The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and activation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway in herpes stromal keratitis (HSK). The cornea of 24 BALB/c mice was infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to construct a model of HSK. Six additional mice served as negative controls. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect FAK expression levels. Human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells cultured in vitro were infected with HSV-1 and the expression levels of MMP-2, FAK and phosphorylated-FAK (p-FAK) in HCE cells were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry at 2, 20 and 40 h following infection. In the HSK rat model, the corneal epithelial cells appeared deranged and the number of neutrophils and FAK-positive cells was significantly increased compared with that of the negative control group (P<0.05). Repeated measures analysis of variance of RT-PCR showed no significant differences in MMP-2 and FAK mRNA expression levels in the infected cells at various time points, and no significant differences between infected cells and the negative control group were observed. There was no interaction between groups and time points. Pairwise comparisons showed that MMP-2 and FAK mRNA expression levels were significantly increased in virus-infected cells compared with those of the control group. Over time, MMP-2 and FAK mRNA expression levels did not differ significantly in virus-infected cells or in control cells. Western blot analysis indicated no significant differences in p-FAK, FAK and MMP-2 expression levels between the infected and control cells at 2 h (P>0.05). Infected cells showed a significant increase in MMP-2 and p-FAK expression levels than that of the control cells at 20 and 40 h (P<0.05). p-FAK, FAK and MMP-2 expression levels in virus-infected cells at 2 h differed significantly from those at 20 and 40 h (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results showed that a longer infection time was associated with an increased number of cells staining positive for MMP-2, FAK and p-FAK. Following HSV-1 infection of the corneal epithelium, the FAK signaling pathway was activated, resulting in increased secretion of MMP-2 in the corneal tissue and accelerated formation of corneal ulcers and necrotic lesions.
herpes stromal keratitis; matrix metalloproteinase; focal adhesion kinase pathway
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment and the factors influencing the postoperative recurrence and survival time for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). A total of 39 patients with PMP who received treatment were analyzed in The General Hospital of PLA (Beijing, China) between 2002 and 2011. The patients received cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and 25 cases of PMP recurred. Seven patients received postoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC). The median follow-up was 40 months. There were eight mortalities in this period. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 89.0 and 35.0%, respectively. The medians of overall survival (OS) and recurrence time were 37 and 4 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that pathological subtype was able to influence the recurrence (P=0.042) and OS (P=0.033) times, as an independent prognostic factor. HIPEC was significantly associated with postoperative recurrence time (P=0.017). Patients with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis had a more favorable prognosis. CRS combined with HIPEC was able to extend the postoperative recurrence time for patients with PMP.
pseudomyxoma peritonei; cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion; prognosis
The aim of the present study was to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1/15-PGDH. The vector was used to transfect mouse murine forestomach carcinoma (MFC) cancer cells and observe the effects of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) on the proliferation of MFC. pcDNA3.1/15-PGDH was constructed using gene recombination technology and the vector was used to transfect MFC cells to build a stable transfected cell strain. The expression levels of 15-PGDH in the transfected cells were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Optical Density (OD) values were determined using an MTT assay and used to draw cell growth curves. The effects of 15-PGDH on the proliferation of MFC were observed using a clone formation experiment. Following successful transfection by 15-PGDH, the relative expression levels of 15-PGDH in the MFC/15-PGDH cells were significantly higher (1.06±0.08) (P<0.01) compared with the empty plasmid-transfected group (0.22±0.01) and the untransfected group (0.21±0.01). Following transfection by 15-PGDH, cell growth was markedly inhibited. The MTT results showed that on days 4, 6 and 8, the 15-PGDH-transfected group had a low OD on average, which was significantly different (P<0.05) from the empty plasmid-transfected group or the untransfected group. The 15-PGDH-transfected group had a plating efficiency of 18%, and compared with the untransfected group (63%) and the empty plasmid-transfected group (59%), clone formation was significantly inhibited (P<0.01). Results of the present study indicate that transfection by 15-PGDH may significantly inhibit the proliferation and clone formation of MFC cells.
