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1.  “Asymmetric scalloping of the regenerate”: a radiological sign of pseudoaneurysm in distraction osteogenesis 
Pseudoaneurysm formation is an uncommon but well-recognised and important complication in limb reconstruction surgery. Postoperative diagnosis is usually clinical or an incidental finding. We present an 11-year-old girl, who underwent two-stage limb lengthening with a circular fixator, for a previously treated pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. During the lengthening plan, a concave defect was noted on one side of the regenerate, which was found to be due to extrinsic compression by a pseudoaneurysm. Normal regenerate formation was seen after selective embolisation of the pseudoaneurysm. This concave appearance on one side of the regenerate has previously been described secondary to a difference in stability on the two sides of the osteotomy, when a monolateral fixator is used, but not due to extrinsic compression by a pseudoaneurysm. The authors propose that this radiographic appearance of “asymmetrical scalloping” on one side of the regenerate may represent a radiological sign of a pseudoaneurysm formation and should provoke investigation for the same.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0121-4
PMCID: PMC3225571  PMID: 22094536
Asymmetric scalloping; Regenerate; Pseudoaneurysm; External fixator; Distraction osteogenesis
2.  “Asymmetric scalloping of the regenerate”: a radiological sign of pseudoaneurysm in distraction osteogenesis 
Pseudoaneurysm formation is an uncommon but well-recognised and important complication in limb reconstruction surgery. Postoperative diagnosis is usually clinical or an incidental finding. We present an 11-year-old girl, who underwent two-stage limb lengthening with a circular fixator, for a previously treated pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. During the lengthening plan, a concave defect was noted on one side of the regenerate, which was found to be due to extrinsic compression by a pseudoaneurysm. Normal regenerate formation was seen after selective embolisation of the pseudoaneurysm. This concave appearance on one side of the regenerate has previously been described secondary to a difference in stability on the two sides of the osteotomy, when a monolateral fixator is used, but not due to extrinsic compression by a pseudoaneurysm. The authors propose that this radiographic appearance of “asymmetrical scalloping” on one side of the regenerate may represent a radiological sign of a pseudoaneurysm formation and should provoke investigation for the same.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0121-4
PMCID: PMC3225571  PMID: 22094536
Asymmetric scalloping; Regenerate; Pseudoaneurysm; External fixator; Distraction osteogenesis
3.  Locked intramedullary femoral nailing without fracture table or image intensifier 
The present retrospective study aims to evaluate the outcome in 41 patients of femoral shaft fractures, who had closed intramedullary nailing in lateral decubitus position without fracture table or image intensifier. Mean age was 33.2 (range, 18–70) years. The cannulated reamer in proximal fragment (as intramedullary joystick) and Schanz screw in the distal fragment (as percutaneous joystick) were simultaneously used to assist closed reduction of the fracture without the use of image intensifier. Closed reduction was successful in 38 patients. Open reduction was required in 3 patients. Schanz screw was used for closed reduction in 12 patients. Average number of intra-operative radiographic exposures was 4.4. Two patients had exchange nailing using large diameter nails. One patient had nonunion. Angular and rotatory malalignments were observed in seven patients. We are of the opinion that the present technique is a safe and reliable alternative to achieve closed locked intramedullary nailing and is best suited to stable, less comminuted (Winquist–Hansen types I and II) diaphyseal fractures of the femur.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0122-3
PMCID: PMC3225568  PMID: 22081272
Fracture; Femur; Image intensifier; Fracture table; Intramedullary nailing; Interlocking; Closed reduction technique
4.  Locked intramedullary femoral nailing without fracture table or image intensifier 
The present retrospective study aims to evaluate the outcome in 41 patients of femoral shaft fractures, who had closed intramedullary nailing in lateral decubitus position without fracture table or image intensifier. Mean age was 33.2 (range, 18–70) years. The cannulated reamer in proximal fragment (as intramedullary joystick) and Schanz screw in the distal fragment (as percutaneous joystick) were simultaneously used to assist closed reduction of the fracture without the use of image intensifier. Closed reduction was successful in 38 patients. Open reduction was required in 3 patients. Schanz screw was used for closed reduction in 12 patients. Average number of intra-operative radiographic exposures was 4.4. Two patients had exchange nailing using large diameter nails. One patient had nonunion. Angular and rotatory malalignments were observed in seven patients. We are of the opinion that the present technique is a safe and reliable alternative to achieve closed locked intramedullary nailing and is best suited to stable, less comminuted (Winquist–Hansen types I and II) diaphyseal fractures of the femur.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0122-3
