Despite improvements over the past two decades, the outcome for patients with advanced osteosarcoma remains poor. Targeted therapies have emerged as promising treatment options for various malignancies. However, effective targeted cancer therapies require the identification of key molecules in the pathogenesis of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of the myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA), a member of the interferon-inducible p200 (IFI-200) family, as a therapeutic target for osteosarcoma by analyzing the baseline expression of MNDA in human osteosarcoma cells and determining the effect of MNDA overexpression on the proliferation and apoptosis profiles and migration/invasion ability in osteosarcoma cells. To this end, MNDA mRNA abundance in wild-type sarcoma osteogenic (Saos-2) cells was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, proliferation/apoptosis profiles and migration/invasion capacity in Saos-2 cells overexpressing a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-human MNDA fusion protein. Saos-2 cells found to be overexpressing GFP alone were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis and Matrigel Transwell migration assay. The results demonstrated that MNDA mRNA was significantly less abundant in wild-type Saos-2 cells compared with human monocyte-like U-937 cells and MNDA overexpression effectively inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and reduced migration/invasiveness in Saos-2 cells compared with GFP overexpression alone. Preliminary observations suggested that MNDA potentially serves as a novel therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.
osteosarcoma; sarcoma osteogenic; myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen; overexpression; proliferation; invasion; apoptosis
The current report describes the case of a 29-year-old female with a sacral giant cell tumor (GCT) during pregnancy. Originally, the patient presented with severe pain in the lumbosacral region, radiating posterolaterally from the lumbar spine into the bilateral thigh and subsequently, into the bilateral crus posterolaterally. Plain X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed osteolytic destruction of the sacrococcygeal bones and a huge soft-tissue mass with features of a chordoma. The patient underwent a partial en bloc sacrectomy (partial S1 and completely below) and curettage for tumors located at the sacroiliac joint and underlying left ilium, with bilateral internal iliac arteries ligated to control intraoperative hemorrhage. The patient’s bilateral S2 nerve roots were killed. The diagnosis of conventional GCT was determined based on the histopathological examination of the resected specimen. Urinary and bowel functions were recovered by exercising.
giant cell tumor; chordoma; S2 nerve root; sacral tumor; rectum; urinary and bowel function
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with the poorest prognosis and is the fourth leading cause of tumor-associated mortality in the industrialized world. microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small noncoding RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides long that are able to function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancer. In our study, overexpression of miR-203 in Panc-1 cells is sufficient to reduce migratory ability and invasiveness, and to induce upregulation of epithelial markers (Snail, ZO-1 and β-catenin) followed by a decrease of mesenchymal marker expression (Zeb-1, vimentin and fibronectin). We also found that the caveolin-1 mRNA or protein levels are modulated by miR-203 in Panc-1 cells. We found that exogenous miR-203 altered the level of cell migration and invasion, and the expression of associated proteins following caveolin-1 knockdown by small interfering RNA. These results demonstrate that miR-203 inhibits cell migration and invasion via caveolin-1 in pancreatic cancer cells, suggest that miR-203 expression may be a useful indicator of the metastatic potential and provide a new therapeutic target in this common malignancy.
pancreatic cancer; miR-203; caveolin-1
In developed countries, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed type of cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality in males. Compared with western countries, the morbidity rate of PCa in China is markedly lower, however, it is rising annually. The etiology of PCa is unclear, therefore, to investigate how a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) functions in PCa, ADAM10 mRNA and protein levels induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were identified using polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. To investigate the mechanism of ADAM10 activity in PCa, specific inhibitors were used, and DNA transfection and RNA interference technology were employed to identify the interaction between ADAM10 and the Fas ligand (L). The results indicated that TNF-α induced ADAM10 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/necrosis factor-κB signaling pathway. ADAM10 hydrolyzed FasL and contributed to apoptosis resistance of the tumor cells. These observations indicate a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of apoptosis-resistant PCa, by targeting ADAM10 sheddase activity.
