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2.  Current Approaches, Challenges and Future Directions for Monitoring Treatment Response in Prostate Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(1):3-24.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous neoplasm in men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer mortality. One in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. As a result, monitoring treatment response is of vital importance. The cornerstone of current approaches in monitoring treatment response remains the prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, with the limitations of PSA come challenges in our ability to monitor treatment success. Defining PSA response is different depending on the individual treatment rendered potentially making it difficult for those not trained in urologic oncology to understand. Furthermore, standard treatment response criteria do not apply to prostate cancer further complicating the issue of treatment response. Historically, prostate cancer has been difficult to image and no single modality has been consistently relied upon to measure treatment response. However, with newer imaging modalities and advances in our understanding and utilization of specific biomarkers, the future for monitoring treatment response in prostate cancer looks bright.
PMCID: PMC3881217  PMID: 24396494
prostate cancer; monitoring treatment response
3.  Current Approaches and Challenges in Managing and Monitoring Treatment Response in Ovarian Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(1):25-30.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. Treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer remains a challenge despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic options. A goal of many providers is to detect recurrences as early as possible and initiate treatment though there is controversy as to whether this impacts outcome. Elevations in CA125 and radiological findings may precede symptoms of recurrence by several months. While detection of recurrences by physical exam alone is unusual, a thorough exam in conjunction with reported symptoms and elevated CA125 is sufficient to detect 80-90% of recurrences. A spiral CT scan may be used to confirm recurrence in the setting of asymptomatic CA125 elevation and a PET/CT can yield additional insight if the CT is inconclusive. Initiating chemotherapy prior to the development of symptoms, even in the setting of elevated CA125, does not impact overall survival primarily because the efficacy of available treatments in the recurrent setting is poor. More information about tumor biology and ways to predict which patients will benefit from available treatment options is required. Consequently, the approach to post-treatment surveillance should be individualized taking into account the clinical benefit of the second-line therapy, versus the costs and morbidity of the surveillance method.
PMCID: PMC3881218  PMID: 24396495
Ovarian Cancer; Treatment Response
4.  Current Approaches and Challenges for Monitoring Treatment Response in Colon and Rectal Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(1):31-43.
Introduction: With the advent of multidisciplinary and multimodality approaches to the management of colorectal cancer patients, there is an increasing need to define how we monitor response to novel therapies in these patients. Several factors ranging from the type of therapy used to the intrinsic biology of the tumor play a role in tumor response. All of these can aid in determining the ideal course of treatment, and may fluctuate over time, pending down-staging or progression of disease. Therefore, monitoring how disease responds to therapy requires standardization in order to ultimately optimize patient outcomes. Unfortunately, how best to do this remains a topic of debate among oncologists, pathologists, and colorectal surgeons. There may not be one single best approach. The goal of the present article is to shed some light on current approaches and challenges to monitoring treatment response for colorectal cancer.
Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing PubMed and the OVID library. Key-word combinations included colorectal cancer metastases, neoadjuvant therapy, rectal cancer, imaging modalities, CEA, down-staging, tumor response, and biomarkers. Directed searches of the embedded references from the primary articles were also performed in selected circumstances.
Results: Pathologic examination of the post-treatment surgical specimen is the gold standard for monitoring response to therapy. Endoscopy is useful for evaluating local recurrence, but not in assessing tumor response outside of the limited information gained by direct examination of intra-lumenal lesions. Imaging is used to monitor tumors throughout the body for response, with CT, PET, and MRI employed in different circumstances. Overall, each has been validated in the monitoring of patients with colorectal cancer and residual tumors.
Conclusion: Although there is no imaging or serum test to precisely correlate with a tumor's response to chemo- or radiation therapy, these modalities, when used in combination, can aid in allowing clinicians to adjust medical therapy, pursue operative intervention, or (in select cases) identify complete responders. Improvements are needed, however, as advances across multiple modalities could allow appropriate selection of patients for a close surveillance regimen in the absence of operative intervention.
PMCID: PMC3881219  PMID: 24396496
Neoadjuvant therapy; colorectal cancer; treatment response; CEA; imaging modalities; PET; CT; MRI; ERUS; down-staging
5.  Future Directions for Monitoring Treatment Response in Colorectal Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(1):44-57.
