Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of its enzymatic activity. We generated knockin mice expressing phosphomimetic (SD) and unphosphorylatable (SA) eNOS mutations at S1176 to study the role of eNOS phosphorylation. The single amino acid SA mutation is associated with hypertension and decreased vascular reactivity, while the SD mutation results in increased basal and stimulated endothelial NO production. In addition to these vascular effects, modulation of the S1176 phosphorylation site resulted in unanticipated effects on metabolism. The eNOS SA mutation results in insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, adiposity, and increased weight gain on high fat. In contrast, the eNOS SD mutation is associated with decreased insulin levels and resistance to high fat-induced weight gain. These results demonstrate the importance of eNOS in regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and bodyweight regulation, and suggest eNOS phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.
nitric oxide; endothelium; insulin resistance; diabetes; metabolism; obesity
Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN) were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO2 drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd) is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO2 drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface.
An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water.
Descriptive studies have indicated a rising trend in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence in young adults, especially females. Increasing evidence has suggested that some risk factors associated with HL may vary by age or gender. Recent studies have reported an increased risk of HL associated with increasing body mass index (BMI), but the results have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine whether the associations between measures of body size (height, weight, and BMI) and HL risk vary by age and/or gender.
A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut and Massachusetts. A total of 567 HL cases and 679 controls were recruited in 1997–2000. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Among younger women < 35 years old, being overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) vs. normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) was significantly associated with an increased risk of HL (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1–4.0). The risk increased with increasing weight and BMI (P trends < 0.01). Among women ≥ 35 years old, by contrast, higher weight and BMI were associated with a reduced risk of HL (P trends < 0.01). Conversely, there was no significant association between BMI and risk of HL in younger or older males.
These findings show that the associations between body size and risk of HL vary by gender and age, and require confirmation in other populations.
Hodgkin lymphoma; body size; body mass index; height; weight
Protein kinase C (PKC) activation, induced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin II (AngII), inhibited insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) by decreasing tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2 (p-Tyr-IRS2) in endothelial cells. PKC activation by phorbol ester (phorbol myristate acetate [PMA]) reduced insulin-induced p-Tyr-IRS2 by 46% ± 13% and, similarly, phosphorylation of Akt/eNOS. Site-specific mutational analysis showed that PMA increased serine phosphorylation at three sites on IRS2 (positions 303, 343, and 675), which affected insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2 at positions 653, 671, and 911 (p-Tyr-IRS2) and p-Akt/eNOS. Specific PKCβ2 activation decreased p-Tyr-IRS2 and increased the phosphorylation of two serines (Ser303 and Ser675) on IRS2 that were confirmed in cells overexpressing single point mutants of IRS2 (S303A or S675A) containing a PKCβ2-dominant negative or selective PKCβ inhibitor. AngII induced phosphorylation only on Ser303 of IRS2 and inhibited insulin-induced p-Tyr911 of IRS2 and p-Akt/eNOS, which were blocked by an antagonist of AngII receptor I, losartan, or overexpression of single mutant S303A of IRS2. Increases in p-Ser303 and p-Ser675 and decreases in p-Tyr911 of IRS2 were observed in vessels of insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats versus lean rats. Thus, AngII or PKCβ activation can phosphorylate Ser303 and Ser675 in IRS2 to inhibit insulin-induced p-Tyr911 and its anti-atherogenic actions (p-Akt/eNOS) in endothelial cells.
Primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common disease in children. Lipid nephrotoxicity and cellular immune dysfunction are known features of this disease. Recently, CXCL16 was found to participate in inflammation and mediate cellular uptake of lipids. Here, we investigated the involvement of CXCL16 in the occurrence and development of primary NS.
Serum CXCL16, blood lipids and albumin, 24-hour urine protein, interferon-γ and immune cells were detected in 25 children with steroid sensitive NS during their active nephrotic and remissive stages. Twenty healthy children served as the control group.