prostate cancer; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10; fas ligand; tumor necrosis factor-α; apoptosis
Studies have highlighted important features of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNAs and proteins. Nuclear RNA export factor 3 (NXF3) is a member of the nuclear RNA export factor family that plays a role in mediating the export of cellular mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. However, little is known about the clinical significance of NXF3 in human tumors. To evaluate the prognostic significance of NXF3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the expression levels of NXF3 in a cohort of 112 patients with primary HCC who had undergone hepatectomy for histologically confirmed HCC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. It was identified that the expression levels of NXF3 were higher in the primary HCC tissues compared with those in paired peritumoral liver tissues. The overexpression of NXF3 in the HCC tissues was correlated with decreased survival time [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.954, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.034–3.695, P=0.039] and earlier tumor recurrence (HR = 2.101, 95% CI = 1.186–3.722, P=0.011) in postoperative patients with HCC. Notably, overexpression of NXF3 was correlated with a poor survival time and increased recurrence following HCC resection in male patients (P=0.020 and P=0.007, respectively) but not in female patients (P=0.916 and P=0.821, respectively). In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that implicates NXF3 as a prospective predictor of HCC prognosis as well as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
hepatocellular carcinoma; nuclear RNA export factor 3; nucleocytoplasmic transport; prognosis
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation has been reported to be associated with an increased overall survival in patients with glioma in a number of studies. Previous studies have focused on the mutation rate and possible metabolic pathways of the mutated IDH1 gene. However, the effects of IDH1 mutation on the biological behavior of glioma cells and the associated mechanisms, as well as the possible effects they may have on clinical therapy, have not been studied. In the present study, three eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transfected into the U87 cell line, specifically, a wild-type form of the IDH1 gene with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, a mutated IDH1 gene with the EGFP gene and the EGFP gene only. The three stable cell lines were selected using the G418 antibiotic. The biological behaviors of the cell lines were studied and the mechanisms underlying the biological differences between the cell lines were further investigated. The present study confirmed that IDH1 mutation induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and reduced the proportion of the G2/M phase, by downregulating cell division control protein 2 homolog levels, increasing bromodomain-containing protein 2 levels and markedly limiting cell proliferation. IDH1 mutation had no effect on the apoptosis rate under routine culture conditions. Serum chemotaxis assays showed that IDH1 mutation was markedly associated with a significantly reduced invasion ability, by reducing the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. From this study, it may be concluded that IDH1 mutation improves prognosis in glioma patients by altering the cell cycle, inhibiting cell proliferation and downregulating cell invasion ability. The results may provide a partial explanation for the improved prognosis of patients with mutated forms of the IDH1 gene.
isocitrate dehydrogenase 1; cell cycle; migration; invasion; matrix metalloproteinases
Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCMs) are rare and account for 4–8.5% of central nervous system metastases. Only one case of biopsy-proven ISCM due to prostate cancer has previously been reported. The current study presents an additional unique case of a 74-year-old male who developed symptoms from an intramedullary conus medullaris metastasis as the first manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this scenario is even more rare and has not previously been reported. The tumor was radically resected, followed by androgen blockade treatment. The patient’s neurological deficit significantly improved, with no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. In addition, the present study provides an overview of the previous literature concerning ISCMs from prostate cancer, and discusses the treatment options.
conus medullaris metastasis; prostate adenocarcinoma; intramedullary spinal cord metastases; prognosis; treatment
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a phenomenon in which hematopoietic cells are found in sites other than the bone marrow. It is usually observed in the liver and spleen but may occasionally be found within solid tumors. The current case report presents a 69-year-old female patient who presented with a renal cyst. Histopathological examination following surgical removal of the cyst revealed a lining of oncocytic- and chromophobe-type cells with capsular invasion and a mass forming EMH with evident bone trabeculae within the cyst wall. Circulating hematopoietic stem cells in the blood and their colonization within tissues is discussed in the present case report, emphasizing certain types of renal cell carcinoma.
