhancing the therapeutic index of β-lap. More specifically, a 10-fold increase in ROS stress was detected in β-lap-exposed cells pretreated with SPION-micelles over those treated with β-lap alone, which also correlates with significantly increased cell death. Catalase treatment of cells or administration of an iron chelator can block the therapeutic synergy. Our data suggest that incorporation of SPION-micelles with ROS-generating drugs can potentially improve drug efficacy during cancer treatment, thereby provides a synergistic strategy to integrate imaging and therapeutic functions in the development of theranostic nanomedicine.
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; β-lapachone; reactive oxygen species; Fenton reaction; theranostic nanomedicine.
Objectives: Based on the soil-to-seeds principle, we explored the small-molecular sequential dual-targeting theranostic strategy (SMSDTTS) for prolonged survival and imaging detectability in a xenograft tumor model.
Materials and Methods: Thirty severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing bilateral radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) subcutaneously were divided into group A of SMSDTTS with sequential intravenous injections of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) and 131I-iodohypericin (131I-Hyp) at a 24 h interval; group B of single targeting control with CA4P and vehicle of 131I-Hyp; and group C of vehicle control (10 mice per group). Tumoricidal events were monitored by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planar gamma scintiscan, and validated by ex vivo autoradiography and histopathology. Besides, 9 mice received sequential intravenous injections of CA4P and 131I-Hyp were subjected to biodistribution analysis at 24, 72 and 120 h.
Results: Gamma counting revealed fast clearance of 131I-Hyp from normal organs but intense accumulation in necrotic tumor over 120 h. After only one treatment, significantly prolonged survival (p<0.001) was found in group A compared to group B and C with median survival of 33, 22, and 21 days respectively. Tumor volume on day 15 was 2.0 ± 0.89, 5.66 ± 1.66, and 5.02 ± 1.0 cm3 with tumor doubling time 7.8 ± 2.8, 4.4 ± 0.67, and 4.5 ± 0.5 days respectively. SMSDTTS treated tumors were visualized as hot spots on gamma scintiscans, and necrosis over tumor ratio remained consistently high on MRI, autoradiography and histology.
Conclusion: The synergistic antitumor effects, multifocal targetability, simultaneous theranostic property, and good tolerance of the SMSDTTS were evident in this experiment, which warrants further development for preclinical and clinical applications.
vascular disrupting agents (VDAs); necrosis targeting radiotherapy; radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1); survival; synergistic antitumor effects.
Paving the way towards the application of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules in theranostics, we describe diagnostic multi-functionality and drug delivery using multicompartment polymeric capsules which represent the next generation of drug delivery carriers. Their versatility is particularly important for potential applications in the area of theranostics wherein the carriers are endowed with the functionality for both diagnostics and therapy. Responsiveness towards external stimuli is attractive for providing controlled and on-demand release of encapsulated materials. An overview of external stimuli is presented with an emphasis on light as a physical stimulus which has been widely used for activation of microcapsules and release of their contents. In this article we also describe existing and new approaches to build multicompartment microcapsules as well as means available to achieve controlled and triggered release from their subcompartments, with a focus on applications in theranostics. Outlook for future directions in the area are highlighted.
theranostics; multicompartment; capsules; stimuli; laser; nanoplasmonics.
Photo-based diagnosis and treatment methods are gaining prominence due to increased spatial imaging resolution, minimally invasive modalities involved as well as localized treatment. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed and used in photo-based therapeutic applications. While some nanomaterials have inherent photo-based imaging capabilities, others including polymeric NPs act as nanocarriers to deliver various fluorescent dyes or photosensitizers for photoimaging and therapeutic applications. These applications can vary from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and optical imaging to photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy. Materials commonly used for development of photo-based NPs ranges from metal-based (gold, silver and silica) to polymer-based (chitosan, dextran, poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)). Recent research has paved the way for multi-modal 'theranostic' (a combination of therapy and diagnosis) nano-carriers capable of active targeting using cell-specific ligands and carrying multiple therapeutic and imaging agents for accurate diagnosis and controlled drug delivery. This review summarizes the different materials used today to synthesize photo-based NPs, their diagnostic and therapeutic applications as well as the current challenges faced in bringing these novel nano-carriers into clinical practices.
nanoparticles; theranostics; photothermal; photodynamic.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin.