Treatment of advanced colon and rectal cancer has significantly evolved with the introduction of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy so much that, along with more effective chemotherapy regimens, surgery has been considered unnecessary among some institutions for select patients. The tumor response to these treatments has also improved and ultimately has been shown to have a direct effect on prognosis. Yet, the best way to monitor that response, whether clinically, radiologically, or with laboratory findings, remains controversial. The authors' aim is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in monitoring treatment response in cases of locally advanced rectal cancer and metastatic colon cancer.
PMCID: PMC3881220  PMID: 24396497
Colorectal cancer; response; biomarkers; watch and wait; imaging modalities; surgical timing
6.  Current Approaches and Challenges in Monitoring Treatment Responses in Breast Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(1):58-68.
Monitoring response to treatment is a key element in the management of breast cancer that involves several different viewpoints from surgery, radiology, and medical oncology. In the adjuvant setting, appropriate surgical and pathological evaluation guides adjuvant treatment and follow up care focuses on detecting recurrent disease with the intention of improving long term survival. In the neoadjuvant setting, assessing response to chemotherapy prior to surgery to include evaluation for pathologic response can provide prognostic information to help guide follow up care. In the metastatic setting, for those undergoing treatment, it is crucial to determine responders versus non-responders in order to help guide treatment decisions. In this review, we present the current guidelines for monitoring treatment response in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and metastatic setting. In addition, we also discuss challenges that are faced in each setting.
PMCID: PMC3881221  PMID: 24396498
Breast cancer; Treatment monitoring; Future directions; Adjuvant; Neo-adjuvant; Metastatic
7.  Future Directions for Monitoring Treatment Responses in Breast Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(1):69-78.
In the prior review, we outlined the current standard of care for monitoring treatment responses in breast cancer and discussed the many challenges associated with these strategies. We described the challenges faced in common clinical settings such as the adjuvant setting, neoadjuvant setting, and the metastatic setting. In this review, we will expand upon future directions meant to overcome several of these current challenges. We will also explore several new and promising methods under investigation to enhance how we monitor treatment responses in breast cancer. Furthermore, we will highlight several new technologies and techniques for monitoring breast cancer treatment in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic setting.
PMCID: PMC3881222  PMID: 24396499
breast cancer; treatment monitoring; future directions; adjuvant; neoadjuvant; metastatic
8.  History of Dental Infections Associates with Cancer in Periodontally Healthy Subjects: A 24-Year Follow-Up Study from Sweden 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):79-85.
Background: Infections of teeth are highly prevalent, often leading to tooth extractions. Missing teeth can thus be considered as proxy for chronic dental infections, caries or periodontitis. We followed-up a cohort for 24 years investigating the association between missing teeth and the incidence of cancer with the hypothesis that dental chronic inflammation links to cancer.
Methods: WHO ICD-7-9-10 malignant diagnoses were recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2009 in 1 390 individuals who had underwent clinical oral examination in 1985. The subjects appeared periodontally healthy and thus the probable reason for tooth extractions was deep caries. Using Fisher's exact t-test and multiple logistic regression analysis the results were analysed for the association between cancer incidence and baseline oral health parameters and a number of other explanatory factors.
Results: Of the 1 390 subjects 71 had got cancer by year 2009. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that between any type of cancer as a dependent variable, and several independent explanatory variables, missing second molar in the right mandible and age appeared as the principle independent predictors significantly associating with cancer, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.62 (1.18-5.78) and 1.91 (1.06-3.43), respectively.
Conclusions: In periodontally healthy subjects extracted molars, proxy for past dental infections, seemed to predict cancer risk in the studied age group - hence supporting a role of chronic dental infection/inflammation in carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3909762  PMID: 24494025
Dental infections; Periapical infection; Extracted molars; Cancer.