PMCID: PMC3225568  PMID: 22081272
Fracture; Femur; Image intensifier; Fracture table; Intramedullary nailing; Interlocking; Closed reduction technique
5.  High tibial osteotomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus deformity using the Taylor spatial frame: early results 
We report the early results of high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus deformity using the Taylor spatial frame (TSF). Between October 2005 and April 2007, 9 patients with medial compartment OA and varus deformity underwent TSF application and medial opening wedge HTO. Pre- and post-operative Oxford knee scores, SF-12 and visual analogue pain scores were recorded along with radiographic outcomes. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 15–35). Mean age at operation was 49 years (range 37–59). The median time spent in the frame was 18 weeks (range 12–37). The mean preoperative Oxford knee score was 28.7. This improved to a mean of 35.4 post-operatively (P = 0.0142). 6 (67%) patients had a documented pin-site infection. With TKR as an end point, the survival rate of HTOs was 88.9% at a median of 19 months follow-up. This study demonstrates that in selected patients the TSF provides a viable treatment option for performing HTO in medial compartment OA with varus deformity.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0123-2
PMCID: PMC3225572  PMID: 22072322
Ilizarov; Tibia; Osteotomy; Knee; Osteoarthritis
6.  High tibial osteotomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus deformity using the Taylor spatial frame: early results 
We report the early results of high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus deformity using the Taylor spatial frame (TSF). Between October 2005 and April 2007, 9 patients with medial compartment OA and varus deformity underwent TSF application and medial opening wedge HTO. Pre- and post-operative Oxford knee scores, SF-12 and visual analogue pain scores were recorded along with radiographic outcomes. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 15–35). Mean age at operation was 49 years (range 37–59). The median time spent in the frame was 18 weeks (range 12–37). The mean preoperative Oxford knee score was 28.7. This improved to a mean of 35.4 post-operatively (P = 0.0142). 6 (67%) patients had a documented pin-site infection. With TKR as an end point, the survival rate of HTOs was 88.9% at a median of 19 months follow-up. This study demonstrates that in selected patients the TSF provides a viable treatment option for performing HTO in medial compartment OA with varus deformity.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0123-2
PMCID: PMC3225572  PMID: 22072322
Ilizarov; Tibia; Osteotomy; Knee; Osteoarthritis
7.  The repair of the Achilles tendon rupture: comparison of two percutaneous techniques 
This study proposes a comparison between two percutaneous techniques of subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture by evaluating the risk of lesion developing, the morbidity of the surgical technique adopted and the effectiveness of each technique. Sixty patients were operated at Padua Orthopaedic Clinic by using the two different procedures: (1) Ma and Griffith in 30 cases and (2) Tenolig in 30 cases. Risk of rupture developing has been evaluated in relation to sex, age, side, kind of trauma, work and presence of preoperative risk factors. The Morbidity of surgical technique has been evaluated in with respect to surgical time, hospital permanence, immobilization, active nonweight-bearing mobilization, assisted weight bearing until the full one, number of early and late complications before and after hospital discharge. Effectiveness has been evaluated in relation to return time to common life, work and sport; anatomical and functional features have been evaluated using McComis score, rating results as: very good (from 80 to 70), good (from 69 to 60), fair (from 59 to 50) and poor (<50). Tenolig group shows shorter average time from hospital admission and operation, hospital permanence and immobilization (P < 0.05), and it results in an easier and quicker execution and functionally stimulates the tendon healing in a short time. Effectiveness was the same for both techniques because average McComis score was good (P = 0.35), and there was no significant differences in common life returning time (P = 0.12). Tenolig technique seems to be preferable to Ma and Griffith.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0124-1
PMCID: PMC3225567  PMID: 22065368
Achilles tendon; Rupture; Percutaneous technique; Tenolig; Ma and Griffith
8.  The repair of the Achilles tendon rupture: comparison of two percutaneous techniques 