Levels of serum CXCL16, blood lipids, interferon-γ and CXCR6+ T cells were significantly increased and albumin and NK cell number were significantly decreased in the active status group compared with remissive status and control groups. Correlation analysis showed that serum CXCL16 was positively correlated with blood lipids, 24-hour urine protein, interferon-γ and CXCR6+ T cells but negatively correlated with albumin in patients with active NS.
Serum CXCL16 was increased in patients with active NS and correlated with blood lipids, urine protein and immune and inflammation responses, suggesting that CXCL16 may serve as a useful index or biomarker for disease activity in children with nephrotic syndrome.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1120468411154766.
Nephrotic syndrome; CXCL16; Proteinuria; Cellular immunity
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as a complex medical science which reflects philosophical principles and embodies large dialectical thought, is used to place the human body into a large system for observation. Acupuncture as a vital part of TCM, has been practiced to treat various diseases and symptoms. However, acupuncture is also facing severe challenges resulted from insufficient modern scientific research. Nowadays, the holistic effects of acupuncture can be researched by some modern approaches, such as the systems biology and fMRI technique. It is believed that having a better understand will greatly promote acupuncture research and be beneficial to scientization and modernization of acupuncture.
Rodents use olfactory cues for species-specific behaviors. For example, mice emit odors to attract mates of the same species but not competitors of closely related species. This implies rapid evolution of olfactory signaling, although odors and chemosensory receptors involved are unknown.
Here, we identify a mouse chemosignal, trimethylamine, and its olfactory receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5), to be involved in species-specific social communication. Abundant (>1,000-fold increased) and sex-dependent trimethylamine production arose de novo along the Mus lineage after divergence from Mus caroli. The two-step trimethylamine biosynthesis pathway involves synergy between commensal microflora and a sex-dependent liver enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), which oxidizes trimethylamine. One key evolutionary alteration in this pathway is the recent acquisition in Mus of male-specific Fmo3 gene repression. Coincident with its evolving biosynthesis, trimethylamine evokes species-specific behaviors, attracting mice but repelling rats. Attraction to trimethylamine is abolished in TAAR5 knockout mice, and furthermore, attraction to mouse scent is impaired by enzymatic depletion of trimethylamine or TAAR5 knockout.
TAAR5 is an evolutionarily conserved olfactory receptor required for a species-specific behavior. Synchronized changes in odor biosynthesis pathways and odor-evoked behaviors could ensure species-appropriate social interactions.
Efforts in developing an expeditious and convenient method for synthesizing γ–amino-ynamides via nucleophilic addition of lithiated ynamides to aryl imines are described. This work also features an aza-variant of a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement of γ–amino-ynamides and the synthetic utility of γ–amino-ynamides in an intramolecular ketenimine-[2 + 2] cycloaddition.