extramedullary hematopoiesis; renal cell carcinoma; chromophobe; oncocyte
A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with apocrine features was investigated; the focus was on the histological characteristics of the cancer cells in a 68-year-old female exhibiting an ulcerated lesion of the right breast. Diagnostic imaging methods identified a lobulated solid tumor and indicated multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the left axilla, which confirmed the diagnosis of advanced breast cancer; thus, a mastectomy was performed. Macroscopic investigations identified the tumor as a white, solid lesion measuring 66 × 68 × 47 mm, which exhibited necrosis. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly solid and exhibited nest patterns, in addition to intracellular keratinization. Immunohistochemical staining identified the tumor cells as positive for cytokeratin 5/6, 34βE12 and P63. The lesion was considered to be an SCC demonstrating negative expression for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor; therefore, the tumor was a triple-negative breast cancer. Conversely, approximately one-third of the tumor cells indicated abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and gross cystic disease fluid, which was demonstrated via protein-15 staining; this indicated the presence of apocrine features. In addition, the androgen receptor was expressed in the tumor cells, thus the lesion was diagnosed as an SCC of the breast, exhibiting apocrine features.
breast; breast cancer; squamous cell carcinoma; apocrine carcinoma
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal malignancy of the biliary epithelium. CCA is resistant to currently available chemotherapy; therefore, new drugs as well as new molecular targets must be identified for the development of an effective treatment for CCA. The present study showed that RAD001 (everolimus), a derivative of rapamycin and an orally bioavailable mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, exhibits cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects in a CCA cell line, RMCCA-1. Treatment with low concentrations of RAD001 resulted in a significant reduction of in vitro invasion and migration of RMCCA-1, concomitant with a reduction of filopodia and alteration of the actin cytoskeleton. Although, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -14 activities were unaltered. However, at high concentrations, RAD001 exhibited cytotoxic effects, reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptotic cell death. Overall, RAD001 exhibits multiple effects mediated by the inhibition of the mTOR, which may serve as a promising agent for the treatment of CCA.
mTOR inhibitor; RAD001; cholangiocarcinoma
Fascin protein plays important roles in tumor metastasis and is prognostically relevant to human gastric cancer (GC). However, its role in the development and progression of GC has not been comprehensively investigated. In the present study, results revealed that upregulation of fascin by interleukin-6 promotes GC cell migration and invasion in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent manner in MKN45 cells. Furthermore, STAT3 directly regulated fascin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) bound to the fascin promoter in a STAT3-dependent and Notch-independent manner. Therefore, results demonstrate that STAT3 and NF-κB are required for upregulation of fascin and for cell migration and invasion in MKN45 cells. Effects of the treatments on cell signaling were detected by qPCR, western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed using in vitro scratch wound healing assay, transwell and Matrigel assays, and xenograft model. In addition, the STAT3-NF-κB-fascin signaling axis is identified as a therapeutic target for blocking GC cell invasion and migration.
gastric cancer; fascin; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; nuclear factor-κB; Notch; metastasis
Risk stratification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) by tumor size, lymph node and metastasis status is crucially affected by mitotic activity. To date, no studies have quantitatively compared mitotic activity in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue sections with immunohistochemical markers, such as phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) and Ki-67. According to the TNM guidelines, the mitotic count on H&E sections and immunohistochemical PHH3-stained slides has been assessed per 50 high-power fields of 154 specimens of clinically documented GIST cases. The Ki-67-associated proliferation rate was evaluated on three digitalized hot spots using image analysis. The H&E-based mitotic rate was found to correlate significantly better with Ki-67-assessed proliferation activity than with PHH3-assessed proliferation activity (r=0.780; P<0.01). A linear regression model (analysis of variance; P<0.001) allowed reliable predictions of the H&E-associated mitoses based on the Ki-67 expression alone. Additionally, the Ki-67-associated proliferation revealed a higher and significant impact on the recurrence and metastasis rate of the GIST cases than by the classical H&E-based mitotic rate. The results of the present study indicated that the mitotic rate may be reliably and time-efficiently estimated by immunohistochemistry of Ki-67 using only three hot spots.
gastrointestinal stromal tumors; mitosis; proliferation; Ki-67; PHH3
Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It is widely used in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. However, there are currently no reports of the efficacy of erlotinib in patients with metastatic vaginal carcinoma. A 48-year-old female with vaginal carcinoma was diagnosed with lung metastasis four years following surgery. The patient received three cycles of chemotherapy but could not tolerate further treatment due to the side effects. Next, erlotinib was administered, prompting a partial response and disease stabilization for 9 months prior to disease progression. While the main treatments for vaginal carcinoma with distant metastasis are chemotherapy and radiotherapy, this case supplies preliminary evidence that erlotinib may have activity in these patients. Further studies are required to determine the potential of this therapy.