This study proposes a comparison between two percutaneous techniques of subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture by evaluating the risk of lesion developing, the morbidity of the surgical technique adopted and the effectiveness of each technique. Sixty patients were operated at Padua Orthopaedic Clinic by using the two different procedures: (1) Ma and Griffith in 30 cases and (2) Tenolig in 30 cases. Risk of rupture developing has been evaluated in relation to sex, age, side, kind of trauma, work and presence of preoperative risk factors. The Morbidity of surgical technique has been evaluated in with respect to surgical time, hospital permanence, immobilization, active nonweight-bearing mobilization, assisted weight bearing until the full one, number of early and late complications before and after hospital discharge. Effectiveness has been evaluated in relation to return time to common life, work and sport; anatomical and functional features have been evaluated using McComis score, rating results as: very good (from 80 to 70), good (from 69 to 60), fair (from 59 to 50) and poor (<50). Tenolig group shows shorter average time from hospital admission and operation, hospital permanence and immobilization (P < 0.05), and it results in an easier and quicker execution and functionally stimulates the tendon healing in a short time. Effectiveness was the same for both techniques because average McComis score was good (P = 0.35), and there was no significant differences in common life returning time (P = 0.12). Tenolig technique seems to be preferable to Ma and Griffith.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0124-1
PMCID: PMC3225567  PMID: 22065368
Achilles tendon; Rupture; Percutaneous technique; Tenolig; Ma and Griffith
9.  The reciprocal ledge closing wedge osteotomy for post traumatic coxa vara 
To report a proximal femoral osteotomy with retention of bone ledges in a reciprocal position to increase bone contact and stability. The method was applied to 5 patients over a 3-year period. All patients had coxa vara. The average length gained was 1.5 cm, and the average neck shaft angle improvement was 30°. The Harris hip score improved from an average of 63 to 82. The reciprocal ledge osteotomy is technically less demanding and also allows conversion of normal shear forces around the upper femur to stabilizing forces. This method allows easier use of the DHS implant as potential rotation about the axis of the screw is negated by the ledges and the dynamic forces.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0120-5
PMCID: PMC3225569  PMID: 21904844
Reciprocating ledge; Closing wedge
10.  The reciprocal ledge closing wedge osteotomy for post traumatic coxa vara 
To report a proximal femoral osteotomy with retention of bone ledges in a reciprocal position to increase bone contact and stability. The method was applied to 5 patients over a 3-year period. All patients had coxa vara. The average length gained was 1.5 cm, and the average neck shaft angle improvement was 30°. The Harris hip score improved from an average of 63 to 82. The reciprocal ledge osteotomy is technically less demanding and also allows conversion of normal shear forces around the upper femur to stabilizing forces. This method allows easier use of the DHS implant as potential rotation about the axis of the screw is negated by the ledges and the dynamic forces.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0120-5
PMCID: PMC3225569  PMID: 21904844
Reciprocating ledge; Closing wedge
11.  Staged correction of an equinovarus deformity due to pyoderma gangrenosum using a Taylor spatial frame and tibiotalar calcaneal fusion with an intramedullary device 
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare autoinflammatory syndrome manifested by skin lesions eventually creating ulcers. Surgical management can lead to scarring and contracture at the site of the lesion due to the pathergy phenomenon. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of severe equinovarus deformity due to chronic pyoderma gangrenosum on her posteromedial ankle. She underwent a staged fusion. A gradual “closed” correction was performed in a Taylor spatial frame for 8 weeks in order to obviate the need for a surgical release in the area of the ulcer. She was ambulatory and full weight-bearing within 4 weeks of her frame removal. She maintained her correction with an accommodative foot orthosis until she had an uneventful tibiotalar calcaneal fusion with an intramedullary device. This case represents the success of using a Taylor spatial frame for staged fusion involving soft-tissue correction of severe, rigid equinovarus deformity due to pyoderma gangrenosum.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0119-y
PMCID: PMC3225573  PMID: 21863298
Pyoderma gangrenosum; Equinovarus; Staged fusion; Taylor spatial frame
12.  Necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities: a prospective study 