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; gastric; transfection; proliferation; inhibition
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the results of screening of newborn hearing and the incidence of deafness-susceptibility genes. One thousand newborn babies in the Handan Center Hospital (Handan, China) underwent screening of hearing and deafness-susceptibility genes. The first screening test was carried out using otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Babies with hearing loss who failed to pass the initial screening were scheduled for rescreening at 42 days after birth. Cord blood was used for the screening of deafness-susceptibility genes, namely the GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MTRNR1) genes. Among the 1,000 neonates that underwent the first hearing screening, 25 exhibited left-sided hearing loss, 21 exhibited right-sided hearing loss and 15 cases had binaural hearing loss. After rescreening 42 days later, only one of the initial 61 cases exhibited hearing loss under OAE testing. The neonatal deafness gene tests showed two cases with 1555A>G mutation and two cases with 1494C>T mutation of the MTRNR1 gene. In the SLC26A4 gene screening, four cases exhibited the heterozygous IVS7-2A>G mutation and one case exhibited heterozygous 1226G>A mutation. In the GJB2 gene screening, two cases exhibited the homozygous 427C>T mutation and 10 exhibited the heterozygous 235delC mutation. The genetic screening revealed 21 newborns with mutations in the three deafness-susceptibility genes. The overall carrier rate was 2.1% (21/1,000). The association of hearing and gene screening may be the promising screening strategy for the diagnosis of hearing loss.
newborn; hearing screening; gene screening; MassARRAY platform; mitochondrial 12S rRNA; GJB2 gene; SLC26A4 gene
Oxidative stress is significant in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Panax quinquefolium 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins (PQDS) have been demonstrated to exhibit a variety of biological effects in the cardiovascular system as a result of their antioxidant properties. However, little is known regarding the effect of PQDS on cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PQDS exhibited protective effects against cerebral ischemia. A model of cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, MCAO and PQDS treatment groups at doses of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg. The effects of PQDS on neurological deficits, cerebral infarct area, brain water content, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ca2+ levels and Na+-K+-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the brain tissue were analyzed, and the nitric oxide (NO) content and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the serum were evaluated. Moreover, the expression of Bcl-2 was analyzed using western blotting. Pretreatment with PQDS (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced the neurological deficit score, decreased the infarcted area and decreased the brain water content from 83.09 to 80.27% (P<0.05). In addition, PQDS pretreatment decreased the NOS activity and the NO levels in the serum compared with those in the MCAO group. Furthermore, pretreatment with PQDS (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg) significantly increased the activities of SOD and Na+-K+-ATPase and decreased the levels of Ca2+ and MDA in the brain tissue (P<0.05) compared with those in the MCAO group. Pretreatment with PQDS (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg) also increased the protein expression level of Bcl-2 compared with that in the MCAO group. The histopathological results demonstrated the protective effect of PQDS on ischemic injury. The results indicated that PQDS has protective effects against ischemic injury in rats. The mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
panax quinquefolium 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins; cerebral ischemia; antioxidant; Bcl-2
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is an unusual anomalous condition in which the pancreatic duct and bile duct merge outside the duodenal wall and form a long common channel. Pancreas divisum (PD) is a congenital anomaly in which the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ducts fail to fuse. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the gold standard for diagnosing PD and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the non-invasive choice. In this study, four cases of patients with unusual PBM in addition to PD are described. The patients presented with abdominal pain, which was caused by distal biliary stricture diagnosed by MRCP. The patients received ERCP and had a good prognosis.