9.  Emerging Biological Treatments for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):86-97.
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies is a major interest for public health. Cisplatin, in combination with external beam irradiation for locally advanced disease, or as monotherapy for recurrent/metastatic disease, has been the cornerstone of treatment for more than two decades. Other investigated cytotoxic therapies include paclitaxel, ifosfamide and topotecan, as single agents or in combination, revealing unsatisfactory results. In recent years, much effort has been made towards evaluating new drugs and developing innovative therapies to treat cervical cancer. Among the most investigated molecular targets are epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways, both playing a critical role in cervical cancer development. Studies with bevacizumab or VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase have given encouraging results in terms of clinical efficacy, without adding significant toxicity. A great number of other molecular agents targeting critical pathways in cervical malignant transformation are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials, reporting preliminary promising data.
In the current review, we discuss novel therapeutic strategies which are being investigated for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC3909763  PMID: 24494026
advanced cervical cancer; therapy; clinical trials; molecular targeted agents; tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
10.  Does the Measles Virus Contribute to Carcinogenesis? - A Review 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):98-102.
An association between the measles virus and classical Hodgkin lymphoma has previously been suggested by us. This has been refuted by two European groups. A reevaluation of the arguments held against our thesis was carried out and further evidence for a relationship between the measles virus and additional solid tumors has been presented. We have suggested a molecular mechanism to support a possible contribution of the virus to carcinogenesis in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
PMCID: PMC3909764  PMID: 24494027
measles virus; Hodgkin lymphoma; lung cancer; breast cancer; apoptosis.
11.  Potential Urinary Protein Biomarker Candidates for the Accurate Detection of Prostate Cancer among Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patients 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):103-114.
Globally, Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently occurring non-cutaneous cancer, and is the second highest cause of cancer mortality in men. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been the standard in PCa screening since its approval by the American Food & Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994. Currently, PSA is used as an indicator for PCa - patients with a serum PSA level above 4ng/mL will often undergo prostate biopsy to confirm cancer. Unfortunately fewer than ~30% of these men will biopsy positive for cancer, meaning that the majority of men undergo invasive biopsy with little benefit. Despite PSA's notoriously poor specificity (33%), there is still a significant lack of credible alternatives. Therefore an ideal biomarker that can specifically detect PCa at an early stage is urgently required. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using deregulation of urinary proteins in order to detect Prostate Cancer (PCa) among Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). To identify the protein signatures specific for PCa, protein expression profiling of 8 PCa patients, 12 BPH patients and 10 healthy males was carried out using LC-MS/MS. This was followed by validating relative expression levels of proteins present in urine among all the patients using quantitative real time-PCR. This was followed by validating relative expression levels of proteins present in urine among all the patients using quantitative real time-PCR. This approach revealed that significant the down-regulation of Fibronectin and TP53INP2 was a characteristic event among PCa patients. Fibronectin mRNA down-regulation, was identified as offering improved specificity (50%) over PSA, albeit with a slightly lower although still acceptable sensitivity (75%) for detecting PCa. As for TP53INP2 on the other hand, its down-regulation was moderately sensitive (75%), identifying many patients with PCa, but was entirely non-specific (7%), designating many of the benign samples as malignant and being unable to accurately identify more than one negative.
PMCID: PMC3909765  PMID: 24494028
Prostate Cancer. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Urine. Proteins. Biomarkers.
12.  An Ultra-Sensitive Immunoassay for Quantifying Biomarkers in Breast Tumor Tissue 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):115-124.
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) have been validated at the highest level of evidence as clinical biomarkers of prognosis in breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends using uPA and PAI-1 levels in breast tumors for deciding whether patients with newly diagnosed node-negative breast cancer can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. The sole validated method for quantifying uPA and PAI-1 levels in breast tumor tissue is a colorimetric ELISA assay that takes 3 days to complete and requires 100-300 mg of fresh or frozen tissue. In this study we describe a new assay method for quantifying PAI-1 levels in human breast tumor tissue. This assay combines pressure-cycling technology to extract PAI-1 from breast tumor tissue with a highly sensitive liposome polymerase chain reaction immunoassay for quantification of PAI-1 in the tissue extract. The new PAI-1 assay method reduced the total assay time to one day and improved assay sensitivity and dynamic range by >100, compared to ELISA.