erlotinib; vaginal carcinoma; pulmonary metastasis
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. No fundamental improvements in the five-year survival rates of patients with GC have been reported due to a low early diagnosis rate. Therefore, the identification of novel biomarkers is urgently required for an early diagnosis of GC. A total of 86 patients were selected for the present study, including 44 patients with early stage GC (T1–T2 according to TNM staging criteria) and 42 normal gastric mucosa samples from non-cancer patients as controls. A total of 18 samples were used for the microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, including nine early GC and nine normal gastric mucosa samples. Bioinformatics algorithms, significant analysis of microarray (SAM), top scoring pair (TSP) and statistical receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify the best signatures. Finally, quantitative PCR was used to validate the candidate biomarkers for early gastric cancer in the test samples (35 cancer and 33 normal samples). Using the SAM algorithm, 14 differential miRNAs were selected as candidate biomarkers. Using the TSP algorithm, hsa-miR-196a and hsa-miR-148a were obtained as a signature to differentiate between the early GC and normal samples. A coincidental result was observed in the test samples. hsa-miR-196a was upregulated and hsa-miR-148a was downregulated in the early GC samples. hsa-miR-196a and hsa-miR-148a have the potential to serve as candidate biomarkers for early GC.
gastric cancer; early diagnosis; microRNAs; biomarkers
The abscopal effect has previously been described in various tumors and is associated with radiation therapy and hyperthermia, with possible underlying mechanisms explaining each observed case. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of magnet-mediated hyperthermia on Walker-256 carcinosarcomas in rats at two different temperature ranges (42–46°C and 50–55°C). We also aimed to identify whether a higher therapeutic temperature of magnetic-mediated hyperthermia improves the abscopal antitumor effects, where localised irradiation of the tumor causes not only the irradiated tumor to shrink, but also tumors located far from the area of irradiation. Following induction of carcinosarcoma in both sides of the body, magnet-mediated hyperthermia was applied to one side only, leaving the other side as a control. The changes in tumor growth were observed. Our results demonstrated that magnet-mediated hyperthermia at a higher temperature inhibited the growth of carcinosarcoma at the site of treatment. Furthermore, the growth of the carcinosarcoma on the untreated side was also inhibited. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen were decreased in the hyperthermia group, which was more significant in the higher temperature test group. Flow cytometric analysis showed an increased number of CD4- and CD8-positive T cells, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed increased levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 in the higher temperature group. These results suggested that magnet-mediated hyperthermia at a higher temperature (50–55°C) can improve the abscopal antitumor effects and stimulate a greater endogenous immune response in carcinosarcoma-bearing rats.
magnet-mediated hyperthermia; abscopal effect; temperature; Walker-256 carcinosarcoma; tumor immunity
A 60-year-old male with increasing abdominal distension was admitted to The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou, China). The abdominal sonogram exhibited a huge abdominal cystic-based mass with solid components in the left upper quadrant. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a large heterogeneous cystic solid tumor, but the source of the tumor could not be determined. The laparotomy demonstrated a huge cystic-based tumor with an integrated cystic wall, arising from the posterior wall of the gastric body. Multiple septa and ~3,500 ml of yellowish fluid were found in the cystic cavity. Pathological analysis showed that the tumor contained a mixture of polygonal and spindle cells. Immunohistochemical study indicated that the tumor cells were positive for CD117 and CD34. The final diagnosis was gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient recovered well and no recurrence or metastasis was identified following a 12-month follow-up.