Gold nanoparticles; multifunctional nanocomposites; immunoassay; DNA detection; cell bioimaging; mycobacteria; Azospirillum brasilense; photodynamic and photothermal therapy; placental barrier; materno-embryonic transfer of gold nanoparticles.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful technique for imaging biological pathways in vivo, particularly those that are key targets in disease processes. In contrast, fluorescence imaging has demonstrated to be a superior method for image-guided surgery, such as tumor removal. Although the integration of PET and optical imaging could provide an attractive strategy for patient management, there is a significant shortage of established platforms/methods for PET/optical probe construction. In this study, various reaction conditions were explored to develop a simple and fast method allowing for the introduction of [18F]-fluoride into BODIPY dyes. Through a systematic optimization of the reaction conditions, we found that BODIPY dyes, including commercial amine-reactive BODIPY succinimidyl esters, may be converted into their radioactive analogues in the matter of minutes via a 18F-19F isotopic exchange reaction promoted by a Lewis acid such as SnCl4. An integrin-targeting RGD peptide was also conjugated with [18F]BODIPY® R6G , derived from the commercially available BODIPY® R6G fluorescent tag, to provide a [18F]-RGD conjugate in 82% yield. In vivo evaluation of this imaging probe showed a discernible tumor uptake in the U87MG xenograft model. The dual modality imaging properties of the probe was confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence and microPET imaging experiments. In summary, in the matter of minutes, BODIPY dyes were converted into their “hot” radioactive analogues via a 18F-19F isotopic exchange reaction promoted by a Lewis acid. This approach, which can be applied to commercial BODIPY dyes, provides easy access to positron emission tomography/fluorescence dual modality imaging agents.
PET; fluorsence; dual modality; BODIPY; 18F-19F exchange.
Objectives: Most chemotherapy agents cause tumor cell death primarily by the induction of apoptosis. The ability to noninvasively image apoptosis in vivo could dramatically benefit pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of chemotherapeutics targeting the apoptotic pathway. This study aims to visualize the dynamics of apoptotic process with temporal bioluminescence imaging (BLI) using an apoptosis specific bioluminescence reporter gene. Methods: Both UM-SCC-22B human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells and 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were genetically modified with a caspase-3 specific cyclic firefly luciferase reporter gene (pcFluc-DEVD). Apoptosis induced by different concentrations of doxorubicin in the transfected cells was evaluated by both annexin V staining and BLI. Longitudinal BLI was performed in xenografted tumor models at different time points after doxorubicin or Doxil treatment, to evaluate apoptosis. After imaging, DNA fragmentation in apoptotic cells was assessed in frozen tumor sections using TUNEL staining. Results: Dose- and time-dependent apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in pcFluc-DEVD transfected UM-SCC-22B and 4T1 cells was visualized and quantified by BLI. Caspase-3 activation was confirmed by both caspase activity assay and GloTM luciferase assay. One dose of doxorubicin treatment induced a dramatic increase in BLI intensity as early as 24 h after treatment in 22B-pcFluc-DEVD xenografted tumors. Sustained signal increase was observed for the first 3 days and the fluorescent signal from ex vivo TUNEL staining was consistent with BLI imaging results. Long-term imaging revealed that BLI signal consistently increased and reached a maximum at around day 12 after the treatment with one dose of Doxil. Conclusions: BLI of apoptosis with pcFluc-DEVD as a reporter gene facilitates the determination of kinetics of the apoptotic process in a real-time manner, which provides a unique tool for drug development and therapy response monitoring.
apoptosis; cyclic firefly luciferase; bioluminescence imaging; doxorubicin; caspase-3.
Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.
The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications.
siRNA; PEGylation; blood circulation; urine excretion; in vivo imaging.
Upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals own great potential in applications such as biomolecule-labeling, in vivo tracking and molecular imaging. Herein we reported that NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals were controllably synthesized by oleic acid (OA)/ ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for targeted fluorescent imaging of gastric cancer in vivo. The optimal synthesis condition of NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals by OA/IL two-phase system was established, adding more metal ion such as Na+ ion could facilitate the size control and crystal-phase transition, more importantly, markedly enhancing fluorescent intensity of beta-phase nanocrystals compared with traditional methods. Alpha-phase NaYbF4, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with less than 10nm in diameter and beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with 30 nm or so in diameter and strong fluorescent signals were obtained, these synthesized nanocrystals exhibited very low cytotoxicity. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals were prepared, could actively target gastric cancer tissues implanted into nude mice in vivo, and realized targeted fluorescent imaging. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals show great potential in applications such as targeted near infared radiation fluorescent imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and targeted therapy of gastric cancer in the near future.
NaYbF4: 25%Gd; 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals; synthesis; targeted imaging; fluorescent imaging; gastric cancer; cytotoxicity.
Due to their tunable surface plasmon and photothermal effects, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have proved to be promising in a wide range of biomedical applications such as imaging, hyperthermia therapy and drug delivery. All these applications can be remotely controlled by near infrared (NIR) light which can penetrate deep into human tissues with minimal lateral invasion. AuNRs thus hold the potential to combine both imaging diagnosis and therapeutic treatment into one single system and function as a NIR light-mediated theranostic platform. Herein we review recent progress in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of AuNRs with a highlight on combined applications for theranostic purposes.
Gold nanorods; theranostics; cancer therapy; imaging; hyperthermia; drug delivery.
As Theranostics begins its second year of publication, I would like to thank our authors, reviewers, and audience for their outstanding support in 2011. I look forward to working with you in 2012 to continue our mission to distinguish Theranostics as a leader of publishing cutting edge research in this important and emerging field.