PMCID: PMC3909766  PMID: 24494029
breast cancer; plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1; tissue biomarkers; high-pressure tissue extraction; immunoliposome-PCR; immunoassay
13.  Should EMT of Cancer Cells Be Understood as Epithelial-Myeloid Transition? 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):125-132.
Cancer cells express epithelial markers, and when progressing in malignancy they may express markers of the mesenchymal cell type. Therefore an epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the cancer cells is assumed. However the mesenchymal markers can equally well be interpreted as myeloid markers since they are common in both types of cell lineages. Moreover, cancer cells express multiple specific markers of the myeloid lineages thus giving rise to the hypothesis that the transition of cancer cells may be from epithelial to myeloid cells and not to mesenchymal cells. This interpretation would better explain why cancer cells, often already in their primary cancer site, frequently show properties common to those of macrophages, platelets and pre-/osteoclasts.
PMCID: PMC3909767  PMID: 24494030
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, epithelial-myeloid transition, osteomimetic properties of cancer cells; macrophage and platelet traits of cancer cells, common clusters of differentiation between cancer cells and cells of the myeloid lineage
14.  Preclinical Development of ONC1-13B, Novel Antiandrogen for Prostate Cancer Treatment 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):133-142.
Recently new drugs targeting androgen-dependent axis have been approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) - Zytiga and Xtandi (formerly MDV3100), several other candidates (for example, ARN-509) are in early phases of clinical trials. However despite significant improvement in overall survival with new treatments it is evident that resistance to these drugs develops. One of the approaches to overcome it is combination therapy and from this point of view some potential for drug-drug interactions can limit the application of the drug.
We describe here the preclinical development of ONC1-13B, antagonist of androgen receptor, with similar to MDV3100 and ARN-509 mechanism of action. It efficiently inhibits DHT-stimulated PSA expression and proliferation of prostate cancer cells, prevents binding of androgens to the AR ligand-binding domain, androgen-stimulated AR nuclear translocation and coactivator complex formation. In the LnCaP-Z2 xenograft model of prostate cancer ONC1-13B inhibits tumor growth and suppresses PSA expression. The in vivo activity of ONC1-13B is comparable to that of MDV3100 at similar doses, and even higher, calculated per unit of concentration in plasma. Distribution of ONC1-13B to the brain is less than that shown for MDV3100 and ARN-509, decreasing the risk of GABA-related seizure development. Additionally ONC1-13B induces significantly lower in vitro CYP3A activity than for example MDV3100 (known strong CYP3A inducer) or ARN-509 and could be well suited for co-therapy with drugs that are known CYP3A substrates. Thus ONC1-13B is a new promising antiandrogen demonstrating high efficacy in a preclinical model of prostate cancer, with lower potential for seizures and drug-drug interaction.
PMCID: PMC3909768  PMID: 24494031
ONC1-13B; Antiandrogen; Prostate Cancer
15.  Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):143-150.
Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was tested using two methods (DPPH inhibition and sequestration of nitric oxide). The antiangiogenic properties were evaluated using the inflammatory angiogenesis model in the corneas of rats. The extract of C. echinata demonstrated a high capacity to inhibit free radicals, with IC50 equal to 42.404 µg/mL for the DPPH test and 234.2 µg/mL for nitric oxide. Moreover, it showed itself capable of inhibiting the inflammatory angiogenic response by 77.49%. These data suggest that biochemical components belonging to the extract of C. echinata interfere in mechanisms that control the angiogenic process, mediated by substrates belonging to the arachidonic acid cascade, although the data described above also suggest that the NO buffer may contribute to some extent to the reduction in the angiogenic response.
PMCID: PMC3930905  PMID: 24563668
antioxidant; angiogenesis; Caesalpinia echinata; natural products
16.  Endometrial Cancer Incidence in Breast Cancer Patients Correlating with Age and Duration of Tamoxifen Use: a Population Based Study 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):151-155.
Background: Our study aimed to assess the endometrial cancer risk after tamoxifen adjuvant treatment for female breast cancer patients in Taiwan.