gastrointestinal stromal tumor; exophytic tumor; extensive cystic change; c-kit
CDH1 inactivation is important in tumor metastasis. In the present study, it was suggested that the mRNA and protein levels of CDH1 decreased in metastatic neuroblastoma (NB) tissues compared with those in primary NB tissues. The aim of the study was to explore the regulatory mechanisms of CDH1 downregulation in metastatic NB. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs (~22 nt in length) that negatively regulate target mRNAs and are involved in various cancer-related processes, including metastasis. In the current study, miR-23a was shown to be upregulated in human metastatic NB tissues compared with primary NB tissues. Inhibition of miR-23a may significantly suppress NB cell migration and invasion. In vitro reporter assay suggested that CDH1 is a direct target gene of miR-23a. Furthermore, blocking the expression of miR-23a partly restored the expression of CDH1 in NB cells. These findings provide evidence that miR-23a is key in promoting NB cell migration and invasion through targeting CDH1, and suggest that exogenous miR-23a may have therapeutic value in treating NB metastasis.
miRNA; miR-23a; CDH1; neuroblastoma
The aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in blocking the signaling pathway and the effects of this on the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) cells in vitro. LNCaP human CaP cell line was stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the presence/absence of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 (AG490), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [(STAT3) S3I-201] inhibitors and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Cytotoxic activity, the activation of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 protein, caspase (CASP) 3 activity at protein level, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGFC, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, STAT3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1), CASP8 and CASP9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined. Morphology and apoptosis were confirmed by DAPI staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. IL-6 rapidly induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a peak expression at 3 h at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. In addition, AG490 (50 μM) and S3I-201 (300 μM) inhibited STAT3 activation. Western blotting results revealed that p-STAT3 protein expression decreased significantly with AG490 and S3I-201 treatment in LNCaP cells. AG490 and S3I-201 induced the downregulation of VEGFA, MCL-1 and STAT3 and the upregulation of CASP8 and CASP9 mRNA transcription levels. In addition, the inhibitors increased the level of CASP3 protein. Combinations of AG490- and S3I-201-TRAIL did not result in an increase in this effect. Parallel results were found by DAPI staining and TUNEL assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the possible clinical use of AG490 or S3I-201, together with the reduced use of chemotherapeutic agents with high cytotoxicity, for their ability to exert an apoptotic effect, targeting the JAK/STAT3 pathway.
angiogenesis; apoptosis; JAK and STAT inhibitors; JAK/STAT pathway; prostate cancer
Primary pituitary gland cancer is extremely rare. The current study presents the case of a patient diagnosed with pituitary cancer three months after completing surgery and post-operative chemoradiotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer. In this report we discuss 57-year-old patient who presented with diplopia and ptosis four months following the completion of treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer. A poorly-differentiated pituitary carcinoma was located. Despite aggressive treatment and surgical excision with postoperative chemoradiotherapy, the disease progressed rapidly and the patient succumbed due to multiple metastases and organ failure. This case report indicates a possible correlation between irradiation and the development of pituitary cancer.
pituitary gland; cancer; undifferentiated carcinoma; irradiation; radiotherapy
The aim of the present study was to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p16INK4A and p53 protein expression, to evaluate their roles in the pathological diagnosis and grading for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The detection of HPV DNA and p16INK4A and p53 protein expression were examined in a panel of clinical tissue samples using polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry. In 104 cases, HPV16/18 DNA was identified in 49.0% and HPV6/11 DNA in 9.6% of cases. While in 203 cases, 74.4% positively expressed p16INK4A and 47.3% positively expressed p53. The expression of p16INK4A exhibited a significantly higher rate in the CIN I group than in the squamous metaplasia coupled with hyperplasia group (SMH; P<0.0001) and the CIN II–III group (P=0.005). A marked correlation was revealed between the band-like staining pattern of p16INK4A and HPV16/18 infection. On the contrary, p53 expression was not found to significantly correlate with CIN grade or the HPV16/18 infection status. These results suggested that p16INK4A expression correlates with a higher grade of CIN and may be used as a diagnostic marker to distinguish between CIN I and SMH, as well as between CIN I and CIN II–III.