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection and is a necrosis of the fascia and surrounding tissues. Despite recent advances in its management, outcomes have not improved and mortality rate is still high. Between September 2007 and August 2009, we prospectively studied twenty-four histopathologically proven necrotizing fasciitis patients to assess the prognostic factors that indicate the outcome. Mortality rate was 20.8%. Twelve patients (50%) improved, while seven patients (29.2%) were complicated by limb loss. Mortality rates related to upper and lower limb involvement were similar (20% vs. 22.2%). The rates of gangrene and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than other comorbidities. Patients with gram-positive infections had significantly lower rates of amputation (15.4% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.04). Mean band cell count and serum potassium level were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors same as leukocyte count in the patients with gangrene, while serum sodium level was significantly lower in nonsurvivors. We conclude that hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and increased band cells in the peripheral blood of patients may be useful parameters in distinguishing life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis; hence, we recommended lower threshold to amputation during surgery for this group of patients.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0116-1
PMCID: PMC3225576  PMID: 21863299
Necrotizing fasciitis; Skin diseases, bacterial; Musculoskeletal disease, fasciitis
13.  Staged correction of an equinovarus deformity due to pyoderma gangrenosum using a Taylor spatial frame and tibiotalar calcaneal fusion with an intramedullary device 
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare autoinflammatory syndrome manifested by skin lesions eventually creating ulcers. Surgical management can lead to scarring and contracture at the site of the lesion due to the pathergy phenomenon. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of severe equinovarus deformity due to chronic pyoderma gangrenosum on her posteromedial ankle. She underwent a staged fusion. A gradual “closed” correction was performed in a Taylor spatial frame for 8 weeks in order to obviate the need for a surgical release in the area of the ulcer. She was ambulatory and full weight-bearing within 4 weeks of her frame removal. She maintained her correction with an accommodative foot orthosis until she had an uneventful tibiotalar calcaneal fusion with an intramedullary device. This case represents the success of using a Taylor spatial frame for staged fusion involving soft-tissue correction of severe, rigid equinovarus deformity due to pyoderma gangrenosum.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0119-y
PMCID: PMC3225573  PMID: 21863298
Pyoderma gangrenosum; Equinovarus; Staged fusion; Taylor spatial frame
14.  Necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities: a prospective study 
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection and is a necrosis of the fascia and surrounding tissues. Despite recent advances in its management, outcomes have not improved and mortality rate is still high. Between September 2007 and August 2009, we prospectively studied twenty-four histopathologically proven necrotizing fasciitis patients to assess the prognostic factors that indicate the outcome. Mortality rate was 20.8%. Twelve patients (50%) improved, while seven patients (29.2%) were complicated by limb loss. Mortality rates related to upper and lower limb involvement were similar (20% vs. 22.2%). The rates of gangrene and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than other comorbidities. Patients with gram-positive infections had significantly lower rates of amputation (15.4% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.04). Mean band cell count and serum potassium level were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors same as leukocyte count in the patients with gangrene, while serum sodium level was significantly lower in nonsurvivors. We conclude that hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and increased band cells in the peripheral blood of patients may be useful parameters in distinguishing life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis; hence, we recommended lower threshold to amputation during surgery for this group of patients.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0116-1
PMCID: PMC3225576  PMID: 21863299
Necrotizing fasciitis; Skin diseases, bacterial; Musculoskeletal disease, fasciitis
15.  Correction of poliomyelitis foot deformities with Ilizarov method 
Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease caused by a neurotrophic virus targeting anterior horn cells of lower motor neurons resulting in flaccid paralysis and represents a common condition in developing countries, and even nowadays, most of both treated and untreated cases result in foot deformities. Between 1994 and 2007, 27 patients were treated by classic ring Ilizarov fixator, aiming at producing a stable plantigrade and cosmetically acceptable foot and followed up for meanly 7.17 years. Additional procedures were performed if needed. The mean time in frame was 4.2 months. All the patients were satisfied with their gait, compared to preoperative status. A painless and plantigrade foot was obtained in all patients, and limb-length discrepancy was always corrected where present. No major complications were encountered. In conclusion, the Ilizarov method allows simultaneous progressive correction of all components of severe foot deformities associated with limb-lengthening discrepancy with minimal surgery, reducing risks of cutaneous or neurovascular complications and avoiding important shortening of the foot.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0111-6