Materials and Methods: A total of 74,280 breast cancer patients between January 1997 and December 2004 were included in the study; 39,411 received tamoxifen treatment and 34,869 did not. Tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer was defined as endometrial cancer that occurred in patients at least 6-month after the diagnosis of breast cancer, who underwent tamoxifen treatment.
Results: A total of 222 patients developed endometrial cancer, and of these,153 (69 %) were seen in patients with tamoxifen treatment, and 69 (31%) were seen in patients without the use of tamoxifen. The incidence of endometrial cancer was 0.388% (153/39,411) in patients with tamoxifen treatment, while was 0.198% (69/34,869) in patients without tamoxifen treatment. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that tamoxifen use and age over 35 years were significantly correlated with development of endometrial cancer (p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The odds ratio was 2.94 (95%CI, 2.13-4.06) for 3 years or longer tamoxifen use. The odds ratio was 4.08 (95%CI, 1.67-9.93) for women older than 35 years compared to those 35 or younger than 35 years. There were no significant differences in prior hormone exposure, hypertension and diabetes.
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest population based study that shows in patients with breast cancer, tamoxifen use for more than three years or patients older than 35 years was associated with a significantly increased risk for developing endometrial cancer.
PMCID: PMC3930906  PMID: 24563669
breast cancer; tamoxifen; endometrial cancer
17.  A Majority of Low (1-10%) ER Positive Breast Cancers Behave Like Hormone Receptor Negative Tumors 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(2):156-165.
Background: The 2010 guidelines by ASCO-CAP have mandated that breast cancer specimens with ≥1% positively staining cells by immunohistochemistry should be considered Estrogen Receptor (ER) positive. This has led to a subclass of low-ER positive (1-10%) breast cancers. We have examined the biology and clinical behavior of these low ER staining tumors.
Methods: We have developed a probabilistic score of the “ER-positivity” by quantitative estimation of ER related gene transcripts from FFPE specimens. Immunohistochemistry for ER was done on 240 surgically excised tumors of primary breast cancer. Relative transcript abundance of 3 house-keeping genes and 6 ER related genes were determined by q-RT PCR. A logistic regression model using 3 ER associated genes provided the best probability function, and a cut-off value was derived by ROC analysis. 144 high ER (>10%), 75 ER negative and 21 low-ER (1-10%) tumors were evaluated using the probability score and the disease specific survival was compared.
Results: Half of the low-ER positive tumors were assigned to the ER negative group based on the probability score; in contrast 95% of ER negative and 92% of the high ER positive tumors were assigned to the appropriate ER group (p<0.0001). The survival of the low-ER group was intermediate between that of the high ER positive and ER negative groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the newly lowered ASCO-CAP criteria for ER positivity, leads to the false categorization of biologically ER negative tumors as ER positive ones. This may have particular relevance to India, where we have a much higher proportion of ER negative tumors in general.
PMCID: PMC3930907  PMID: 24563670
ER 1-10 %; gene expression; q-RT-PCR; FFPE; Breast Cancer
18.  PD-L1 Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Analysis of Nephrectomy and Sites of Metastases 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):166-172.
Background: Expression of programmed death ligand (PD-L1/B7-H1/CD274) represents a mechanism of immune escape for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Drugs blocking PD-L1 or its receptor are in clinical development and early data suggests that tumor PD-L1 expression may predict response.
Patients and Methods: A tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of four biopsy cores from 34 matched pairs of nephrectomy and metastatic sites of clear cell RCC was used to assess PD-L1 expression by quantitative immunofluorescence. Assessment of intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and primary and metastatic tumor expression was performed using a method of Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA).
Results: The median AQUA scores were higher in metastatic than primary specimens (P < 0.0001). The correlation between PD-L1 expression in matched primary and metastatic specimens was weak (R= 0.24). Within a given tumor, variable PD-L1 staining heterogeneity was seen, however the degree of heterogeneity was similar in primary and metastatic sites (P = 0.482).
Conclusions: The weak correlation between PD-L1 expression in primary and metastatic sites for a given patient suggests that expression in nephrectomy specimens cannot be used to select metastatic RCC patients for PD-L1 and PD-1 inhibitors. The intra-tumor heterogeneity seen in both primary and metastatic specimens indicates that a single core biopsy might not be sufficient to determine PD-L1 expression.