pancreaticobiliary maljunction; pancreas divisum; diagnosis; therapy
The pathogenesis of acute liver failure has not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of the serum from patients with hepatitis E virus (HEV)-related acute liver failure on human liver cell survival and apoptosis, and evaluated the protective effects of anti-lipopolysaccharide(LPS) antibody recognizing core polysaccharide against acute liver failure serum-induced apoptosis. Serum was collected from patients with HEV-related acute liver failure. The levels of endotoxin (LPS) in the serum were measured using a quantitative tachypleus amebocyte lysate endotoxin detection kit with a chromogenic endpoint. Serum with a mean concentration of LPS was incubated with L02 human liver cells and the rate of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The apoptotic rate was also evaluated in liver cells incubated with antibody and the HEV-related acute liver failure serum. The results indicated that the concentration of LPS in the serum of patients with HEV-related acute liver failure was 0.26±0.02 EU/ml, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The rate of apoptosis in the human liver cells induced by acute liver failure serum was 5.83±0.42%, which was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the serum of healthy individuals (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate of the cells incubated with antibody and the acute liver failure serum was 5.53±0.51%, which was lower than that of the cells incubated with acute liver failure serum alone (P>0.05). These results indicate that the serum of patients with HEV-related acute liver failure induces the apoptosis of human liver cells. LPS may be directly involved in the apoptosis of human liver cells. Moreover, the presence of the antibody did not significantly reduce the level of apoptosis of liver cells exposed to HEV-related acute liver failure serum.
acute liver failure; serum; apoptosis; core polysaccharide
The aim of this study was to explore the level of apoptosis and p53 expression in the placental villi of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Fifty-three pregnant females with URSA and 32 pregnant females who required an induced abortion were selected as the subjects of this study. Placental villus tissues were collected from June 2010 to June 2012 and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to determine the mRNA and protein levels of p53 in the placental villus tissues. The level of apoptosis in the tissues was studied using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of p53 in the URSA group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of apoptosis were increased markedly in the URSA group compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the placental villi of patients with URSA express a high level of p53, which may result in cell apoptosis and lead to recurrent spontaneous abortion.
p53; unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion; apoptosis
The present case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with veno-occlusive disease (VOD) following liver transplantation. Combining the clinical data and relevant literature, the study aimed to consider the causes of VOD following liver transplantation, and the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and auxiliary examination features of VOD. A 42-year-old man who had a long history of taking traditional Chinese medicine (essential components unknown) underwent an orthotropic liver transplantation on January 14, 2011, due to small venous occlusion disease of the liver. The patient was treated with tacrolimus as an antirejection therapy following the surgery, and gradually developed right upper quadrant pain and fatigue. The examination results were consistent with the diagnostic standards for VOD. Following treatment with methylprednisolone, the patient was treated with alprostadil and Danhong injections. Forty days later, the patient’s total bilirubin (TBIL) level was observed to have decreased significantly, the liver function had returned to normal and the ascites had decreased, but had not completely disappeared. The patient then underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure, following which the ascites were shown to have completely disappeared.
veno-occlusive disease; liver transplantation; tacrolimus; treatment
The aim of this case report and minireview was to investigate the diagnosis of and therapeutic approaches for angiocentric glioma (AG) and to summarize the clinical manifestations and the pathological and imaging characteristics of the disease. Intraoperative cortical electroencephalogram (ECoG) monitoring was performed to locate the epileptic foci in a child with AG who presented with intractable epilepsy, prior to the total resection of the tumor being performed under the microscope. The clinical features, imaging characteristics, intraoperative conditions, surgical methods and pathological results were analyzed and compared with the literature. The review revealed that to date, the clinical features of the 52 reported cases of AG (including this case) have been mainly characterized by epilepsy. High T2-weighted image (WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signals may be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning of the cranium; however, no enhancement signals are detected by enhanced scanning. The prognosis following surgical resection is favorable. The lesions in the present case demonstrated clear boundaries with a central cystic affection accompanied by an arachnoid cyst on the left temporal pole. Pathological examination revealed that the lesion was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 protein, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cluster of differentiation 99 (CD99) and D2-40. The Ki-67/MIBk-1 labeling index was ~1%. In conclusion, AG exhibits characteristic features in imaging; however, its diagnosis depends on histopathological examination. The prognosis of total surgical resection is good and intraoperative ECoG may be used to assist positioning.