immuhistochemistry; human papillomavirus; p16INK4A; p53; cervical intraepithelia neoplasia
The aim of the present retrospective study was to ascertain the significance of pathological complete response (pCR) on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in each disease subtype of operable breast cancer. Using a single-institution database, 90 patients were identified, who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for operable breast cancer and were eligible for the analysis. In total, 10 patients (11.1%) had succumbed to their diseases and 20 (22.2%) had succumbed to their diseases or exhibited recurrences. The OS of patients with triple-negative (TN) tumors was significantly lower than that of patients with other disease subtypes (P=0.016). The DFS of patients with luminal tumors was higher than that of patients with other subtypes. Survival was improved with pCR following NAC (P=0.044). Across all subtypes, patients who achieved pCR exhibited a higher DFS than patients who did not, but not significantly. pCR only improved OS and DFS in the TN disease subtype (P=0.022 and P=0.048, respectively). pCR following NAC may have prognostic value in TN breast cancer.
breast cancer; pathological complete response; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; triple-negative subtype
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. It is important to develop biomarkers for detecting new cancers at an early stage and for treating them early during recurrence in order to guide optimal treatment. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is highly expressed in numerous human cancers and thus could potentially serve as such a biomarker, but the potential utility of measuring FAS for detecting gastric cancer has not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary assessment of serum FAS as a marker of gastric carcinoma. The study included 47 patients with gastric cancer and 150 healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from each cancer patient prior to treatment. Serum FAS levels were measured by ELISA and compared across the two groups of patients. Significantly higher levels of serum FAS were found in the gastric cancer patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 30.37–52.46] compared with the healthy controls (95% CI, 1.331–2.131), with elevated levels even in patients with early-stage tumors. These results indicate that measuring serum FAS levels has strong potential to provide a biomarker for the detection of gastric cancer, with high sensitivity and specificity.
gastric cancer; fatty acid synthase
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) or seprase, which belongs to the group type II integral serine proteases, is an integral membrane serine peptidase. Previous studies have demonstrated that FAP has an effect on tumor growth, proliferation and invasion. However, the cellular functional role that FAP plays in osteosarcoma (OS) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of FAP in OS cell lines. The gene expression of FAP was knocked down through a hammerhead ribozyme transgene, and the various functions between the knockdown cells and their control cells were tested using a series of functional assays in vitro. The results indicated that knockdown of FAP markedly reduced the ability of cellular growth, matrix adhesion, migration and invasion in MG-63 and HOS cell lines compared with the control cells (P<0.05). In conclusion, FAP influences OS cells and may play a role in OS tumor progression and metastasis.
fibroblast activation protein/seprase; osteosarcoma; proliferation; adhesion; motility
Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors of the autonomic nervous system and may be found within the skull base, neck, mediastinum and periaortic region. Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are rare, and non-functioning bladder paraganglioma is even rarer and not easily recognized. Histological examination is often key in leading to a definitive diagnosis. The current report presents a case of a 28-year-old female with urinary bladder paraganglioma. The patient presented with no classical signs and symptoms, and these were only appreciated following histological examination of a transurethral resection specimen that elucidated the correct diagnosis. In the present report, the clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathological observations of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are discussed.
paraganglioma; urinary bladder; therapeutics; prognosis
The melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 [MDA-7; renamed interleukin (IL)-24] was isolated from human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate by treatment with interferon and mezerein. MDA-7/IL-24 functions as a multimodality anticancer agent, possessing proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and immunostimulatory properties. All these attributes make MDA-7/IL-24 an ideal candidate for cancer gene therapy. In the present study, the human MDA-7/IL-24 gene was transfected into the human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with a replication-incompetent adenovirus vector. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis confirmed that the Ad-hIL-24 was expressed in the two cells. The expression of the antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, was significantly decreased and the IL-24 receptor was markedly expressed in Hep-2 cells following infection with Ad-hIL-24, but not in HUVECs. In addition, the expression of the proapoptotic gene, Bax, was induced and the expression of caspase-3 was increased in the Hep-2 cells and HUVECs. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay indicated that Ad-hIL-24 may induce growth suppression in Hep-2 cells but not in HUVECs. In conclusion, Ad-hIL-24 selectively inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Hep-2 cells. No visible damage was found in HUVECs. Therefore, the results of the current study indicated that Ad-hIL-24 may have a potent suppressive effect on human laryngeal carcinoma cell lines, but is safe for healthy cells.
human interleukin-24; adenovirus; Hep-2; apoptosis; human umbilical vein endothelial cell