Lithiated ynamides; γ–amino-ynamides; aryl imine addition; azetene; aza-Meyer-Schuster rearrangement
This study aimed to investigate the role of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway in myocardial fibrosis of desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats and explore the influence of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway on fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the heart. 60 male SD rats underwent right nephrectomy and bred with 1% sodium chloride and 0.1% potassium chloride for 4 weeks, and then randomly divided into 3 groups (CON group, DOCA group and DOCA+IMA group). Results showed that: 1) 14 and 28 days after intervention, the SBP in DOCA and DOCA+IMA group was significantly higher than that in CON group. At days 28, the severity of myocardial fibrosis and PVCA/VA ratio in DOCA group were significantly increased when compared with CON group. The severity of myocardial fibrosis and PVCA/VA ratio in DOCA+IMA group were markedly lower than those in DOCA group although they were higher than those in CON group. 2) At days 14, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly higher than CON and DOCA+IMA group. At days 28, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRβ, FSP-1, α-SMA, procollagen I and procollagen III in DOCA group were significantly higher than those in CON group. In addition, in a specific group, the PDGFRβ mRNA expression was higher than the PDGFRα mRNA expression. In DOCA+IMA group, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRβ, FSP-1, α-SMA, procollagen I and procollagen III were markedly reduced when compared with DOCA group. 3) At 14 days, the protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly higher than those in CON group. The PDGFRα protein expression in DOCA+IMA group was markedly lower than that in DOCA group. At days 28, the protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly increased when compared with CON group. The protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA+IMA group were significantly lower than those in DOCA group. At day 28, the cardiac interstitium mainly contained vimentin positive fibroblasts, and α-SMA positive cells were less identified in CON group. In DOCA group, α-SMA positive fibroblasts (spindle-shaped) increased significantly, but the myofibroblasts reduced significantly in DOCA+IMA group when compared with DOCA group. 4) PDGFRα protein expression was observed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, but not in VSMCs. PDGFRβ protein expression was noted in not only fibroblasts and myofibroblasts but also VSMCs. Thus, During myocardial fibrosis of DOCA induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, PDGFRα acts at early stage, but PDGFRβ functions in the whole process. PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expressions increase in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, suggesting that PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway is involved in the myocardial fibrosis via stimulating fibroblasts to proliferate and transform into myofibroblasts.
Platelet-derived growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; desoxycorticosterone; imatinib; myocardial fibrosis
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) with NBS1 germ-line mutation is a human autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability and enhanced cancer predisposition. The NBS1 gene codes for a protein, Nbs1(p95/Nibrin), involved in the processing/repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with several genomic alterations. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous NBS1 mice exhibited a higher incidence of HCC than did wild-type mice. The objective of the present study is to assess whether NBS1 mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of human primary liver cancer, including HBV-associated HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Eight missense NBS1 mutations were identified in six of 64 (9.4%) HCCs and two of 18 (11.1%) ICCs, whereas only one synonymous mutation was found in 89 control cases of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Analysis of the functional consequences of the identified NBS1 mutations in Mre11-binding domain showed loss of nuclear localization of Nbs1 partner Mre11, one of the hallmarks for Nbs1 deficiency, in one HCC and two ICCs with NBS1 mutations. Moreover, seven of the eight tumors with NBS1 mutations had at least one genetic alteration in the TP53 pathway, including TP53 mutation, MDM2 amplification, p14ARF homozygous deletion and promoter methylation, implying a synergistic effect of Nbs1 disruption and p53 inactivation. Our findings provide novel insight on the molecular pathogenesis of primary liver cancer characterized by mutation inactivation of NBS1, a DNA repair associated gene.
Evaluation of 18F-FDG uptake value via PET is central to current methods of diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its ability to evaluate expression levels of key regulators associated with glucose metabolism in tumor cells. Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) is an important P53-induced protein that can inhibit glycolysis; however, there have been few clinical studies on its mechanism. Here we have investigated the relationship between TIGAR expression and 18F-FDG PET in tumors, along with its relationship with the clinical characteristics of NSCLC.
We analyzed SUVmax in 79 patients with NSCLC through immunohistochemical staining of TIGAR and five other biological markers associated with tumor cell glycolysis, in order to evaluate the correlation between their expression and SUVmax. We also plotted Kaplan-Meier survival curves to assess TIGAR expression with the prognosis and survival of patients with NSCLC.
The key findings were as follows: SUVmax was negatively correlated with the expression of TIGAR (r = −0.31, p<0.01); TIGAR expression was correlated with tumor size (p = 0.01), histological type (p<0.01), differentiation degree (p<0.01) and lymph node metastasis(p<0.01) in patients with NSCLC; and the survival time of patients whose TIGAR was negatively expressed was significantly shorter than for those whose TIGAR was positively expressed (P = 0.023).
The expression of TIGAR in primary tumors is significantly correlated with SUVmax, and low expression of TIGAR may predict a worse clinical outcome in patients with NSCLC.