angiocentric glioma; intractable epilepsy; cortical; electrocorticogram
The present study reports the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with Terson syndrome with no cerebral hemorrhage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A computed tomography scan of the patient, who had sustained an impact injury to the right occipital region, showed no cerebral lesion. Ophthalmoscopy clearly demonstrated vitreous hemorrhage in both eye globes. Vitreous hemorrhage, which results from an abrupt increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), is associated with TBI. In this case, the visual disturbance was attributed to Terson syndrome secondary to TBI. Therefore, close ophthalmological and radiological evaluation is required in patients with TBI, in order to enable the diagnosis of Terson syndrome and an early vitrectomy.
cerebral hemorrhage; intracranial pressure; traumatic brain injury; Terson syndrome; vitreous hemorrhage
The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in expression and the possible functions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in electrical kindling of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in epileptic rats. Bipolar electrodes were implanted into the BLA of Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were then subjected to chronic electrical stimulation through the electrodes to induce kindling. The seizure characteristics and behavioral changes of the rats were observed, and electroencephalograms were recorded during and following kindling. The IL-6 mRNA expression in the hippocampi of the rats was analyzed using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and control and topiramate (TPM)-treated groups were compared. The mean time-period required for kindling was 13.50±3.99 days, and the afterdischarge duration (ADD) measured between 21,450 and 119,720 msec. The expression of IL-6 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the kindled rats. TPM was able to depress the seizures and decrease the IL-6 level in the kindled rats. In conclusion, IL-6 mRNA was upregulated in the hippocampi of epileptic rats, and IL-6 may have participated in the process of kindling.
interleukin-6; epilepsy; kindling; rat; basolateral amygdale; topiramate
Schwannomas may arise from any peripheral nerve containing Schwann cells. However, sural nerve schwannoma is extremely rare. In this study, a case of solitary schwannoma originating from the sural nerve in a 42-year-old male is presented. Physical examination revealed a 3-cm, elastic-hard, mobile, non-tender mass, while neurovascular examinations, including Tinel’s sign, were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an oval-shaped subcutaneous mass with iso-signal intensity relative to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted sequences. T2-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion recovery sequences showed higher signal intensity peripherally and lower signal intensity centrally, representing a target sign. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences demonstrated a marked central enhancement of the mass. The tumor was completely enucleated using an intracapsular technique. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a schwannoma, consisting mainly of Antoni A tissue. The patient had no evidence of local recurrence and no neurological deficit at the final follow-up. Although rare, schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a well-defined, oval, subcutaneous mass in the posterior aspect of the lower leg.
enucleation; magnetic resonance imaging; schwannoma; sural nerve
Insulin has been proposed to be a positive regulator of osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. In vivo mechanical loading is essential for maintaining skeletal integrity and bone mass. Since insulin and mechanical force activate similar signaling pathways in osteoblasts, it was hypothesized that insulin may affect mechanical stimulation in osteoblasts. The present study tested the hypothesis that insulin augments mechanical strain-induced signaling and early gene expression in MG63 cells via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression. Western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated respectively that insulin enhanced mechanical strain-induced ERK phosphorylation and Cox-2 expression levels in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of insulin on mechanical strain-induced Cox-2 expression was inhibited by blockade of the ERK pathway. In addition, echistatin, an inhibitor of integrin function, prevented the effects of insulin on mechanical strain-induced ERK phosphorylation and Cox-2 expression. The data obtained from this study suggested that insulin augments mechanical strain-induced Cox-2 expression levels via integrin-dependent activation of the ERK pathway in osteoblasts.