PMCID: PMC3931264  PMID: 24563671
PD-L1; renal cell carcinoma
19.  Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):173-181.
Background: Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. There is a need for the development of new medical therapies that can reduce the need for surgical intervention so as to preserve the fertility of these patients. The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin.
Methods: Five PCOS-IR women who were scheduled for diagnosis and therapy for early endometrial carcinoma were recruited. The hospital records and endometrial pathology reports were reviewed. All patients were co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin for 6 months to reverse the endometrial carcinoma and preserve their fertility. Before, during, and after treatment, endometrial biopsies and blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Endometrial pathology was evaluated. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin area under curve (IAUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined.
Results: Clinical stage 1a, low grade endometrial carcinoma was confirmed before treatment. After 6 months of co-treatment, all patients showed normal epithelia. No evidence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma was found. Co-treatment resulted in significant decreases in BW, BMI, TT, FAI, IAUC, and HOMA-IR in parallel with a significant increase in SHBG. There were no differences in the FSH and LH levels after co-treatment.
Conclusions: Combined treatment with Diane-35 and metformin has the potential to revert the endometrial carcinoma into normal endometrial cells in PCOS-IR women. The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this effect merit further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3931265  PMID: 24563672
PCOS; progesterone resistance; insulin resistance; steroid hormone receptors; endometrial carcinoma
20.  Potential Urinary miRNA Biomarker Candidates for the Accurate Detection of Prostate Cancer among Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patients 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):182-191.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short (~22nt), single stranded RNA molecules that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs can regulate a variety of important biological pathways, including: cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Profiling of miRNA expression patterns was shown to be more useful than the equivalent mRNA profiles for characterizing poorly differentiated tumours. As such, miRNA expression “signatures” are expected to offer serious potential for diagnosing and prognosing cancers of any provenance. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using deregulation of urinary miRNAs in order to detect Prostate Cancer (PCa) among Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). To identify the miRNA signatures specific for PCa, miRNA expression profiling of 8 PCa patients, 12 BPH patients and 10 healthy males was carried out using whole genome expression profiling. Differential expression of two individual miRNAs between healthy males and BPH patients was detected and found to possibly target genes related to PCa development and progression. The sensitivity and specificity of miR-1825 for detecting PCa among BPH individuals was found to be 60% and 69%, respectively. Whereas, the sensitivity and specificity of miR-484 were 80% and 19%, respectively. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for miR-1825/484 in tandem were 45% and 75%, respectively. The proposed PCa miRNA signatures may therefore be of great value for the accurate diagnosis of PCa and BPH. This exploratory study has identified several possible targets that merit further investigation towards the development and validation of diagnostically useful, non-invasive, urine-based tests that might not only help diagnose PCa but also possibly help differentiate it from BPH.
PMCID: PMC3931266  PMID: 24563673
Prostate Cancer; Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urine; MicroRNA; Biomarkers.
21.  Radiation Exposure of Patients by Cone Beam CT during Endobronchial Navigation - A Phantom Study 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):192-202.
Rationale: Cone Beam Computed Tomography imaging has become increasingly important in many fields of interventional therapies. Objective: Lung navigation study which is an uncommon soft tissue approach. Methods: As no effective organ radiation dose levels were available for this kind of Cone Beam Computed Tomography application we simulated in our DynaCT (Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) suite 2 measurements including 3D acquisition and again for 3D acquisition and 4 endobronchial navigation maneuvers under fluoroscopy towards a nodule after the 8th segmentation in the right upper lobe over a total period of 20 minutes (min). These figures reflect the average complexity and time in our experience. We hereby describe the first time the exact protocol of lung navigation by a Cone Beam Computed Tomography approach. Measurement: The hereby first time measured body radiation doses in that approach showed very promising numbers between 0,98-1,15mSv giving specific lung radiation doses of 0,42-0,38 mSv. Main results: These figures are comparable or even better to other lung navigation systems. Cone Beam Computed Tomography offers some unique features for lung interventionists as a realtime 1-step navigation system in an open structure feasible for endobronchial and transcutaneous approach. Conclusions: Due to this low level of radiation exposure Cone Beam Computed Tomography is expected to attract interventionists interested in using and guiding endobronchial or transcutaneous ablative procedures to peripheral endobronchial and other lung lesions.