PMCID: PMC3225570  PMID: 21809083
External fixation; Foot deformities; Ilizarov; Poliomyelitis; Surgical techniques
16.  Correction of poliomyelitis foot deformities with Ilizarov method 
Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease caused by a neurotrophic virus targeting anterior horn cells of lower motor neurons resulting in flaccid paralysis and represents a common condition in developing countries, and even nowadays, most of both treated and untreated cases result in foot deformities. Between 1994 and 2007, 27 patients were treated by classic ring Ilizarov fixator, aiming at producing a stable plantigrade and cosmetically acceptable foot and followed up for meanly 7.17 years. Additional procedures were performed if needed. The mean time in frame was 4.2 months. All the patients were satisfied with their gait, compared to preoperative status. A painless and plantigrade foot was obtained in all patients, and limb-length discrepancy was always corrected where present. No major complications were encountered. In conclusion, the Ilizarov method allows simultaneous progressive correction of all components of severe foot deformities associated with limb-lengthening discrepancy with minimal surgery, reducing risks of cutaneous or neurovascular complications and avoiding important shortening of the foot.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0111-6
PMCID: PMC3225570  PMID: 21809083
External fixation; Foot deformities; Ilizarov; Poliomyelitis; Surgical techniques
17.  Sensate composite calcaneal flap in leg amputation: a full terminal weight-bearing surface—experience in eight adult patients 
Despite modern reconstruction techniques and replantation, the preservation of a severely traumatised limb, or even a limb affected by a congenital malformation, usually gives poorer functional results compared with amputation and prosthetisation. The aim of this study was to describe a hind foot (including the calcaneum and fat pad) sensate flap with a surface that allows full terminal weight bearing in transtibial amputations in adults. Between June 2007 and September 2008, eight patients underwent leg amputations with a sensate composite calcaneal flap reconstruction of the stump. Patients consisted of four men and four women with a mean age of 46.5 (26–66) years. All amputations were unilateral. The mean follow-up was 28.3 (25–42) months. There were no complications. Calcaneum tibial fusion was observed in all patients in a mean time of 3.5 (3–4) months. A below-knee prosthesis was adapted at 16 weeks postoperatively in all cases, and no need for stump revision occurred in this series during the entire follow-up period. A transtibial amputation covered with a sensate plantar flap preserving the calcaneum was proposed. In theory, the anatomic structures spared in this technique provide a strong, full, weight-bearing terminal surface of the stump that will last a lifetime.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0118-z
PMCID: PMC3150647  PMID: 21789589
Heel; Leg; Extremities
18.  Sensate composite calcaneal flap in leg amputation: a full terminal weight-bearing surface—experience in eight adult patients 
Despite modern reconstruction techniques and replantation, the preservation of a severely traumatised limb, or even a limb affected by a congenital malformation, usually gives poorer functional results compared with amputation and prosthetisation. The aim of this study was to describe a hind foot (including the calcaneum and fat pad) sensate flap with a surface that allows full terminal weight bearing in transtibial amputations in adults. Between June 2007 and September 2008, eight patients underwent leg amputations with a sensate composite calcaneal flap reconstruction of the stump. Patients consisted of four men and four women with a mean age of 46.5 (26–66) years. All amputations were unilateral. The mean follow-up was 28.3 (25–42) months. There were no complications. Calcaneum tibial fusion was observed in all patients in a mean time of 3.5 (3–4) months. A below-knee prosthesis was adapted at 16 weeks postoperatively in all cases, and no need for stump revision occurred in this series during the entire follow-up period. A transtibial amputation covered with a sensate plantar flap preserving the calcaneum was proposed. In theory, the anatomic structures spared in this technique provide a strong, full, weight-bearing terminal surface of the stump that will last a lifetime.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0118-z
PMCID: PMC3150647  PMID: 21789589
Heel; Leg; Extremities
19.  Guided growth for correction of knee flexion deformity: a series of four cases 