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare hematological neoplasm that develops either de novo or concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This neoplasm can also be an initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated AML that is in remission. A 44-year-old male patient was diagnosed with testis MS in a local hospital in August 2010. After one month, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, with the sister of the patient as donor, after complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy. Five months after treatment, an adrenal mass was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Radiotherapy was performed for the localized mass after a multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion. The patient is still alive as of May 2013, with no evidence of recurrent MS or leukemia.
Myeloid sarcoma (MS); acute myeloid leukemia (AML); allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; multidisciplinary team (MDT)
The chimeric Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, which causes chronic myeloid leukemia, mainly localizes in the cytoplasm, and loses its ability to transform cells after moving into the nucleus. Here we report a new strategy to convert Bcr-Abl to be an apoptotic inducer by altering its subcellular localization. We show that a rapalog nuclear transport system (RNTS) containing six nuclear localization signals directs Bcr-Abl into the nucleus and that nuclear entrapped Bcr-Abl induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of CML cells by activating p73 and shutting down cytoplasmic oncogenic signals mediated by Bcr-Abl. Coupling cytoplasmic depletion with nuclear entrapment of Bcr-Abl synergistically enhances the inhibitory effect of nuclear Bcr-Abl on its oncogenicity in mice. These results provide evidence that direction of cytoplasmic Bcr-Abl to the nucleus offers an alternative CML therapy.
chronic myeloid leukemia; Bcr-Abl; nuclear localization; rapalog; apoptosis
We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in China, using all eligible studies published in the English and Chinese language literature.
The random effect model was used to analyse the pooled OR. The I2 and Q tests were included in the subgroup analyses.
Literature searches of databases including MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and other available resources were performed to retrieve studies investigating OSCC tissue from Chinese participants for the presence of HPV DNA.
Primary outcome measure
A collective analysis of OSCC cases and control specimens was carried out from 15 case–control studies (6 in the English language and 9 in the Chinese language) for HPV prevalence.
Of a total of 1177 OSCC and 1648 oesophageal control samples, 55% (642/1177) of cancer specimens and 27% (445/1648) of control samples were positive for HPV DNA. A positive strong association between HPV DNA and OSCC was observed among the included studies, with a pooled OR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.74 to 4.96). Heterogeneity and publication bias were not observed in the analysis. Subgroup analyses of the included studies also supported the measure of association of causal links between HPV and OSCC.
This meta-analysis provides the strongest evidence until now of an association between HPV and OSCC in the Chinese population. China has a high burden of OSCC, making this an important research finding. A strength and new contribution of this study is combining data from the English and Chinese language literature to analyse all studies conducted in China. These findings may inform the population level use of prophylactic HPV vaccination to reduce the burden of OSCC in China.
The present study reports the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with Terson syndrome with no cerebral hemorrhage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A computed tomography scan of the patient, who had sustained an impact injury to the right occipital region, showed no cerebral lesion. Ophthalmoscopy clearly demonstrated vitreous hemorrhage in both eye globes. Vitreous hemorrhage, which results from an abrupt increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), is associated with TBI. In this case, the visual disturbance was attributed to Terson syndrome secondary to TBI. Therefore, close ophthalmological and radiological evaluation is required in patients with TBI, in order to enable the diagnosis of Terson syndrome and an early vitrectomy.