PMCID: PMC3931267  PMID: 24563674
Dyna CT; lung cancer; diagnosis.
22.  Modulation of Wnt Activity and Cell Physiology by Butyrate in LT97 Microadenoma Cells 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):203-213.
Dietary fiber intake is linked to a reduced risk of colon cancer. This effect may in part be due to butyrate, the fermentation product of fiber in the colon. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid that acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Butyrate induces apoptosis and represses clonal growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, in a manner dependent upon the hyperactivation of Wnt /beta-catenin signaling. While fiber has been linked to CRC prevention, in vitro studies on the action of butyrate have used CRC cell lines, instead of cells representative of earlier stages of colonic neoplasia, which are the likely target of butyrate-mediated preventive activity. The LT97 cell line is derived from a microadenoma, the earliest stage of colonic neoplasia from which cells can be isolated. We characterized LT97 cells with respect to effects of butyrate on Wnt signaling and apoptosis, and we determined whether modulation of CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 activity influences the ability of butyrate to induce Wnt activity and apoptosis. We report that in LT97 cells, butyrate induces apoptosis, strongly upregulates Wnt signaling, and the upregulation of Wnt signaling is dependent upon CBP/p300 activity. In addition, findings from overexpression experiments suggest differences between CBP and p300 in their ability to influence Wnt signaling in LT97 cells; p300, but not CBP, stimulates basal Wnt activity. We also evaluated differences in gene expression between early stage LT97 cells and late stage metastatic SW620 CRC cells that exhibit markedly different cellular phenotypes. The comparative gene expression analyses revealed differences that may impact neoplastic progression and the sensitivity to the effects of butyrate. The findings have implications for the prevention of CRC by fiber/butyrate.
PMCID: PMC3931268  PMID: 24563675
LT97; microadenoma; colorectal cancer; butyrate; CBP; p300.
23.  The Use of Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) and Chemotherapeutic Agents in New Zealand Men with Prostate Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):214-220.
Purpose: To assess the patterns of use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapeutic agents in New Zealand men with prostate cancer.
Methods: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 were identified from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. Through data linkage with the Pharmaceutical Collection and the National Minimum Dataset information on subsidised anti-androgens, luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues, chemotherapeutic agents, and orchidectomy was retrieved. The frequency of ADT and chemotherapy use in the first year post-diagnosis was assessed by patients' age, ethnicity, and extent of disease at diagnosis.
Results: The study population included 15,947 men diagnosed with prostate cancer, of whom 4978 (31%) were prescribed ADT or chemotherapeutic agents. ADT was dispensed for 72% of men with metastatic disease. Only 24 (0.2%) men received chemotherapeutic agents. Men with advanced (regional or metastatic) disease older than 70 were more likely to receive anti-androgens only and to be treated with orchidectomy compared with younger men. Māori and Pacific men (compared with non-Māori/non-Pacific men) were more likely to receive pharmacologic ADT, and Māori men were also more likely to be treated with orchidectomy.
Conclusions: It was expected that all men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer should be using ADT in the first year post-diagnosis. However, for more than one-fourth of men neither anti-androgens nor LHRH analogues were dispensed within this period. Chemotherapeutic agents were used very rarely, so it seems that both pharmacologic ADT and chemotherapy is under-utilised in New Zealand patients with advanced prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3931269  PMID: 24563676