Fixed knee flexion deformity can present as an insidious and significant problem in diverse etiologies, most commonly in cerebral palsy. Traditional surgical intervention has included posterior capsulotomy and supracondylar femoral osteotomy, both of which carry significant associated morbidity and risks. In the skeletally immature patient, guided growth may be used to correct or substantially diminish the deformity. We are presenting our early experience encompassing four subjects who completed instrumented gait analysis both prior to and after distal femoral anterior guided growth (hemiepiphysiodesis). Changes in gait and function resulting from surgery in each individual are reported. Outcomes indicate improved knee range of motion and alleviation of crouch at the knee with secondary improvements in the ankle, hip and pelvis. Three subjects with initially slow gait velocity improved to within normal limits by demonstrating increased stride length. A measure of overall gait kinematics showed improvements in all limbs. Anterior guided growth (hemiepiphysiodesis) of the distal femur resulted in positive quantitative changes in all four patients, though degree and types of changes were variable in this small series. Encouraged by these findings, we now prefer guided growth to extension supracondylar osteotomy for the skeletally immature patient with fixed knee flexion deformity.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0110-7
PMCID: PMC3150644  PMID: 21785910
Fixed knee flexion deformity; Crouch gait; Guided growth; Hemiepiphysiodesis; 8-plate
20.  Controversial topics in the management of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children 
The aim of our study was to review the literature looking for the up to date information regarding these controversial topics. An electronic literature search was performed using the Medline/PubMed database. A closed reduction attempt should always be done first. It is more important to engage both columns as well as divergence of the pins no matter whatever configuration is applied. Time to surgery seems to be not an important factor to increase the risk of complications as well as open reduction rate. Usually neurological injuries present a spontaneous recovery. If there is absent pulse, we should follow the algorithm associated with the perfusion of the hand.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0114-3
PMCID: PMC3150646  PMID: 21785909
Closed reduction; Pin configuration; Vascular injury; Supracondylar humerus fracture; Children
21.  Transiliac lengthening with posterior lumbar-iliac percutaneous fusion in sacral hemiagenesis 
Sacral agenesis is a term that applies to a wide range of developmental disorders of the lower portions of the spine and pelvis. Hemisacrum patients with all sacral segments present on one side of the spine, and decompensated lumbar rotoscoliosis, whit instability torac-pelvic that had transiliac lengthening of the lower extremity, accomplished by an innominate osteotomy with interposition of a rectangular iliac-bone graft in the osteotomy site, besides a posterior lumbar-iliac percutaneous fusion. We reported 5 adolescent patients, 2 men and 3 women, treated from 2000 to 2009, associated with average pelvic imbalance of 3.2 cm (2.5–4.5 cm) without other associated congenital anomalies. Patients classified as Vergara (Acta Ortop Mex 19:6–12, 2005) type IB unilateral partial agenesis of the sacrum, asymmetry of the pelvic ring there’s a torac-pelvic cifoscoliotic deformity. Mean age was 12.2 years-old (range from 8.2 to 13.7). The mean follow-up was 7.2 years (from 2 to 8). The consolidation process of the osteotomy site was in an average of 6.4 (5–8.7 weeks) (P = 0.036). None of the patients presented family medical history of diabetes on their mothers. None residual femoral nerve palsy. The procedure offers postural correction at the level of the pelvis, low morbidity and no additional operations were required to achieve the surgical objective. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic study: Case series (no, or historical, control group), Prospective: The study was started before the first patient was enrolled.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0109-0
PMCID: PMC3150650  PMID: 21785911
Postural imbalance; Hemiagenesis; Rotoscoliosis; Pelvis; Hemisacrum
22.  Guided growth for correction of knee flexion deformity: a series of four cases 
Fixed knee flexion deformity can present as an insidious and significant problem in diverse etiologies, most commonly in cerebral palsy. Traditional surgical intervention has included posterior capsulotomy and supracondylar femoral osteotomy, both of which carry significant associated morbidity and risks. In the skeletally immature patient, guided growth may be used to correct or substantially diminish the deformity. We are presenting our early experience encompassing four subjects who completed instrumented gait analysis both prior to and after distal femoral anterior guided growth (hemiepiphysiodesis). Changes in gait and function resulting from surgery in each individual are reported. Outcomes indicate improved knee range of motion and alleviation of crouch at the knee with secondary improvements in the ankle, hip and pelvis. Three subjects with initially slow gait velocity improved to within normal limits by demonstrating increased stride length. A measure of overall gait kinematics showed improvements in all limbs. Anterior guided growth (hemiepiphysiodesis) of the distal femur resulted in positive quantitative changes in all four patients, though degree and types of changes were variable in this small series. Encouraged by these findings, we now prefer guided growth to extension supracondylar osteotomy for the skeletally immature patient with fixed knee flexion deformity.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0110-7