insulin; osteoblast; mechanical strain; cyclooxygenase-2; extracellular signal-regulated kinase
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on MCP-1 expression and microglial activation in the hippocampus of a rat model of pilocarpine (PILO)-induced status epilepticus (SE). Moreover, seizure susceptibility, frequency and severity as well as brain damage were analyzed and changes in behavior were recorded. Chemokine MCP-1 expression and microglial activation were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) and NeuN staining were used for the evaluation of tissue damage. Our results showed that although SE resulted in the upregulation of MCP-1 and microglial activation in the rat hippocampus 24 h after seizure onset, pretreatment with PDTC significantly inhibited the MCP-1 overexpression and attenuated the microglial activation. These effects were accompanied by neurodegenerative amelioration. To the best of our knowledge, these findings indicated for the first time that the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway may contribute to MCP-1 upregulation and microglial activation in the context of epilepsy. PDTC was also shown to exert anticonvulsant activity and to have a neuroprotective effect on the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, potentially through attenuating microglial activation.
epilepsy; pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rat model; MCP-1 (CCL2); nuclear factor-κB; pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate; hippocampus
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease in middle-aged individuals and the elderly. Previous studies have shown that the overexpression of matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines is associated with the degradation of osteoarthritic cartilage. However, the transcription factors involved remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine the expression levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in patients with OA, and to validate the role of NFAT1 in the pathogenesis of OA. The expression levels of NFAT1, IL-1β and TNF-α in chondrocytes in the cartilage of patients with OA and healthy individuals were evaluated using western blot analysis. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the activity of NFAT1 in primary human chondrocytes that were transfected with pNFAT1-luc plasmid and stimulated by IL-1β. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the levels of TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 in the supernatant of cultured chondrocytes in which the NFAT1 was silenced. The expression levels of NFAT1, IL-1β and TNF-α in the cartilage of patients with OA were higher than those of the controls. IL-1β induced the expression of NFAT1 in primary chondrocytes. The expression levels of TNF-α, MMP-1, -3 and -9 promoted by IL-1β were decreased in NFAT1-silenced chondrocytes. In conclusion, NFAT1 may be important in the pathogenesis of OA and calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors may be potential effective agents for the treatment of OA.
osteoarthritis; nuclear factor of activated T cells 1; pathogenesis
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticarcinogenic effects of silymarin in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenic rat models. Severe and mild models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were generated by the intraperitoneal administration of 40 mg/kg DEN once a week for 18 weeks and 100 mg/kg DEN every 2 weeks for 6 weeks in male Wistar rats, respectively. In the severe and mild models of HCC, the rats were treated with 0.1 and 0.5% silymarin for 18 weeks and with 0.1% silymarin for 5 weeks, respectively. Serum transaminase levels were not significantly decreased by the silymarin treatment in either model. Macroscopic and microscopic features indicated that the silymarin-containing formulations did not significantly inhibit the hepatic tumor formation induced by DEN. Furthermore, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses demonstrated that the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and glutathione S-transferase P, which are hepatocarcinogenic markers, were not significantly modified by the silymarin treatment. These results indicate that silymarin may not be considered as a candidate agent against hepatocarcinogenesis.
diethylnitrosamine; hepatocellular carcinoma; silymarin
To clone the Eg95 and EgA31 antigen genes into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET30a-EgA31-Eg95, we expressed the recombinant protein EgA31-Eg95 and confirmed with western blot analysis. The total RNA was extracted from the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) adult worms. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the EgA31 antigen was amplified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The recombinant plasmid pET30a-EgA31 was used as a carrier and was connected with the Eg95 vector. The recombinant plasmid pET30a-EgA31-Eg95 was constructed and the fusion protein EgA31-Eg95 was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The positive clone was the empty recombinant vector. The recombinant protein pET30a-EgA31-Eg95 was ~46 kDa, and the expressed product accounted for approximately 20% of the total soluble proteins. We successfully constructed the recombinant plasmid pET30a-EgA31-Eg95 and expressed the recombinant protein EgA31-Eg95. The results may be the foundation of research on its immunogenicity in the future.