anti-androgens; LHRH analogues; chemotherapy; orchidectomy; prostate cancer
24.  Serum Endocan as a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):221-230.
Endocan is a vascular endothelium-derived factor regulated by angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum endocan levels are prognostic for survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum endocan levels were measured in 64 HCC patients who were naïve to treatment, eight apparently healthy subjects, and 68 patients with liver cirrhosis; the latter two groups served as controls. Prognostic factors for the survival of HCC patients were examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. The median serum endocan levels were 1.145 ng/mL (range, 0.93-1.68 ng/mL) in healthy subjects, 1.93 ng/mL (range, 0.45-8.47 ng/mL) in liver cirrhosis patients, and 3.73 ng/mL (range, 0.74-10.95 ng/mL) in HCC patients (P = 0.0001). In HCC patients, elevated serum endocan levels were significantly associated with poor hepatic function (P = 0.015), a greater number of tumors (P = 0.034), and vascular invasion (P = 0.043). The median follow-up period was 23.0 months, and 33 HCC patients died during follow up. Multivariate analysis showed that serum endocan levels ≥ 2.20 ng/mL (hazard ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-5.36, P = 0.008) as well as elevated serum α-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin levels were independent prognostic biomarkers for poor survival. The combination of serum endocan and these two additional markers was significantly predictive of worse survival (P < 0.0001). Thus, serum endocan may be a prognostic biomarker for survival in HCC patients, and the combination of serum endocan, α-fetoprotein, and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin levels can result in better prognostic stratification of these patients.
PMCID: PMC3963079  PMID: 24665346
hepatocellular carcinoma; endocan; prognostic survival.
25.  Cone Beam Computertomography (CBCT) in Interventional Chest Medicine - High Feasibility for Endobronchial Realtime Navigation 
Journal of Cancer  2014;5(3):231-241.
Introduction: Currently there are several advanced guiding techniques for pathoanatomical diagnosis of incidental solitary pulmonary nodules (iSPN): Electromagnetic navigation (EMN) with or without endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with miniprobe, transthoracic ultrasound (TTUS) for needle approach to the pleural wall and adjacent lung and computed tomography (CT) -guidance for (seldom if ever used) endobronchial or (common) transthoracical approach. In several situations one technique is not enough for efficient diagnosis, therefore we investigated a new diagnostic technique of endobronchial guided biopsies by a Cone Beam Computertomography (CBCT) called DynaCT (SIEMENS AG Forchheim, Germany). Method and Material: In our study 33 incidental solitary pulmonary nodules (iSPNs) (28 malignant, 5 benign; mean diameter 25 +/-12mm, shortest distance to pleura 25+/-18mm) were eligible according to in- and exclusion criteria. Realtime and onsite navigation were performed according to our standard protocol.22 All iSPN were controlled with a second technique when necessary and clinical feasible in case of unspecific or unexpected histological result. In all cases common guidelines of treatment of different iSPNs were followed in a routine manner. Results: Overall navigational yield (ny) was 91% and diagnostic yield (dy) 70%, dy for all accomplished malignant cases (n=28) was 82%. In the subgroup analysis of the invisible iSPN (n=12, 11 malignant, 1 benign; mean diameter 15+/-3mm) we found an overall dy of 75%. For the first time we describe a significant difference in specifity of biopsy results in regards to the position of the forceps in the 3-dimensional volume (3DV) of the iSPN in the whole sample group. Comparing the specifity of biopsies of a 3D-uncentered but inside the outer one third of an iSPN-3DV with the specifity of biopsies of centered forceps position (meaning the inner two third of an iSPN-3DV) reveals a significant (p=0,0375 McNemar) difference for the size group (>1cm) of 0,9 for centered biopsies vs. 0,3 for uncentered biopsies. Therefore only 3D-centered biopsies should be relied on especially in case of a benign result. Conclusion:The diagnostic yield of DynaCT navigation guided transbronchial biopsies (TBB) only with forceps is at least up to twofold higher than conventional TBB for iSPNs <2cm. The diagnostic yield of DynaCT navigation guided forceps TBB in invisible SPNs is at least in the range of other navigation studies which were performed partly with multiple navigation tools and multiple instruments. For future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches it is so far the only onsite and realtime extrathoracic navigation approach (except for computed tomography (CT)-fluoroscopy) in the bronchoscopy suite which keeps the working channel open. The system purchase represents an important investment for hospitals but it is a multidisciplinary and multinavigational tool with possible access via bronchial airways, transthoracical or vascular approach at the same time and on the same table without the need for an expensive disposable instrument use.
PMCID: PMC3963080  PMID: 24665347
solitary pulmonary nodule; cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT); electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (EMN; ENB); transbronchial biopsy (TBB).

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