PMCID: PMC3150644  PMID: 21785910
Fixed knee flexion deformity; Crouch gait; Guided growth; Hemiepiphysiodesis; 8-plate
23.  Controversial topics in the management of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children 
The aim of our study was to review the literature looking for the up to date information regarding these controversial topics. An electronic literature search was performed using the Medline/PubMed database. A closed reduction attempt should always be done first. It is more important to engage both columns as well as divergence of the pins no matter whatever configuration is applied. Time to surgery seems to be not an important factor to increase the risk of complications as well as open reduction rate. Usually neurological injuries present a spontaneous recovery. If there is absent pulse, we should follow the algorithm associated with the perfusion of the hand.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0114-3
PMCID: PMC3150646  PMID: 21785909
Closed reduction; Pin configuration; Vascular injury; Supracondylar humerus fracture; Children
24.  Transiliac lengthening with posterior lumbar-iliac percutaneous fusion in sacral hemiagenesis 
Sacral agenesis is a term that applies to a wide range of developmental disorders of the lower portions of the spine and pelvis. Hemisacrum patients with all sacral segments present on one side of the spine, and decompensated lumbar rotoscoliosis, whit instability torac-pelvic that had transiliac lengthening of the lower extremity, accomplished by an innominate osteotomy with interposition of a rectangular iliac-bone graft in the osteotomy site, besides a posterior lumbar-iliac percutaneous fusion. We reported 5 adolescent patients, 2 men and 3 women, treated from 2000 to 2009, associated with average pelvic imbalance of 3.2 cm (2.5–4.5 cm) without other associated congenital anomalies. Patients classified as Vergara (Acta Ortop Mex 19:6–12, 2005) type IB unilateral partial agenesis of the sacrum, asymmetry of the pelvic ring there’s a torac-pelvic cifoscoliotic deformity. Mean age was 12.2 years-old (range from 8.2 to 13.7). The mean follow-up was 7.2 years (from 2 to 8). The consolidation process of the osteotomy site was in an average of 6.4 (5–8.7 weeks) (P = 0.036). None of the patients presented family medical history of diabetes on their mothers. None residual femoral nerve palsy. The procedure offers postural correction at the level of the pelvis, low morbidity and no additional operations were required to achieve the surgical objective. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic study: Case series (no, or historical, control group), Prospective: The study was started before the first patient was enrolled.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0109-0
PMCID: PMC3150650  PMID: 21785911
Postural imbalance; Hemiagenesis; Rotoscoliosis; Pelvis; Hemisacrum
25.  Reconstruction nailing for ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures 
The surgical management of ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft presents a difficult and challenging problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to report the mid-term results and complications in a series of patients who sustained ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures and treated in our trauma department with a single reconstruction nail for both fractures. Eleven patients were included in the study with an average age of 46.4 years. The mean follow-up was 47 months (range, 15–75 months). There were no cases of a missed diagnosis at initial presentation. The mean time to union was 4.5 months for the neck fracture and 8.2 months for the shaft. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or non-union of the neck fracture. The mean Harris Hip Score was (85 ± 4.3). Complications included two cases of shaft fracture non-union and one case of peroneal nerve palsy. Heterotopic ossification at the tip of the greater trochanter was evident in two cases without causing any functional deficit. The current study suggests that reconstruction nailing produces satisfactory clinical and functional results in the mid-term. The complications involved only the femoral shaft fracture and were successfully treated with a single operative procedure.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0117-0
PMCID: PMC3150652  PMID: 21779894
Femoral shaft fractures; Ipsilateral hip; Reconstruction nail

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