Echinococcus granulosus; EgA31-Eg95 antigen gene; prokaryotic expression plasmid
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between root respiration and the percentage of active components in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.), in order to provide a foundation for the regulation and modulation of the quality of G. uralensis. Respiration efflux of annual and biennial G. uralensis was determined using a Li-7000 CO2/H2O analyzer. The root systems were scanned at a resolution of 3,000 dpi using an Epson Expression 10000XL scanner. Root growth was determined by analyzing the scanned images using WinRHIZO version Pro2007d software and the rate of respiration in the root was subsequently calculated. In addition, the percentages of the five major active components in licorice, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin, were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The correlation between the root respiration and the percentage of the active components was investigated. Significant seasonal changes were observed in the rates of respiration of first and zero-class roots. In annual and biennial G. uralensis, the maximum and minimum values for rate of respiration were present in July (P<0.05) and November (P<0.05), respectively. The correlation coefficients between the five major active components and the rate of respiration were −0.304 (glycyrrhizin), −0.129 (liquiritigenin), −0.441 (glycyrrhizic acid; P<0.05), −0.471 (isoliquiritin; P<0.05) and 0.148 (isoliquiritigenin). The percentages of glycyrrhizic acid and isoliquiritin were significantly negatively correlated with the rate of respiration in annual and biennial G. uralensis. Understanding the correlation between the root rate of respiration and the active components in G. uralensis may be beneficial to ensuring the quality of cultivated G. uralensis.
Glycyrrhiza uralensis; root respiration; active component; correlation analysis
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal type of cancer in the urinary system and often presents as a metastatic disease. Furthermore, there are no effective treatments for the disease. Several studies based on gene expression profiling have been performed with the aim of gaining insights into the pathogenesis of RCC; however, few studies have investigated RCC at the pathway level to search for the possible pathways involved in clear cell RCC (CCRCC). In this study, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted on microarray datasets from CCRCC tissue. DAVID functional enrichment analysis was performed based on the dysregulated genes that were identified in a meta-analysis performed on the microarray datasets from CCRCC tissue. In GSEA, 17 down- and 12 upregulated pathways coexisted in six datasets. The majority of the upregulated pathways were associated with the immune system. In addition, 32 dysregulated pathways were obtained from DAVID functional enrichment analysis, based on the abnormal genes identified by meta-analysis. This study demonstrated that cross-GSEA is a useful method for exploring the critical pathways involved CCRCC; however, an individual dataset with a small sample may introduce bias. A cross-GSEA based on certain well-designed datasets may be required to further the progress made in this study, following the analysis of its results.
clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pathway analysis; meta-analyis; gene expression
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic clonal myeloproliferative disorder, which is often complicated by arterial or venous thrombosis and idiopathic bleeding diathesis. The present study reports a female patient with ET complicated by acute myocardial infarction, leading to ventricular aneurysm following interventional therapy for 3 years and a subsequent in-stent restenosis. Following careful examination, a ventricular aneurysm resection and coronary artery bypass graft were carried out. During this case, the monitoring and controlling of the platelet count, pre- and post-operatively, was extremely important for successful surgery.