cerebral hemorrhage; intracranial pressure; traumatic brain injury; Terson syndrome; vitreous hemorrhage
To characterize glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signaling and its effect on renal endothelial dysfunction and glomerulopathy. We studied the expression and signaling of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on glomerular endothelial cells and the novel finding of protein kinase A–dependent phosphorylation of c-Raf at Ser259 and its inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II) phospho–c-Raf(Ser338) and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Mice overexpressing protein kinase C (PKC)β2 in endothelial cells (EC-PKCβ2Tg) were established. Ang II and GLP-1 actions in glomerular endothelial cells were analyzed with small interfering RNA of GLP-1R. PKCβ isoform activation induced by diabetes decreased GLP-1R expression and protective action on the renal endothelium by increasing its degradation via ubiquitination and enhancing phospho–c-Raf(Ser338) and Ang II activation of phospho-Erk1/2. EC-PKCβ2Tg mice exhibited decreased GLP-1R expression and increased phospho–c-Raf(Ser338), leading to enhanced effects of Ang II. Diabetic EC-PKCβ2Tg mice exhibited greater loss of endothelial GLP-1R expression and exendin-4–protective actions and exhibited more albuminuria and mesangial expansion than diabetic controls. These results showed that the renal protective effects of GLP-1 were mediated via the inhibition of Ang II actions on cRaf(Ser259) and diminished by diabetes because of PKCβ activation and the increased degradation of GLP-1R in the glomerular endothelial cells.
There is considerable evidence that phase variation among transparent and opaque colony phenotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) plays an important role in the pneumococcal adherence and invasion. The current study was designed to investigate the interactions of the opacity phenotype variants of Spn with specific complement pathway activation in a mouse model of acute otitis media (AOM). Although the opaque colony phenotype was expected to be more resistant to complement mediated killing compared to the transparent Spn variant, we discovered that C3b deposition on the transparent Spn is, in large part, dependent on the alternative pathway activation. There were no significant differences in resistance to complement mediated opsonophagocytosis between the two variants in factor B deficient mice. In addition, an in vitro study demonstrated that significantly more C4b-binding protein (C4BP) (the classical pathway inhibitor) and factor H (FH) (the alternative pathway inhibitor) bound to the transparent strain compared with the opaque one. Our data suggest that the difference in the relative virulence of Spn opacity phenotypes is associated with its ability to evade complement-mediated opsonophagocytosis in a mouse model of pneumococcal AOM.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; colony opacity variants; complement; otitis media
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of neurological disease following the near eradication of poliovirus. Accumulating evidence suggests that mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs of 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) with important regulatory roles in many cellular processes, participate in host antiviral defenses. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 infection and pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, hsa-miR-296-5p expression was significantly increased in EV71-infected human cells. As determined by virus titration, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting, overexpression of hsa-miR-296-5p inhibited, while inhibition of endogenous hsa-miR-296-5p facilitated, EV71 infection. Additionally, two potential hsa-miR-296-5p targets (nt 2115 to 2135 and nt 2896 to 2920) located in the EV71 genome (strain BrCr) were bioinformatically predicted and validated by luciferase reporter assays and Western blotting. Genomic alignment of various EV71 strains revealed synonymous mutations in hsa-miR-296-5p target sequences. Furthermore, the introduction of synonymous mutations into the EV71 BrCr genome by site-directed mutagenesis impaired the viral inhibitory effects of hsa-miR-296-5p and facilitated mutant virus infection. Meanwhile, compensatory mutations in corresponding hsa-miR-296-5p target sequences of the EV71 HeN strain (GenBank accession number JN256064) restored the inhibitory effects of the miRNA. These results indicate that hsa-miR-296-5p inhibits EV71 replication by targeting the viral genome. Our findings support the notion that cellular miRNAs can inhibit virus infection and that the virus mutates to escape suppression by cellular miRNAs.
Evaluate the hypothesis that relation of breast cancer associated with dietary fiber intakes varies by type of fiber, menopausal, and the tumor’s hormone receptor status.
A case-control study of female breast cancer was conducted in Connecticut. A total of 557 incident breast cancer cases and 536 age frequency-matched controls were included in the analysis. Information on dietary intakes was collected through in-person interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and was converted into nutrient intakes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression.
Among pre-menopausal women, higher intake of soluble fiber (highest versus lowest quartile of intake) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15–0.97, Ptrend = 0.08). When further restricted to pre-menopausal women with ER− tumors, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03–0.69, Ptrend = 0.02) for soluble fiber intake. Among post-menopausal women, no reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for either soluble or insoluble fiber intakes or among ER+ or ER− tumor groups.
The results from this study show that dietary soluble fiber intake is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER− breast cancer among pre-menopausal women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results.
Dietary fiber intake; Breast cancer; Estrogen receptor; Menopausal status; Case-control studies
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn2+. And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn2+, the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn2+ exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn2+, while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn2+ were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.
Background: Prostate carcinoma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The MAPK Signaling Pathway plays an important role in multiple tumors, including prostate carcinoma. MAPK signaling is mediated by ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, which are important in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, relatively little is known about the regulatory mechanism of p38 MAPK in prostate cancers. NOB1 is among the most novel topic in MAPK studies currently. Recent studies found its vital role in tumor metastasis in glioblastoma proliferation, however, its expression profile and its prognostic value in prostate carcinoma have not been investigated. Methods: To determine the relationship between NOB1 and p38 MAPK expressions, a population-based study was conducted for immunohistochemical staining analysis of tumor tissues, in matched malignant and nonmalignant prostatectomy samples from 132 PCa patients. Moreover, Western blot analysis and NOB1 interference studies of prostate cancer cell lines. To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic between NOB1 and p38 MAPK in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue after radical prostatectomy, the hypothesis that prostate cancers with NOB1 expression have distinct clinical, prognostic and molecular attributes was tested. Results: Among 132 prostate cancers, NOB1 expression was detected in 117 (88.7%) tumors by immunohistochemistry. NOB1 and p38 MAPK expression had significant positive correlation with carcinogenesis, tumor progression and patient survival. Immunohistochemically, NOB1 expression in prostate cancer was independently associated with p38 MAPK activation (P=0.0002). Furthermore, p38 MAPK expression was completely suppressed by NOB1 interference in the prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3. Conclusions: NOB1 expression status was closely correlated with important histopathologic characteristics and the recurrence and metastasis of prostate carcinomas. These data support a potential link between NOB1 and p38 MAPK, and suggest that NOB1 may identify a subset of prostate cancer patients with a poor prognosis. This study proved that NOB1 in PCa tissue can be used, in combination with traditional clinicopathological factors, as promising diagnostic and prognostic tools.
Prostate carcinoma; NOB1; p38 MAPK; histopathologic grade; prognostic markers
Objective: To investigate whether inflammation could excessively activate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling pathway in desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats with myocardial fibrosis (MF). Methods: A total of 30 male SD rats underwent right nephrectomy and then bred with 1% sodium chloride and 0.1% potassium chloride for 2 weeks. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: CON group, DOCA group and DOCA+FAS group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured once every 2 weeks; HE staining was done to observe myocardial inflammation; immunohistochemistry was done to detect expressions of monocyte-macrophage antigen (ectodermal dysplasia 1, ED-1), PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in the myocardium; real time fluorescence quantitative PCR was employed to detect the mRNA expressions of DGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGF-C, PDGF-D, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. Results: The SBP in DOCA group and DOCA+FAS group increased markedly when compared with CON group (P<0.01), but there was no marked difference between DOCA group and DOCA+FAS group (P>0.05). At 14 days, in DOCA group, the myocardial inflammation was obvious, ED-1 expression increased markedly, the mRNA expressions of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGF-C, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ increased to different extents, protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ also elevated markedly (P<0.01), but the PDGF-D mRNA expression remained unchanged, when compared with CON group. After treatment with fasudil (a drug with anti-inflammatory activity), myocardial inflammation was significantly attenuated, mRNA expressions of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGF-C and PDGFRα as well as PDGFRα protein expression reduced dramatically (P<0.01), but the mRNA and protein expressions of PDGFRβ remained unchanged (P>0.05) when compared with DOCA group. Conclusion: In DOCA/salt induced hypertensive rats with MF, excessive activation of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway is involved in myocardial inflammation.
Desoxycorticosterone; platelet-derived growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; fasudil; inflammatory response
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0°C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (−53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.