essential thrombocythemia; acute myocardial infarction; ventricular aneurysm; surgical treatment
Soy isoflavones (Ifs), which are natural phytoestrogens, have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that genistein, the most active component of Ifs, inhibits pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia in male Wistar rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ifs on right ventricular and pulmonary hemodynamics in individuals with chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Twenty-eight male patients living on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (5,200 m) who were suffering from CMS were treated orally with Ifs (20 mg, twice daily) for 45 days. Physiological and plasma biochemical indices, hematology and echocardiography were investigated. It was observed that 45 days of treatment with Ifs significantly increased blood oxygen saturation and markedly decreased the CMS score and heart rate (all P<0.05) of the subjects. Following treatment with Ifs, hematocrit (P<0.05), hemoglobin concentration (P<0.01) and plasma levels of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) were significantly decreased, while plasma levels of nitric oxide (P<0.01) and the plasma activity of nitric oxide synthase (P<0.01) and superoxide dismutase (P<0.01) were markedly increased compared with the respective values obtained prior to treatment with Ifs. The echocardiography results showed that Ifs significantly decreased the main pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.05), right ventricular end-diastolic anteroposterior diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular end-diastolic trans diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular anterior wall (P<0.01) and right ventricular outflow tract (P<0.01). These results indicate the potential beneficial effects of Ifs in the reduction of excessive erythrocytosis, the alleviation of oxidative damage and the amelioration of right ventricular index and pulmonary hemodynamics in CMS.
high altitude; chronic mountain sickness; isoflavone; erythrocytosis; pulmonary hemodynamics
The mechanisms of immunomodulation by mesenchymal stromal cells remain poorly understood. In this study, the effects of mouse adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) on mouse spleen cells alloreactively stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibody-coated (anti-CD3/CD28) beads were observed. Production of interferon-γ by the anti-CD3/CD28 bead-stimulated spleen cells was significantly suppressed in co-culture with ASCs. However, an augmented intensity of CD69 on the stimulated spleen cells was not suppressed in the presence of ASCs. The immunosuppressive effects of ASCs were partially mediated by one or more soluble factors (26% suppression). However, the ASCs require cell-cell contact in order to maximally exert suppression (88%). The suppressive effect of ASCs mediated by direct cell contact was partially reversed following knockdown of β2 microglobulin, a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, with siRNA. The results of the study demonstrated that ASCs have significant immune modulatory effects on alloreactively stimulated spleen cells. The effects of ASCs on spleen cells are dependent on soluble factor(s) and cell contact, which is mediated by the MHC class I complex on ASCs.
immunosuppression; adipose tissue-derived stromal cells; β2 microglobulin; interferon-γ
Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis. The mineral composition and quantity within calcified arterial plaques remains unelucidated; therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the mineral composition of such plaques. Calcified arterial plaques were obtained from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and carotid artery stenoses. Calcified aneurysmal plaques were obtained during the routine open repair of AAAs, while calcified carotid plaques were collected from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Following the appropriate preparation of each sample, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to analyze the calcium and phosphate levels, while flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the levels of iron and zinc. The levels of these mineral components were evaluated. In the aortic and carotid plaques, the mean calcium concentration was 9.83 and 11.94 wt.%, respectively, and the mean phosphate concentration was 4.31 and 6.08 wt.%, respectively. It was not possible to analyze the absolute concentration of iron in the carotid plaques due to the concentration being below the measurement limit. The zinc concentration was variable between samples. In conclusion, the main components of aortic and carotid plaques are calcium and phosphate. The mineral concentrations of the plaques in the present study may be used as reference values for further studies on vascular calcification. More studies are required to elucidate the correlation between the mineral components and vascular calcification.
vascular calcification; mineral components; calcium; phosphate
Conventional epidermal cysts are generally small, slow-growing, non-tender, dome-shaped lesions. An epidermal cyst is usually asymptomatic until it is infected or enlarged to the extent that it causes damage to adjacent anatomical structures. However, few cases of giant epidermal cysts in the neck have been reported. The present case reports a giant epidermal cyst in the posterior neck, which grew to an extremely large size for >40 years without inflammation or rupture, and was misdiagnosed as a large soft tissue neoplasm. The patient exhibited depression and developed social anxiety due to the negative cosmetic consequences of the large mass. The patient underwent excision of the mass. At the follow-up examination two years postoperatively, there were no local recurrence and the psychiatric symptoms of the patient were completely resolved. To the best of our knowledge, a giant epidermal cyst growing for >40 years has not previously been reported.
giant epidermal cyst; posterior neck; psychiatric symptom; cosmetic problem